Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Q2 lo4   schizophrenia
Q2 lo4   schizophrenia
Q2 lo4   schizophrenia
Q2 lo4   schizophrenia
Q2 lo4   schizophrenia
Q2 lo4   schizophrenia
Q2 lo4   schizophrenia
Q2 lo4   schizophrenia
Q2 lo4   schizophrenia
Q2 lo4   schizophrenia
Q2 lo4   schizophrenia
Q2 lo4   schizophrenia
Q2 lo4   schizophrenia
Q2 lo4   schizophrenia
Q2 lo4   schizophrenia
Q2 lo4   schizophrenia
Q2 lo4   schizophrenia
Q2 lo4   schizophrenia
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Q2 lo4 schizophrenia


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Schizophrenia
  • 2. Definition
    Psychotic disorders characterised by loss of control of the thought processes and inappropriate emotional responses.
    Most begin in the late teens and early twenties
    Right: Mathematician John Nash,author Jack Kerouac,Fleetwood Mac guitarist Peter Green, and musician Syd Barrett (Pink Floyd).
  • 3. Symptoms
    Most distinctive: Disturbance of thought, perception and language
    Often suffer from delusions (false beliefs despite evidence to the contrary).
  • 4. Symptoms (cont’d)
    Hallucinations – perceptual experiences that distort or occur without external stimulation. Auditory hallucinations are the most common kind
    Loosening of association – tendency of conscious thought to move along associative lines rather than to be controlled, logical and purposeful. (e.g. “She came in last night from Denver, in like a lion, she’s the king of beasts”)
  • 5. Positive and Negative symptoms
    Positive symptoms, such as delusions, hallucinations and loose associations are most apparent in acute phases of the illness and are often treatable by antipsychotic medications.
    Two kinds of positive:disorganised (inappropriate emotions, disordered thought, bizarre behaviour) and psychotic (delusions and hallucination)
    Negative symptoms include flat affect, lack of motivation, socially inappropriate behaviour, withdrawal from relationships, intellectual impairments.
    Positive and negative symptoms appear to involve different neural circuits and to respond to different kinds of medications
  • 6. DSM-IV subtypes of schizophrenia
    1) Catatonic
    At least TWO of the following: extreme motor immobility; purposeless excessive motor activity; extreme negativism (motionless resistance to all instructions) or mutism (refusing to speak); peculiar or bizarre voluntary movements; echolalia
    2) Disorganised:
    All of the following – disorganised speech, disorganisedbehaviour, and inappropriate or flat affect – are prominent in behaviour, but catatonic-type criteria are not met. Delusions or hallucinations may be present, but only in fragmentary or non-coherent form
  • 7. Subtypes (cont’d)
    3) Paranoid:
    Preoccupation with delusion/s or auditory hallucinations. Little or no disorganised speech, disorganised or catatonic behaviour, or inappropriate or flat affect
    4) Undifferentiated
    Does not fit any of the subtypes above, but meets the symptom criteria for schizophrenia
  • 8. Subtypes (cont’d)
    5) Residual:
    Has experienced at least one episode of schizophrenia, but currently does not have prominent positive symptoms (delusions, hallucinations, disorganised speech or behaviour). However, continues to show negative symptoms (inability to experience pleasure, lack of motivation) and a milder variation of positive symptoms (odd beliefs, eccentric behaviour)
  • 9. Theories of schizophrenia
    Most adopt a diathesis-stress model.
    Most of the time, this diathesis is genetic, but other cases probably reflect early damage to the brain.
    Threshold for schizophrenia
    to cross
    Threshold cannot be crossed
    Genetically above threshold
    Genetically at risk
    Genetically near
    Not genetically predisposed
  • 10. Biology of Schizophrenia
    Genes undoubtedly play a primary role in the etiology (cause) of schizophrenia
    The following table is based on data pooled across over 40 studies conducted over nearly 60 years
  • 11. Dopamine
    The dopamine hypothesis suggest that the brain produces too much dopamine.
    Amphetamines (e.g. crystal meth, speed) increase dopamine activity, and high doses induce psychotic-like symptoms such as paranoia and hallucinations. An amphetamine-induced psychosis is even more likely to occur in people with a predisposition to schizophrenia.
    Also, many patients respond to antipsychotic medication that block dopamine from binding with postsynaptic receptors. The result is a reduction or elimination of positive symptoms
  • 12. Neural atrophy and dysfunction
    Neural atrophy: Enlargement of fluid cavities in the brain called ventricles.
    Indicates neural regions surrounding them have degenerated.
    Larger ventricles seen in patients with chronic schizophrenia.
    Not exclusive to schizophrenia, also observed in other patients with psychotic disorders and even in patients with recurring depression and anxiety disorders.
    Degeneration/wasting away of a body organ
  • 13. Atrophy
    Most apparent in temporal and frontal lobes, and in the neural tissue connecting the frontal lobes to emotion-processing circuits in the limbic system.
  • 14. One study found severity of symptoms, especially auditory hallucinations, correlated strongly with the degree of atrophy in a region of the left temporal cortex specialised for auditory processing of language.
  • 15. The prefrontal cortex is another very likely site because one section is involved in working memory and another in social and emotional functioning.
  • 16. Prevalence
    In Australia, around 40,000 people (0.2% of population) have been diagnosed with schizophrenia (Access Economics, 2002).
    Many studies find the rate is higher among economically impoverished groups… effect on poverty OR difficulty holding employment?
    12 times more likely to die by suicide than the general population
    In Australia, 60% of males with schizophrenia will attempt suicide at some time in their lives.
    Agar, Argyle and Aderhold (2003) found that patients who had been sexually and/or physically abused as a child were four times more likely to experience hallucinations and 15 times more likely to hear voices than patients who had not been abused.
  • 17. Treatment
    Individual, Group and Family Therapy- can help patient and family understand the disease and symptom triggers- teaches families communication skills- provides resources for dealing with emotional and practical challenges
    Social skills training- In hospital or community settings- teaches social, self-care and vocational skills
    Medications- neuroleptic medications to clarify thinking and perceptions of reality and to reduce hallucinations and delusions- drug treatment must be consistent to be effective. Inconsistent dosage may aggravate existing symptoms or create new ones.
  • 18. Recovery
    Estimates vary: 10 to 20% ever fully recover.
    Less than half show even moderate improvement, and for for those who have shown improvement, almost half fall ill again within a year
    People with good premorbid (prior to falling ill) social functioning are least likely to relapse over time