Personality DisordersS Affects entire life adjustment of the personS Rigid, maladaptive pattern of behaviour and ways of relating to others.S Difficulty in fitting in with others or have relatively normal social relationships.S Three basic categories listed in DSM-IV: those seen as odd or eccentric by others, those in which their behaviour is very dramaticor erratic, and those in which the main emotion is anxiety or fearfulness.S 10 recognised types of personality
The Personality DisordersPersonality Disorder DescriptionOdd or ErraticParanoid Extreme suspicion of othersSchizoid Loners unable and unwilling to form close relationships with othersSchizotypal Difficulty in forming social relationships, tendency to hold magical beliefsDramatic or ErraticTypesAntisocial Lacking in conscience or moralsBorderline Moody, unstable, lacking in clear sense of identity, clingyHistrionic Tendency to overreact and use excessive emotions to draw attention from and manipulate othersNarcissistic Extremely vain and self-involvedAnxious or FearfulTypes
Antisocial Personality DisorderS Literally “against society”S Sometimes called a sociopath, habitually breaks the law, disobey rules, tells lies, uses other people without emotional concern.S Stigma of serial killer – but most are not killers!S Gender difference – three to six times as many males diagnosed as femalesS Typically evident by age of 15
Criticisms Of ASPDS DSM-IV-TR considers ASPD and psychopathy to be the same, or similar – BUT ASPD is diagnosed via behavior and social deviance whereas psychopathy includes affective and interpersonal personality factors.S Nearly 80%–95% of felons will meet criteria for ASPD whereas psychopathy is found in only roughly 20% of inmatesS American Psychiatric Association states in the DSM-IV-TR that "psychopathy" and "sociopathy" are now obsolete synonyms.
Borderline Personality DisorderS Intense and relatively unstable relationships with other peopleS Often moody, manipulative, untrusting of others, self-mutilating behaviourS May engage in excessive spending, drug abuse or suicidal behaviour (may be part of manipulation used against others in a relationship)S Confusion over identity issues, in which the person may be unable to focus on life goals, Fatal Attraction career choices, friendships and even sexual behaviour.S Two in every 100 in Australia (SANE, 2004).
Behavioural - CognitiveS Specific behaviour learned over time through reinforcement, shaping and modeling.S Belief systems formed by the personality disordered person.
BiologicalS Close biological relatives of people with disorders (e.g. antisocial, schizotypal and borderline) are more likely to have these disorders than those who are not related.S Adoption studies of children whose biological parents had antisocial personality disorder show an increased risk for that disorder.S Some research shows a greater risk of schizophrenia in relatives of people with schizotypal personality disorder. Only a small proportion of people with schizotypal develop full-blown schizophrenia.
Diathesis-StressS Disturbances in family relationships and communication have also been linked to personality disorders and, in particular, antisocial personality disorder.S Childhood abuse, neglect, overly strict parenting, over- protective parenting, and parental rejection have all been put forth as possible causes.