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  • Play becomes increasingly social and socially skilled from age 2 - 5
  • U.S. = assert individual identity Korean – controlling egos and emotions to achieve group harmony

Transcript

  • 1. Importance of Play
  • 2. Milestone
    • Social competence
    • Contribute to improvements in social skills, problem solving, social knowledge, friendships, self-esteem, emotional regulation and social acceptance (Cohen, 200; Spinrad et al. 2004)
  • 3. Definition
    • No single definition – researchers prefer to deal with specific forms/subtypes of play:
    • Functional
    • Constructive
    • Pretend/Symbolic
    • Games with rules
    Not to be interpreted as stage-like, as children are often interested in several kinds of play and play styles may emerge earlier or later
  • 4. Functional
    • Simple repetitive muscle movements with/without object (e.g. shaking a rattle)
  • 5. Constructive
    • Involves manipulation of objects with the intention of constructing something such as a cut and paste activity
  • 6. Pretend/Symbolic
    • Involves letting an object or person symbolise a thing it is not, such as eating from toy crockery, pretending to be parents or flying a spaceship
  • 7.
    • According to Piaget (1962), reality does not intrude on play, thus make believe play fades as the child becomes more competent at coping with real objects and situations in the real world.
    • Linked to social competence: Perry & Bussey (1984) – more popular, patient, cooperative, creative, friendly, linguistically fluent, patient
  • 8. Games with rules
    • Children play games with rules, such as hide-and-seek or computer games
  • 9.
    • According to Piaget, hypothetical thinking allows them to invent new rules, new games and think through strategies.
    • Competitive games (chess, card games) require children to consider actions and intentions of other player/s = decrease egocentrism.
  • 10. Piagetian view
    • Sensorimotor play (functional)
    • Around 12 months: dramatic play (child pretends to sleep or drink out of an empty cup)
    • 18 months: new form of dramatic – can pretend a stick is a gun
    • 3 years: sociodramatic play –imitations of seen or heard.
    • Pretend play peaks around 5 years and declines. Replaced with games with rules.
  • 11. Mildred Patten (1932)
    • FIVE MODES OF PLAY
    • Solitary play (infants and young toddlers) – activities pursued alone
    • Onlooker play (start of preschool) – observing the play of their peers
    • Parallel play – pursuing similar activities without interacting
    • Associative play (slightly older preschool child) – sharing ideas and materials in pursuit of a common goal
    • Cooperative play (about 3 yrs) – each child assigned specific roles in pursuit of a common goal
  • 12. Preferred play mode
    • A child who wanders aimlessly or engages in functional play may exhibit cognitive social delays.
    • As children become more socially mature, they become more eager for social play
    • Solitary play never disappears
    • Onlooker behaviour does not disappear
  • 13. Cultural differences
    • Farver & Shin (1997) compared social pretend play of Korean and Euro-American preschoolers.
    • US children – superheroes; act out themes of danger and fantasy. Also talked a lot about their own actions, reject other ideas and bossed others around
    • Korean children - family roles and enacted everyday activities. More focused on their partner’s activities and more prone to make polite requests and agree with one another
  • 14. Gender differences
    • Parents tend to have different attitudes to the play of their male and female children.
    • By age 2 or 3, preferences show differences.
    • Social learning theory suggest children learn to engage in particular activities because they are rewarded for doing so. E.g. girl + dolls/kitchens = smiles and positive remarks. Boys = frowning/”sissy”
    • Fathers appear more concerned with sex-appropriate behaviour
  • 15. Adolescent and Adult play
    • Recent research has shown that play continues to have positive outcomes for social competence in adolescence and adulthood.
    • Durkin & Barber (2002) found that 16 yr olds who played computer games scored more favourably on family closeness, activity involvement, positive school engagement, positive mental health
    • Richman & Shaffer (2000) found that university-aged adolescents who play sports report a positive body image, enhanced perception of physical competence and a more flexible gender identity
  • 16. Benefits of Play
    • Play discharges energy, their needs to compete, act aggressively in socially acceptably ways and learn how to get along with others.
    • Prepares the young for adult life
    • Great deal of pretend play = better results of Piagetian cognitive development tests, language skills and creativity
    • Social play = more popular and socially mature
    • Contributes to healthy emotional development