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Apl06 prejudice and discrimination

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  • Prejudice can also surface inadvertently in people's relatively automatic cognition (see Chapter 2). For example, Duncan (1976) had White students in California observe on TV what they thought was a live conversation between a Black man and a White man. The conversation degenerated into an argument in which one lightly shoved the other. When the White did the shoving, the behaviour was interpreted as playful: only 13 per cent of participants interpreted it as violent. When the Black did the shoving, 73 per cent interpreted the action as violent.
  • The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass murder of an estimated 800,000 people in the small East African nation of Rwanda. Over the course of approximately 100 days (from the assassination of JuvĂ©nal Habyarimana and Cyprien Ntaryamira on April 6) through mid-July, over 500,000 people were killed, according to a Human Rights Watch estimate.[1] Estimates of the death toll have ranged between 500,000 and 1,000,000,[2] or as much as 20% of the country's total population.
  • administered an IQ test to elementary school children and told their teachers that the results of the test would be a reliable predictor of which children would 'bloom' (show rapid intellectual development in the near future). The teachers were given the names of the twenty 'bloomers'; in fact, the twenty names were chosen randomly by the researchers, and there were no IQ differences between bloomers and non-bloomers. Very quickly, the teachers rated the non-bloomers as being less curious, less interested and less happy than the bloomers: that is, the teachers developed stereotypical expectations about the two groups. Grades for work were consistent with these expectations. Sceptics simply did not believe this, so Rosenthal and Rubin (1978) conducted a meta-analysis of 345 follow-up studies to prove that the phenomenon really exists.
  • Transcript

    • 1. PrejudiceandDiscrimination
    • 2. Prejudice  Literally means ‘prejudgment’  Unfavourable attitude towards a social group and its members
    • 3. Discrimination  Harmful ACTIONS directed toward the persons or groups who are targets of prejudice
    • 4. LaPiere(1934)  Chinese American couple visited 250 hotels, caravan parks, tourist homes and restaurants.  Refused service in only one  Little prejudice?  After returning home, 128 of the establishments were asked “Will you accept members of the Chinese race as guests in your establishment?”  92% No, 7% Uncertain, depends on circumstances, 1%Yes
    • 5. Typesofprejudice  Sexism: almost all research on sexism focuses on prejudice and discrimination against women.  “The typical woman is seen as nice but incompetent, the typical man as competent but maybe not so nice” (Fiske, 1998)  Traditional sexism can sometimes be difficult to detect now that is now illegal and unacceptable.  Not in all countries: Taliban – women denied the right to an education, in Nigeria women have been sentenced to death by stoning for infidelity, and in many cultures there are restrictions placed on women's choices about their bodies and reproduction.  Klasen (1994): sex-selective abortions and infanticide have led to 76 million 'missing women'.
    • 6. Racism  Discrimination on the basis of race or ethnicity  Genocide is universal: in recent times it has been carried out in, for example, Germany, Iraq, Bosnia and Rwanda
    • 7. NewRacism  Because explicit and blatant racism is illegal and thus socially censored, it is now more difficult to find.  New racism involves three components:  Denial – ‘there’s no racism anymore’  Antagonism to demands – ‘why should the government apologise?’  Resentment about special favours – ‘why should there be affirmative action?’
    • 8. DetectingNewRacism  Unobtrusive measures –  Social distance - how close, psychologically or physically, people are willing to get to one another.  Another context in which underlying prejudice can emerge is when prejudiced behaviour does not obviously look like prejudice.  Rogers & Prentice-Dunn (1981) had students shock a confederate of the experimenter.The confederate was either Caucasian or African- American, and either acted pleasantly toward the subject or insulted them.The subjects in the experiment were all Caucasians.  When the confederate insulted the subject prior to the experiment, they "shocked" African-American confederates at a higher level than Caucasian confederates.  When the African-American confederate was not insulting, they were less aggressive toward them than a white confederate.  Conclusion was that reverse racism was in effect without insults – they were over-compensating for prejudicial views. But when under stress the real views were expressed.
    • 9.  Prejudice can also surface inadvertently in people's relatively automatic cognition.  E.g. IAT.  The general principle underlying this procedure for detecting prejudice is automaticity  The notion of automaticity is related to the idea that categories and their stereotypical attributes are implicitly linked in memory.
    • 10. Ageism  Mitchell (2002) identifies four distinct generational stereotypes  Traditionalists (1925 and 1945), are practical; patient, loyal and hard-working; respectful of authority; and rule followers.  Baby boomers (1946 and 1960), are optimistic; value teamwork and cooperation; are ambitious; and are workaholic.  Generation X (1961 and 1980) are skeptical, self-reliant risk-takers who balance work and personal life.  Millennials (1981 and the present) are hopeful; they value meaningful work, diversity and change; and are technologically savvy.
    • 11. Discriminationagainsthomosexuals  In general, since the late 1960s there has been a progressive liberalisation of attitudes towards homosexuals.  However, the AIDS epidemic has, since the mid-1980s, whipped up negative attitudes in some sections of society towards homosexuals  In California the existing right for same-sex couples to marry was actually overturned in 2008 –in which 52 per cent of Californians voted 'yes' on 'Proposition 8', actively denying homosexuals the same rights as heterosexuals.
    • 12. Allport’sScalesofPrejudice  Scale 1 - Antilocution  Scale 2 - Avoidance  Scale 3 - Discrimination  Scale 4 - Physical attack  Scale 5 - Extermination
    • 13. Antilocution  A majority group freely make jokes about a minority group.  Speech is in terms of negative stereotypes and negative images (hate speech).  Commonly seen as harmless by the majority, but it sets the stage for more severe outlets for prejudice
    • 14. Avoidance  People in a minority group are actively avoided by members of the majority group. No direct harm may be intended but harm is done through isolation
    • 15. Discrimination  Minority group is discriminated against by denying them opportunities and services.  Putting prejudice into action.
    • 16. PhysicalAttack  Majority group vandalise minority group’s property and carry out violent attacks on individuals or groups.
    • 17. Extermination  Majority group seeks extermination of the minority group and attempts to eliminate the entire group of people.  Excerpt from the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide  "Article II: In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:  (a) Killing members of the group; (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
    • 18. Formsofdiscrimination  Three types of behaviour that do not look obviously like discrimination but nevertheless may conceal underlying prejudices: reluctance to help, tokenism and reverse discrimination.
    • 19. Reluctancetohelp  Studies show that reluctance to help is manifested only in certain conditions: specifically, when such reluctance can be attributed to some factor other than prejudice.  Gaertner and Dovidio's (1977) foundWhite participants were more reluctant to help a Black than aWhite confederate faced with an emergency, but only when they believed that other potential helpers were present.
    • 20. Tokenism  Tokenism refers to a relatively small or trivial positive act, a token, towards members of a minority group.  Invoked to deflect accusations of prejudice and as a justification for declining to engage in larger and more meaningful positive acts or for subsequently engaging in discrimination.  Criticism of the token employment of minorities by organisations that then fail to take more fundamental and important steps towards equal opportunities.  Tokenism at this level can have damaging consequences for the self-esteem of those who are employed as token minorities
    • 21. ReverseDiscrimination  People with residual prejudiced attitudes may sometimes go out of their way to favour members of a group against which they are prejudiced, more than members of other groups.  For the researcher, the challenge is to know when behaviour that goes out of its way to favour a minority is reverse discrimination or is actually a genuine attempt to rectify disadvantage
    • 22. EffectsofPrejudice  Stereotype threat  Self-fulfilling prophecies
    • 23. Stereotypethreat  A person has an awareness of judgments from others and being treated stereotypically on tasks that really matter to them.Thus they worry that through their behaviour they may confirm the stereotypes.
    • 24. Selffulfillingprophecies  Expectations and assumptions about a person that influence our interaction with that person and eventually change their behaviour in line with our expectations  The most famous study of self-fulfilling prophecy is Rosenthal and Jacobson's (1968) classic experiment on teachers' expectations in the classroom.  Students were tested on their “potential to intellectually bloom throughout the year”.  Teachers were told the names of the 20% of the students who were predicted to ‘intellectually bloom’. But it was a deception.The names were chosen at random.
    • 25.  Rosenthal & Jacobson concluded that teacher expectations can act as self-fulfilling prophesies because students achievements comes to reflect those expectations.  The conclusions of this study were controversial. It has been criticized on conceptual and methodological grounds. There have been several attempts to replicate this study but not all have been successful.
    • 26. ExplanationsofPrejudiceand Discrimination  Mere exposure effect  Frustration-aggression hypothesis  Authoritarian personality (Adorno)  Social dominance  Belief congruence