Apl01

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Apl01

  1. 1. ATTITUDES
  2. 2. What is it???
  3. 3. “…a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favour or disfavour” – Eagly & Chaiken, 1993 “… an association in memory between a given object and a given summary evaluation of the object” – Fazio, 1995 “… a general and enduring positive or negative feeling about some person, object, or issue” – Petty & Cacioppo, 1981 “…the categorisation of a stimulus object along an evaluative dimension” – Zanna & Rempel, 1988
  4. 4. …a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favour or disfavour” – Eagly & Chaiken, 1993 … an association in memory between a given object and a given summary evaluation of the object” – Fazio, 1995 … a general and enduring positive or negative feeling about some person, object, or issue – Petty & Cacioppo, 1981 …the categorisation of a stimulus object along an evaluative dimension – Zanna & Rempel, 1988 4 out of 4 psychologists agree that attitude involves an evaluative judgment about someone or something.
  5. 5. Therefore… We define an attitude as… an overall evaluation of an object that is based on cognitive, affective, and behavioural information
  6. 6. …an overall evaluation of an object that is based on cognitive, affective, and behavioural information  Three distinct components: AFFECT, COGNITION, BEHAVIOUR Feeling Thinking Doing
  7. 7. Affective Component  Attitudes can differ in valence (direction – positive/negative/neutral) POSITIVE – Best. Invention. Ever. NEGATIVE – Worst. Movie. Ever. NEUTRAL – Meh.
  8. 8. Affective Component (cont’d)  Attitudes can vary in strength.  Strong attitudes are more: a) Persistent over time b) Resistant to change c) Likely to influence information processing d) Likely to predict behaviour
  9. 9. TASK Imagine that you have been given, as a graduation present, a choice between ten brand new cars. You have been told that this car will be the only car you will get to drive for the next twenty years, so you want to pick the car that is the most reliable. Which one of the following brands will you choose?
  10. 10. 1. Mercury 2. Scion 9. Honda 8. Toyota 7. Infiniti 3. Acura 4. Mitsubitshi 5. Lexus 6. Hyundai 10. Porsche
  11. 11. Based on surveys filled out by more than 1.4 million people, the following were deemed as the most reliable brands in the 2009 Consumer Reports Annual Car Reliability Survey in ascending order…
  12. 12. 10th – Mercury
  13. 13. 9th – Porsche
  14. 14. 8th - Hyundai
  15. 15. 7th - Lexus
  16. 16. 6th - Mitsubishi
  17. 17. 5th - Acura
  18. 18. 4th - Infiniti
  19. 19. 3rd – Toyota
  20. 20. 2nd - Honda
  21. 21. 1st - Scion
  22. 22. Cognitive Component  Refers to the beliefs, thoughts and attributes we associate with an object.  May be based primarily upon +ve and –ve attributes associated with the object.  E.g. Belief #1. More expensive = better quality. Porsche/Lexus = $$$ = more reliable  Belief #2. More popular = more people use it = more reliable Never heard of Scion, therefore probably unreliable.
  23. 23. Behavioural Component  Refers to past behaviours or experiences regarding an attitude object.  E.g. People might guess that they must have a negative attitude toward caged eggs if they remember having signed a petition against unethical treatment of animals
  24. 24. What’s the difference? Is there one?  Breckler (1984) had participants report their cognitive, affective and behavioural responses about snakes.  With a real snake in the room, participants indicated whether: i) snakes are kind/cruel (cognition) ii) snakes make them feel anxious/happy (affect) iii) they like to handle snakes (behaviour)  Scores for each response was computed, showing only moderate correlation.  Does not mean they are completely independent of each other.
  25. 25. For example…
  26. 26. Betty’s Attitude towards Jason Mraz…  Thoughts: The music has well-constructed lyrics and catchy melodies that express the importance Mraz places on the beauty and appreciation of life.  Feelings: The music evokes happiness and relaxation.  Behavioural: Attended eight concerts
  27. 27. Therefore…  The positive cognitions, affects and behaviours all contribute to Betty’s arguably unhealthy positive attitude toward Jason Mraz.  BUT…  Components do not always have the same evaluative implications…
  28. 28. For example…  Blood donation  Cognition: ………………………………..  Affect:…………………………………….  Behaviour:………………………………...
  29. 29. Quick Task:  1) Think of something you have a positive/negative attitude towards that are similar in valence across the three components. Write down how each of the components influence this attitude.  2) Think of something you have a positive/negative attitude towards that differ in valence across the components. Write down how each of the components influence this attitude.
  30. 30. FUNCTION OF ATTITUDES
  31. 31. Functions  Katz (1960) proposed that functions include:
  32. 32. 1) Knowledge  The world is too complex… we group people, objects and events into categories and develop stereotyped attitudes. The attitudes about that category provide us with meaning, making inferences about its members.
  33. 33. 2) Instrumentality  Means to an end  We develop favourable attitudes towards objects that reward us and unfavourable attitudes towards punishment. Once developed, it provides a simple means of evaluating objects.
  34. 34. 3) Ego defence  Some attitudes protect the person from recognising certain thoughts or feelings that threaten their self-image. E.g. displacing anger to other groups
  35. 35. 4) Value expressiveness  Define the self and maintain self-worth. Some attitudes express the individual’s basic values and reinforce his or her self-image.  Some attitudes symbolise a person’s identification with or membership in particular groups or subcultures.
  36. 36. IN SUM  An attitude is an overall evaluation of an object that is based on cognitive, affective, and behavioural information.  The three components: cognition, affect, behaviour  Affect can vary in valence and strength; Cognition influenced by +ve and –ve attributes associated with the object; behaviour is based on past experiences and actions.  Functions of attitudes: knowledge, instrumentality, ego defence, value expressiveness.

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