+ Carl Rogers and his Theories Actualizing Tendency Real vs. Ideal Self Congruence
+ Actualizing Tendency A single “force of life”; the built-in motivation present in every life-form to develop its potentials to the fullest extent possible. In the course of actualizing their potentials, we created society and culture.
+ “Self-actualization implies that the person is acceptantlySelf- aware of what’s going onActualization within and is consequently changing practically every moment and is moving on in complexity.” Rogers, C. from Evans, R. I. 1975, pp. 17
+ Real Self Organismic Valuing Positive Regard Positive Self-Regard
+ Organismic Valuing Organisms know what is good for them Evolution has provided us with the senses, the tastes, the discriminations we need We instinctively value positive regard
+ Positive Regard Rogers’ umbrella term for things like love, affection, attention, nurturance, etc
+ Positive Self-Regard Self-esteem, self-worth and self-image all come under this idea. These feelings and images come from others showing positive regard to us and caring for us (e.g. compliments) Without this self-regard, we feel small and helpless, and again we fail to become all that we can be
+ Conditions of Worth Society also leads us astray with conditions of worth Parents, teachers, peers, the media, and others, only give us what we need when we show we are “worthy,” rather than just because we need it. E.g. We go to the toilet if we ask the teacher, we get something sweet when we finish our vegetables, and most importantly, we get love and affection if and only if we “behave!”
+ Conditional Positive Regard Getting positive regard on “on condition” Society gives us positive regard only when we do what they want (the reward to the condition of worth)
+ Conditional Self-Regard Conditioning leads people to only like themselves when they meet the standards society sets Standards were created without keeping each individual in mind unable to meet them unable to maintain any sense of self-esteem.
+ Congruency Where the individual’s real self is parallel to their ideal self once a person has reached congruency they are able to live life fully, which Rogers focuses into 5 areas
+ Openess to Experience Carl Rogers, 1961 “[the individual] is more able fully to live the experiences of his organism rather than shutting them out of awareness.” Fully-functioning people are able to experience things to the full extent, without defences stopping them Comfortable with real self = feeling and sensing new things without fear of judgement
+ Existential Living Living in the here-and-now; The present is the only reality we have. Doesnt mean we shouldnt remember and learn from our past. Nor that we shouldnt plan the future. Just recognize these things for what they are: memories and dreams, which are being experienced in the present.
+ Organismic Trusting Trust the real self, do what feels right, what comes naturally. One can only know what your real self has to say if you are open to experience and living existentially! Assumes you are in contact with the actualizing tendency.
+ Experiential Freedom Irrelevant whether or not people really had free will. One feels free when choices are available to us. The fully-functioning person acknowledges that feeling of freedom, and takes responsibility for his/her choices.
+ Creativity Free and responsible participate in the world. Obliged to contribute to the actualization of others, even life itself. This can be through creativity in the arts or sciences, through social concern and parental love, or simply by doing ones best at ones job. Creativity as Rogers uses it is very close to Erikson’s generativity.
+ Incongruence occurs when ideal and real self are not similar > more disparity > more problems created