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SENSORY DEVELOPMENT
Sensory Development <ul><li>Can see and hear  </li></ul><ul><li>Follow moving objects with eyes </li></ul><ul><li>10% of t...
 
Visual Perceptual Abilities <ul><li>Born with ability to perceive movement and some degree of depth  </li></ul><ul><li>Vis...
Habituation <ul><li>Hearing abilities often studied through habituation </li></ul><ul><li>Baby becomes used to a stimulus ...
Preference <ul><li>Amount of time looking at different sights tell us about visual preferences </li></ul><ul><li>4 months,...
Face recognition <ul><li>Maurer and Salapatek (1976) – 1 and 2 month babies shown three expressionless faces: their mother...
Auditory  <ul><li>Better developed than visual </li></ul><ul><li>Inner and middle ears reach nearly adult size and shape i...
Discriminative sucking  <ul><li>1 month old discriminates between two sounds as close as ‘bah’ and ‘pah’ (1971) </li></ul>...
Taste <ul><li>Can discriminate between different tastes </li></ul><ul><li>Rejects bad-tasting food </li></ul><ul><li>Prefe...
Smell <ul><li>One of the most highly developed in newborns </li></ul><ul><li>Preferences show within first weeks, includin...
TOUCH <ul><li>Touching increases positive emotions and causes babies to gaze and smile at adult carers </li></ul><ul><li>H...
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08 sensory development

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Transcript of "08 sensory development"

  1. 1. SENSORY DEVELOPMENT
  2. 2. Sensory Development <ul><li>Can see and hear </li></ul><ul><li>Follow moving objects with eyes </li></ul><ul><li>10% of time ‘quietly alert’ – scanning for interesting stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Can feel pain, detect mother’s odour, show taste and flavour preferences </li></ul>
  3. 4. Visual Perceptual Abilities <ul><li>Born with ability to perceive movement and some degree of depth </li></ul><ul><li>Visual cliff experiment (Gibson and Walk, 1960) </li></ul><ul><li>By 2 months, discern colour and brightness </li></ul><ul><li>4 months – 35% scanning time and ability to focus at varying distances is almost as good as adults </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow peripheral vision at birth – more than doubles between 2 and 10 weeks of age </li></ul>
  4. 5. Habituation <ul><li>Hearing abilities often studied through habituation </li></ul><ul><li>Baby becomes used to a stimulus and stops responding to it. When a new stimulus is presented, the response (e.g. sucking on comforter) resumes, indicating difference </li></ul><ul><li>As early as 3 days </li></ul>
  5. 6. Preference <ul><li>Amount of time looking at different sights tell us about visual preferences </li></ul><ul><li>4 months, show a preference for red and blue </li></ul><ul><li>Babies prefer curved lines to straight, complex patterns to simple, three dimensional to two dimensional objects, pictures of faces to pictures of other things, new sights to familiar ones. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Face recognition <ul><li>Maurer and Salapatek (1976) – 1 and 2 month babies shown three expressionless faces: their mother’s, a strange woman’s and a strange man’s. </li></ul><ul><li>1 month tended to look away, particularly from faces of their mother. </li></ul><ul><li>Eyes focused on borders of the faces – recognition based on chin or hairline distinctiveness. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Auditory <ul><li>Better developed than visual </li></ul><ul><li>Inner and middle ears reach nearly adult size and shape in the womb </li></ul><ul><li>Startled by loud noises </li></ul><ul><li>Turn in direction of sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Can distinguish between varying lengths and intensity </li></ul><ul><li>By 3 days, recognises difference between mother’s voice and other women </li></ul>
  8. 9. Discriminative sucking <ul><li>1 month old discriminates between two sounds as close as ‘bah’ and ‘pah’ (1971) </li></ul><ul><li>Special nipples, when sucked, turn on recording. </li></ul><ul><li>At first, vigorous sucking for ‘bah’. Then slowed down. </li></ul><ul><li>When ‘pah’ replaced ‘bah’, strong sucking returned. </li></ul><ul><li>Mother’s voice – recording of storytelling </li></ul><ul><li>24% more sucking when it was the mother’s voice. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Taste <ul><li>Can discriminate between different tastes </li></ul><ul><li>Rejects bad-tasting food </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer sweet tastes to sour or bitter ones </li></ul><ul><li>Sweeter the fluid, the harder they suck and more they drink. </li></ul><ul><li>By four months, most favour salty over sweet tastes </li></ul><ul><li>Useful to parents and medical practitioners – add salt </li></ul>
  10. 11. Smell <ul><li>One of the most highly developed in newborns </li></ul><ul><li>Preferences show within first weeks, including a preference for the odour of breast milk </li></ul><ul><li>Helps recognise mother – mother and other women wore pads close to their breast. The two pads were then placed either side of an infant’s head. Even 2 wk infants were more likely to orient to the pad with their mother’s unique scent. </li></ul>
  11. 12. TOUCH <ul><li>Touching increases positive emotions and causes babies to gaze and smile at adult carers </li></ul><ul><li>Haptic perception – children use touch to explore and discover sensory qualities of objects. </li></ul><ul><li>First few months, oral exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Manual manipulation - newborn infants wooden cylinder/prism experiment show discrimination </li></ul>
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