REAL SELF AND IDEAL SELF - ROGERS Real Ideal Actualization Society Organismic Conditions Valuing of Worth Conditional Positive Positive Regard Regard Conditional Positive Self- Positive Self- Regard Regard
FULLY FUNCTIONING PERSON Real and Ideal Self match! Those living life fully have: Openness to experience Existential Living – here and now Organismic Trusting – trusts the real self Experiential Freedom – acknowledges feeling of freedom and takes responsibility for their choices Creativity – participate in the world! Arts/sciences/parental love/social concerns, etc.
SELF EFFICACY Definition: Expectations that we have about our capacity to succeed in particular tasks. People with high self-efficacy: Approach difficult tasks as challenges to be mastered rather than threats to be avoided Heighten and sustain their efforts in the face of failure Quickly recover their sense of efficacy after failures/setbacks Attribute failure to insufficient effort or deficient knowledge and skills which are acquirable
SOURCES OF SELF - EFFICACY 4 main sources: 1) Mastery experience – most effective. Only easy successes expect quick results discouraged by failure. Resilient sense of efficacy requires experience in overcoming obstacles through perseverance. Success usually requires sustained effort! 2) Vicarious experiences – provided by social models. The more similar to the model, the stronger the effect
3) Social persuasion: persuaded by others that they possess the capabilities to master given activities. They also structure situations that bring success and avoid placing them in situations prematurely where they are likely to fail often. Success is measured in terms of self-improvement rather than by triumphs over others. 4) Somatic and emotional state: positive mood enhances perceived self-efficacy. Need to reduce stress reactions.
DEVELOPING SELF-EFFICACY Infancy: Exploratory experiences in which they see themselves produce effects by their actions provide the initial basis for developing a sense of efficacy. Success in controlling environmental events become more attentive to their own behaviour and more competent in learning new efficacious responses.
Young children: Must gain self-knowledge of their capabilities. Language development provides reflection and communication of capabilities. Initial efficacy centred in the family, but peers become increasingly important Social comparison begins (usually with siblings first)
Adolescence: Growing independence – experimentation with risky behaviour is common Efficacy expands and strengthened by learning how to deal successfully with potentially troublesome matters as well as with advantageous life events.
Young Adulthood: Development of coping capabilities and skills managing one’s motivation, emotional states and thought processes > efficacy > occupational functioning. Elderly: Physical capacities < BUT gains in knowledge, skills and expertise compensate some loss