Psychosexual stagesFreud‟s ideas about the development ofpersonality and its formation.Innately determined stages through which we allpass and strongly shape the nature of ourpersonality.
Libido and FixationTerms to knowLibido refers to the forces, mostly pleasure oriented,that energises the personality, particularly the id.Release of libido is closely related to pleasure, butthe focus and expression changes as we develop.In each stage, we obtain different kinds of pleasureand leave behind a small amount of our libido.If an excessive amount of libido energy is tied to aparticular stage, however, fixation occurs.
FixationCan stem from too little or too much gratificationduring the particular stage.Because too much „psychic energy‟ is left behind,less is available for full adult development.Outcome = adult personality reflecting thestage/s at which fixation has occurred.
ORAL STAGEIn the first stage – ORAL (0-18 months) we seekpleasure mainly through the mouth.Too little gratification = a personality that is overlydependent on othersToo much gratification = an excessively hostilepersonality, particularly with verbal attacks
ANAL STAGERoughly 2-3 yearsToilet training conflictsFreud argued that these conflicts formthe basis of attitudes towards order anddisorder, giving and withholding, andmessiness and cleaniness.People with anal fixations exhibit avariety of behavioural tendencies:Anal expulsive – the child who rebelsopenly against going in the toilet.Translates in the adult as a person whosees messiness as a statement ofpersonal control and somewhatdestructive/hostileAnal retentive – the child who is terrifiedof making a mess and rebels passively.
PHALLIC STAGE3-6yrsShifts to genitals.Freud believed the penis was the focus for both boys ANDgirls.For boys, when they realise that girls do not have a penis,would think that the penis can be lost or cut off =castration anxietyFor girls, they would feel that they were missing somethingimportant and could not be complete without it = penisenvyConflict in this stage is the feeling of sexual awakening.Freud believed boys develop both sexual attraction ANDjealousy of their fathers during this stage = OedipusComplex.
Oedipus ComplexSexual attraction more of sexual curiousity that becomesmixed up with the boy‟s feelings of love and affection forhis mother.Jealousy of the father = anxiety and fears that his fathermay castrate him.To deal, the boy will repress his sexual feelings for hismother (defence mechanism) and identify with his father.If a child does not have a same-sex parent to identify with,or the sexual attraction is encouraged, fixation occurs.Fixation = immature sexual attitudes as an adult, exhibitpromiscuous sexual behaviour, “mummy‟s boy”.
Latency StageRemember that by the end of the phallic stage,sexual feelings are repressed.From age 6 – puberty, children will remain in thelatency stage.In this stage, children grow and developintellectually, physically and socially but notsexually.Boys play with boys, girls with girls.
Genital StageRepressed sexual feelings can no longer beignored.Parents are no longer targets.