05 birthing styles


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05 birthing styles

  1. 1. Birthing Styles
  3. 3. Styles <ul><li>Natural and prepared childbirth </li></ul><ul><li>Active birth </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Birth without violence’ </li></ul><ul><li>Home birth </li></ul><ul><li>Birth centres </li></ul><ul><li>Caesarian section </li></ul>
  4. 4. Natural and Prepared Childbirth <ul><li>1914 – Dr Grantly Dick-Read put forth the theory of natural childbirth </li></ul><ul><li>Felt fear caused most childbirth pain </li></ul><ul><li>Educated women reproduction physiology and delivery and trained them in breathing, relaxation and physical fitness. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Faith eliminates fear” </li></ul><ul><li>By 1950s, a prepared childbirth method substitutes new breathing and muscular responses to the sensations of uterine contractions for the old responses of fear and pain. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Education <ul><li>Offered to expectant mother to prepare physically and mentally </li></ul><ul><li>Learns about: normal physical changes, self-care and care of her baby, natural methods of pain relief, gentle exercises, normal processes of childbirth. </li></ul><ul><li>Conducted traditionally as part of antenatal education service by midwives, doctors and paramedical staff in hospitals. </li></ul><ul><li>Also offered by private instructors and organisations (e.g. Childbirth Education Association and Parent Centres Australia) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Active Birth <ul><li>Mother is an involved participant in the birthing process </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged to adopt any position she chooses (many prefer natural upright positions) </li></ul><ul><li>Special techniques such as deep, yoga style breathing, gentle massage and pelvic rocking are used to relieve pain </li></ul><ul><li>Mother may choose to have a totally natural, drug-free childbirth, but also has available to her a variety of pain-relieving medications if required. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Active Birth (cont’d) <ul><li>Accompanied by a support person who: offer emotional support, supports the mother in the labouring position, give back massages or hot towels – usually they have attended childbirth classes with the mother. </li></ul><ul><li>Mother is encouraged to be involved in decisions concerning her labour and delivery. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on a full and active participation in a normal and exciting event </li></ul>
  8. 8. ‘ Birth without violence’ <ul><li>1975 – Frederick Leboyer published a book advocating a gentle entrance to the world for the newborn. </li></ul><ul><li>Subdued lighting, gentle handling, a warm bath and skin-to-skin contact recommended to reduce the trauma of childbirth for the baby. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits said to be a happier baby and strengthened parent-child relationship </li></ul>
  9. 9. ‘ Birth without violence’ <ul><li>1980 study of 56 women (Nelson et al, 1980) – compared ‘Leboyer babies’ and conventionally delivered babies and found no advantage in the Leboyer method over gentle conventional delivery, nor any greater risk of danger </li></ul><ul><li>No difference in maternal or infant health, infant behaviour at the first hour of life, at 24 hrs, 72 hrs or at 8 months of age, or in the mother’s perceptions of their babies and the experience of giving birth </li></ul><ul><li>Only differences was Leboyer mothers had a shorter active labour and they had feelings, 8 months after delivery, that the event had influenced their children’s behaviour </li></ul>
  10. 10. Home birth <ul><li>Preferred comfort and familiarity of home without drugs or unwanted interference </li></ul><ul><li>Midwife must be state registered, and will screen the mother before agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Midwife usually maintains a relationship with a nearby hospital so that, if necessary, the mother can complete her labour in hospital. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Home Birth <ul><li>Safety Debate – Howe (1988) examined outcomes for 165 women having home births in the south-west of Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>84% successfully delivered at home. </li></ul><ul><li>Of the 16% transferred to hospital for delivery, the rates for assisted delivery and caesarian section were very low. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Birth Centres <ul><li>Located within the hospital grounds but separate from the conventional hospital facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Antenatal care and preparation for childbirth is supervised by a specialist team of midwives </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery takes place in the home-like atmosphere of the birth centre and not in the conventional labour ward. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage: satisfy personalised birthing style with full facilities available and close by if needed. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Caesarian Section <ul><li>Performed with vaginal birth is unlikely or not recommended. </li></ul><ul><li>An abdominal surgery which allows the baby to be lifted out of the uterus. </li></ul><ul><li>May occur when there is a lack of progress in labour; when the baby’s head is too big to pass through the pelvis; when the baby appears to be in trouble; or when the mother is bleeding vaginally. </li></ul><ul><li>Some obstetricians also operate when the baby is in a breech position, so legs and buttocks would emerge before the head </li></ul>
  14. 14. Rates and Risks <ul><li>In Australia, climbed rapidly in 10 years from 1 in 5 to more than 1 in 3. </li></ul><ul><li>Obstetricians believe it is due to a rise in the number of older mothers, increased obesity rates and a changing ethnic mix. </li></ul><ul><li>Longer stays in hospital, higher infection rate for the mother, increased psychological stress which can lead to feeding difficulties and early care giving. </li></ul>