Law of effect “…responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situation.”
Link to personality… How does conditioning relate to individual differences in personality? Personality is “the end product of our habit system”…the combination of consistent behaviour patterns brought about by our unique histories of conditioning.
Reciprocal Determinism There are both internal and external determinants of behaviour. Behaviours, external factors and internal factors, all influence one another BEHAVIOUR EXTERNAL FACTORS INTERNAL FACTORS (rewards/punishments) (beliefs,
ROTTER TO PREDICT HUMAN BEHAVIOUR, WE MUST CONSIDER FACTORS SUCH AS PEOPLE’S PERCEPTIONS, EXPECTANCIES AND VALUES ROTTER’S BASIC FORMULA FOR PREDICTING BEHAVIOUR Behaviour Potential (BP) = Expectancy + Reinforcement value
BEHAVIOUR POTENTIAL The likelihood of a given behaviour occurring in a particular situation. Dependent on expectancy and reinforcement value.
Expectancy “the probability held by the individual that a particular reinforcement will occur as a function of a specific behaviour on his part in a specific situation or situations” The estimated likelihood of being reinforced.
What about first time situations? Rotter argues that expectancy will be based on experiences in similar situation. Beyond this, Rotter proposes we either believe our actions lead us to reinforcements/punishments OR that we will have little effect on the reinforcements and punishments received…(LOCUS OF CONTROL)
Locus of control A continuum where on one end, people have an extremely internal orientation/locus of control and believe that what happens to them is the results of their own actions. On the other end, are people with an extreme external locus of control, who maintain what happens is the result of forces outside their control.
REINFORCEMENT VALUE “The degree of preference for any reinforcement to occur if the possibilities of their occurring were all equal” The value that the reward holds for the individual.
Main difference Main difference between Rotter’s social learning theory and Skinner… Rotter included cognitive variables in his model
Strengths and Criticisms Strengths: Empirical research – extensive laboratory research Development of useful therapeutic procedures e.g. behaviour modification Criticisms: Reject of free will is difficult to accept. Does not adequately consider heredity Humans more complex than lab animals. Effects of behaviour modification – short lived?
SAMPLE CASES For each of the following, write down reasons for which behaviourists and social learning psychologists may explain their personality. Include hypothetical situations/examples.
1 – Henry Stubborn, arrogant, talks back to authority figures. 2 – Roger Extraverted, talks a lot in class but sometimes related to the topic. Has trouble keeping secrets. 3 – Julia Introverted, hates crowds, writes regularly in her journal, stays up all night to study
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