02   trait theory eysenck big 5
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02   trait theory eysenck big 5 02 trait theory eysenck big 5 Presentation Transcript

  • Trait Theory
    Eysenck and The Big Five
  • What kind of person are you?
    Two typical approaches:i) a ‘type’ of person (e.g. quiet type, outgoing type)ii) give a description of their characteristics (e.g. studious, shy, friendly)
    Both approaches involve describing themselves in terms of relatively stable features of their behaviour (as a type or certain traits)
  • Trait
    A trait:
    Is a dimension of personality used to categorise individuals according to the degree to which they show a particular characteristic.
    Is assumed to be stable across situations.
    Is assumed to be normally distributed.
    View slide
  • The Trait Approach
    Less concerned with understanding one person than in understanding how people at certain points on the trait distribution behave.
    Attempts to describe average group behaviour.
    Attempts to describe personality variables and predict behaviour (rather than explain it)
    Advantage – allows comparison across people
    View slide
  • Hans J. Eysenck
  • Background
    March 4, 1916 – September 4, 1997
    Raised by grandmother (parents divorced when he was two)
    Left Germany at the age of 18, when Nazis came to power
    In England - received his Ph.D. in Psychology from the University of London in 1940
    During World War II - psychologist at an emergency hospital
    Post-war - taught at the University of London
    75 books, 700 articles!
    Retired 1983
  • Eysenck’ contributions
    Major contribution to personality psychology is his work on identification of traits and what he calls types, or supertraits.
    Eysenck divided the elements of personality into various units that can be arranged hierarchically.
    Concluded that all traits can be listed within three basic personality dimensions.
  • The Hierarchal Model
    4 levels:
    Specific Response – consists of specific behaviours (e.g. spending an afternoon talking and laughing with friends)
    Habitual – Regular/frequent engagement of the specific behaviours (e.g. many afternoons)
    Trait – exhibition of trait (not just afternoons, weekends too! Not just his/her friends, strangers too! Sociability!)
    Type/Supertrait– the major ‘type’ in which the trait level falls under (e.g. Extraversion)
  • 4 levels:Specific Response – consists of specific behaviours (e.g. spending an afternoon talking and laughing with friends)Habitual – Regular/frequent engagement of the specific behaviours (e.g. many afternoons)Trait – exhibition of trait (not just afternoons, weekends too! Not just his/her friends, strangers too! Sociability!)Type/Supertrait– the major ‘type’ in which the trait level falls under (e.g. Extraversion)
  • The upertraits
    How many?
    Originally – two basic dimensions:neuroticism and extraversion-introversion.
    Neurotic
    Introverted
    Extraverted
    Stable
  • Dimensions of Personality
    Neurotic
    Indicative of overreactivity.
    High scoring tend to be emotionally overresponsive and have difficulties in returning to a normal state after emotional experiences” (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1968, p.6)
    Position on the scales
    Would be determined
    Via the EPQ
    (Eysenck Personality
    Questionnaire)
    Introverted
    Extraverted
    X
    A person with a low
    E score and a slightly
    Low N score would be
    At X
    Stable
  • List down possible traits for each quadrant/combination of Supertraits…
    N
    I
    E
    S
  • Give yourselves a tick if you wrote….
  • The Third upertrait
    PSYCHOTICISM: High scorers are described as “egocentric, aggressive, impersonal, cold, lacking in empathy, impulsive, lacking in concern for others, and generally unconcerned about the rights and welfare of other people” (Eysenck, 1982, p.11)
  • Where would you put the PSYCHOTICISM DIMENSION?
    Neurotic
    Introvert
    Extravert
    Stable
  • Eysenck’s biological theories
    Suggested that:
    Extraverts have a lower resting cortical arousal rate than introverts. (understimulated)
    People whose autonomic nervous system is highly reactive is likely to develop a neurotic disorder.
  • The Big Five
  • Scoring
    For all questions other than 7 and 9:Very unlikely = 1Moderately unlikely = 2Neither likely or unlikely = 3Moderately likely = 4Very likely = 5
    For questions 7 and 9:Very unlikely = 5Moderately unlikely = 4Neither likely or unlikely = 3Moderately likely = 2Very likely = 1
  • Scoring
    Sum up your score from the individual questions as shown below:O = Q3 + Q8C = Q4 + Q9E = Q1 + Q6A = Q2 + Q7N = Q5 + Q10
    2, 3 and 4 are low scores, 5 and 6 are low-medium, 7 and 8 are medium-high, and 9 and 10 are high scores.
  • Basic Dimensions of Personality
    Research conducted for decades found that people had five key dimensions of personality.
    Costa & McCrae (1985)
    Five-factor Model (FFM), also known as “The Big Five”
  • The Dimensions
    Openness to expeience
    Conscientiousness
    Extravesion
    Agreeableness
    Neuroticism
  • Openness to experience
    A person’s willingness to try new things.
    High scorers = creative, artistic, curious, imaginative, non-conforming. Low scorers = conventional, down-to-earth, uncreative, simple, maintains status quo
  • Conscientiousness
    Refers to a person’s organisation and motivation.
    High scorers: puntual, careful with belongings, organised, neat, reliable, ambitious, responsible, self-disciplinedLow scorers: unreliable, lazy, careless, negligent, spontaneous
  • Extraversion
    One’s need to be with other people
    High scorers: outgoing, sociable, talkative, optimistic, affectionateLow scorers: prefer solitude, reserved, stays in the background
  • Agreeableness
    The basic emotional style of a person.
    High scorers: easygoing, pleasant, friendly, good-natured, trusting and helpfulLow scorers: grumpy, crabby, difficult to get along with, rude, uncooperative, irritable, aggressive, compettive
  • Neuroticism
    Degree of emotional stability or instability.
    High scorers: worrying, insecure, anxious, temperamentalLow scorers: Calm, secure, relaxed, stable
  • Revisit your results
    The test taken is the Newcastle Personality Assessor (NPA), used to assess people on the big five personality dimensions.
    There are copious online versions that are also based on the Big Five.
  • Cross-Cultural
    FFM has been studied and tested by numerous researchers.
    Cross-cultural studies have found evidence of the Big Five in 11 different cultures, including Japan, the Phillippines, Germany, China and Peru (McCrae et al., 2000)
  • Evaluation of Trait Approach
    In groups of four or five, brainstorm as many strengths and weakness about the trait approach so far.
  • Criticisms