Lesson 2   joints
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Lesson 2 joints

on

  • 902 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
902
Slideshare-icon Views on SlideShare
902
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Lesson 2   joints Lesson 2 joints Presentation Transcript

    • Exercise and Fitness Lvl 2 Lesson 2 – Joints in Action
    • Lesson 1 Re-cap Progress Test
      • Complete Work sheet 3 on your own
    • Classification of Bones
      • There are 206 bones in the body, these can be classified as:
      • Long
      • Short
      • Flat
      • Irregular
      • Sesamoid
    • Long Bone
      • Such as Femur, tibia, fibula, radius ulna, humerous,
      • Blood Production occurs in the red bone marrow of long bones
      • Long bones provide the body with leverage e.g throwing a cricket ball.
    • Short bones
      • Short bones are found in the wrist and ankle.
      • Short bones are useful for delicate movement where precision is paramount e.g. writing or a surgical operations.
      • Small bones also help dissipate large compressive forces generated during walking and running.
    • Flat Bones
      • Flat can be found in the scapulae, rib cage, sternum and cranium
      • Flat bones offer protection and muscle attachment e.g. the rib cage protects the heart and lungs
    • Irregular Bones
      • Irregular bones can be found in the vertebral column
      • Irregular bones provide muscle attachment points and allow varying movement patterns to occur e.g. The vertebral column
    • Sesamoid Bones
      • Sesamoid bones are small bones formed in tendons e.g. patella ( knee cap).
      • Sesamoid bones provide protection for delicate areas.
    • Joints – 3 types
      • Fused – Immovable e.g. skull
      • Cartiliginous – Slightly movable e.g. between vertebral column
      • Synovial – Freely movable e.g hip & knee
    • Key Joint Facts
      • Formed wherever two or more bones meet
      • The skeleton would be ‘ fixed ’ without them
      • Bones that form a joint ‘fit well’, if irregularities exist they are evened out by extra layers of cartilage
      • The above are called ‘ menisci ’ if they only partly divide a joint cavity
      • If they fully divide the joint cavity this cartilage is called a disc
      • Most joints are held together by ligaments
    • Ligaments
    • Fixed or Fibrous Joints
      • Has no movement
      • Tough fibrous tissue lies between the ends of the bones
      • The ends are ‘ dovetailed ’ together
      • There is no joint cavity (space between the bones’
      • E.g. sutures in the skull
    • Example of fixed Joint - Skull
    • Cartilagenous Joints
      • Allows some slight movement
      • Ends of the bones are covered in articular cartilage
      • Ends are separated by pads of white fibro cartilage
      • Compression of these pads permits slight movement
      • These pads also act as ‘ shock absorbers ’
      • Eg: intervertebral discs of the spinal column
    • Synovial Joints
      • Distinguishing features;
        • Ends are covered in articular cartilage
        • Inners surface of joint capsules is lined with a thin synovial membrane that produces synovial fluid
        • Freely movable joints
        • Characterised by the presence of a joint capsule and cavity (space between bones)
      • Range of movement can vary due to the shape of the bony surfaces forming the joint
      • The synovial fluid acts as a lubricant for the joint, provides nutrients
      • E.G. knee
    • Synovial Joint Structure
    • Key Synovial Joints
      • Ball & Socket
        • Shoulder, Hip
      • Pivot
        • Neck
      • Condyloid
        • Wrist
      • Saddle
        • Thumb
      • Hinge
        • Elbow
      • Gliding
        • Carpels
    • Ball & Socket
      • Movement in all directions
        • Rotation
        • Adduction / abduction
        • Flexion / extension
      • Articulating bones; Head of femur / pelvis, humerous & scapula
      • E.g.
        • Hips & shoulders
      • Sporting eg;
        • Clearing a hurdle / overhead clear in badminton
    • Pivot & Gliding
      • Pivot
        • Rotation
        • Articulating bones;
          • C1 & C2 vertebrae
          • Neck (C1 vertebrae)
        • Turning head to view situations
      • Gliding
        • Movements across flat surfaces of bones
        • Articulating bones;
          • Clavicle / intercarpal/ intertarsal
        • Bending back, landing; feet absorbing impact- flexion / extension of foot
    • Condyloid
      • Sometimes referred to as Ellipsoid
      • Reduced ball & socket configuration
      • Articulating bones; Radio carpal joint (radius / ulna / carpals)
      • Wrist
      • Flicking of the racket in badmington
    • Saddle & Hinge
      • Saddle
        • All movements but no rotation
        • Articulating bones
          • Carpal & metacarpals
        • Base of thumb
        • Gripping of sporting equipment
      • Hinge
        • Flexion / extension
        • Articulating bones;
          • Humerus / radius & ulna
        • Elbow
        • Hitting a backhand
    • Location of Synovial Joints
    • Ligaments
    • Conclusion
      • Ligaments Connects bone to bone, are strong, inelastic, dense, fibrous tissue that links boney segments. Prevent any unwanted movement & restricts movement in certain directions
      • Joints are formed wherever two or more bones meet, the skeleton would be ‘ fixed ’ without them. Most joints are held together by ligaments
      • Joints can be classified in 2 ways; Functional & Structural
      • The amount of movement available at the joint determines their classification
      • Fixed or fibrous
        • Immovable
      • Cartilagenous
        • Slightly moveable
      • Synovial
        • Freely movable
      • The main synovial joints are; ball & socket, hinge, saddle, pivot, condyloid, gliding
    • Now complete….
      • Now complete worksheet 4