Lesson 2 joints


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Lesson 2 joints

  1. 1. Exercise and Fitness Lvl 2 Lesson 2 – Joints in Action
  2. 2. Lesson 1 Re-cap Progress Test <ul><li>Complete Work sheet 3 on your own </li></ul>
  3. 3. Classification of Bones <ul><li>There are 206 bones in the body, these can be classified as: </li></ul><ul><li>Long </li></ul><ul><li>Short </li></ul><ul><li>Flat </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular </li></ul><ul><li>Sesamoid </li></ul>
  4. 4. Long Bone <ul><li>Such as Femur, tibia, fibula, radius ulna, humerous, </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Production occurs in the red bone marrow of long bones </li></ul><ul><li>Long bones provide the body with leverage e.g throwing a cricket ball. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Short bones <ul><li>Short bones are found in the wrist and ankle. </li></ul><ul><li>Short bones are useful for delicate movement where precision is paramount e.g. writing or a surgical operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Small bones also help dissipate large compressive forces generated during walking and running. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Flat Bones <ul><li>Flat can be found in the scapulae, rib cage, sternum and cranium </li></ul><ul><li>Flat bones offer protection and muscle attachment e.g. the rib cage protects the heart and lungs </li></ul>
  7. 7. Irregular Bones <ul><li>Irregular bones can be found in the vertebral column </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular bones provide muscle attachment points and allow varying movement patterns to occur e.g. The vertebral column </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sesamoid Bones <ul><li>Sesamoid bones are small bones formed in tendons e.g. patella ( knee cap). </li></ul><ul><li>Sesamoid bones provide protection for delicate areas. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Joints – 3 types <ul><li>Fused – Immovable e.g. skull </li></ul><ul><li>Cartiliginous – Slightly movable e.g. between vertebral column </li></ul><ul><li>Synovial – Freely movable e.g hip & knee </li></ul>
  10. 10. Key Joint Facts <ul><li>Formed wherever two or more bones meet </li></ul><ul><li>The skeleton would be ‘ fixed ’ without them </li></ul><ul><li>Bones that form a joint ‘fit well’, if irregularities exist they are evened out by extra layers of cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>The above are called ‘ menisci ’ if they only partly divide a joint cavity </li></ul><ul><li>If they fully divide the joint cavity this cartilage is called a disc </li></ul><ul><li>Most joints are held together by ligaments </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ligaments
  12. 12. Fixed or Fibrous Joints <ul><li>Has no movement </li></ul><ul><li>Tough fibrous tissue lies between the ends of the bones </li></ul><ul><li>The ends are ‘ dovetailed ’ together </li></ul><ul><li>There is no joint cavity (space between the bones’ </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. sutures in the skull </li></ul>
  13. 13. Example of fixed Joint - Skull
  14. 14. Cartilagenous Joints <ul><li>Allows some slight movement </li></ul><ul><li>Ends of the bones are covered in articular cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Ends are separated by pads of white fibro cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Compression of these pads permits slight movement </li></ul><ul><li>These pads also act as ‘ shock absorbers ’ </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: intervertebral discs of the spinal column </li></ul>
  15. 15. Synovial Joints <ul><li>Distinguishing features; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ends are covered in articular cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inners surface of joint capsules is lined with a thin synovial membrane that produces synovial fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freely movable joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterised by the presence of a joint capsule and cavity (space between bones) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Range of movement can vary due to the shape of the bony surfaces forming the joint </li></ul><ul><li>The synovial fluid acts as a lubricant for the joint, provides nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>E.G. knee </li></ul>
  16. 16. Synovial Joint Structure
  17. 17. Key Synovial Joints <ul><li>Ball & Socket </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shoulder, Hip </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pivot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neck </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Condyloid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Saddle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thumb </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hinge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elbow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gliding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carpels </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Ball & Socket <ul><li>Movement in all directions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adduction / abduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexion / extension </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Articulating bones; Head of femur / pelvis, humerous & scapula </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hips & shoulders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sporting eg; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearing a hurdle / overhead clear in badminton </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Pivot & Gliding <ul><li>Pivot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulating bones; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C1 & C2 vertebrae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neck (C1 vertebrae) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turning head to view situations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gliding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movements across flat surfaces of bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulating bones; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clavicle / intercarpal/ intertarsal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bending back, landing; feet absorbing impact- flexion / extension of foot </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Condyloid <ul><li>Sometimes referred to as Ellipsoid </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced ball & socket configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Articulating bones; Radio carpal joint (radius / ulna / carpals) </li></ul><ul><li>Wrist </li></ul><ul><li>Flicking of the racket in badmington </li></ul>
  21. 21. Saddle & Hinge <ul><li>Saddle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All movements but no rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulating bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carpal & metacarpals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Base of thumb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gripping of sporting equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hinge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexion / extension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulating bones; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humerus / radius & ulna </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elbow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitting a backhand </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Location of Synovial Joints
  23. 23. Ligaments
  24. 24. Conclusion <ul><li>Ligaments Connects bone to bone, are strong, inelastic, dense, fibrous tissue that links boney segments. Prevent any unwanted movement & restricts movement in certain directions </li></ul><ul><li>Joints are formed wherever two or more bones meet, the skeleton would be ‘ fixed ’ without them. Most joints are held together by ligaments </li></ul><ul><li>Joints can be classified in 2 ways; Functional & Structural </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of movement available at the joint determines their classification </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed or fibrous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immovable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cartilagenous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly moveable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Synovial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freely movable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The main synovial joints are; ball & socket, hinge, saddle, pivot, condyloid, gliding </li></ul>
  25. 25. Now complete…. <ul><li>Now complete worksheet 4 </li></ul>