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  • 1. Instructing Gym-Based Exercise Level 2 Certificate in Fitness (Gym-Based Exercise) Unit 2 © Central YMCA Qualifications (CYQ), 2010 All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, reproduction of this resource for assisting course delivery is permissible for approved CYQ training providers for INTERNAL USE only.
  • 2. Unit Aims
    • The learner will:
    • Understand how to provide gym-based exercise
    • Be able to prepare self and equipment for gym-based exercise
    • Be able to prepare clients for gym-based exercise
    • Be able to instruct gym-based exercise
    • Be able to supervise clients undertaking gym-based exercise
    • Be able to bring a gym-based exercise session to an end
    • Be able to reflect on providing gym-based exercise
    • Be able to support clients taking part in gym-based exercise
  • 3. How the Unit is Assessed
    • Learners will be assessed by direct observation performing a total of:
    • 3 CV machines
    • 4 Resistance machine exercises
    • 4 free weight exercises
    • 4 body weight exercises
    • Safe lifting and passing of weights, and spotting
    • Self evaluation
    • To include warm up, CV and cool down components
  • 4. How to Provide Gym-Based Exercise Exercise Technique – CV Machines Level 2 Certificate in Fitness (Gym-Based Exercise)
  • 5. How to Provide Gym-Based Exercise Exercise Technique – CV Machines
    • By the end of this session you will be able to:
    • Identify safe and effective alignment for a range of gym-based exercise positions for CV machines
  • 6. Exercise Technique - CV
    • Identify and practice safe and effective alignment for the following CV machines:
    • Upright cycle
    • Recumbent cycle
    • Treadmill
    • Stepper
    • Rowing machine
    • Elliptical trainer
    • Cross trainer
  • 7. Exercise Technique - CV
    • Upright cycle
  • 8. Exercise Technique - CV
    • Recumbent cycle
  • 9. Exercise Technique - CV
    • Treadmill
  • 10. Exercise Technique - CV
    • Stepper
  • 11. Exercise Technique - CV
    • Rowing machine
  • 12. Exercise Technique - CV
    • Elliptical/Cross trainer
  • 13. How to Provide Gym-Based Exercise Exercise Technique – RT Machines Level 2 Certificate in Fitness (Gym-Based Exercise)
  • 14. How to Provide Gym-Based Exercise Exercise Technique – RT Machines
    • By the end of this session you will be able to:
    • Identify safe and effective alignment for a range of gym-based exercise positions for RT machines
  • 15. Exercise Technique - RT
    • Identify and practice safe and effective alignment for the following resistance machines:
    • Seated chest press (neutral and BB grips)
    • Seated row (neutral and BB grips/low pulley)
    • Shoulder press
    • Lat pull down (in front of chest)
    • Bench press
    • Pec dec
    • Triceps press/Triceps pushdown (high pulley)
  • 16. Exercise Technique - RT
    • Identify and practice safe and effective alignment for the following resistance machines:
    • Seated biceps curl/low pulley biceps curl
    • Leg press (lying/seated)
    • Seated adductor
    • Seated abductor
    • Leg curl (lying/seated)
    • Ab machine
    • Lower back machine
  • 17. Exercise Technique - RT
    • Seated chest press
  • 18. Exercise Technique - RT
    • Seated row
  • 19. Exercise Technique - RT
    • Shoulder press
  • 20. Exercise Technique - RT
    • Lat pull down
  • 21. Exercise Technique - RT
    • Pec dec
  • 22. Exercise Technique - RT
    • Triceps press/Triceps push down
  • 23. Exercise Technique - RT
    • Seated biceps curl/Standing biceps curl (low pulley)
  • 24. Exercise Technique - RT
    • Leg press
  • 25. Exercise Technique - RT
    • Seated adductor
  • 26. Exercise Technique - RT
    • Seated abductor
  • 27. Exercise Technique - RT
    • Seated leg curl
  • 28. Exercise Technique - RT
    • Ab machine
  • 29. Exercise Technique - RT
    • Lower back machine
  • 30. How to Provide Gym-Based Exercise Exercise Technique – Free Weight Exercises Level 2 Certificate in Fitness (Gym-Based Exercise)
  • 31. How to Provide Gym-Based Exercise Exercise Technique – FW Exercises
    • By the end of this session you will be able to:
    • Identify safe and effective alignment for a range of gym-based exercise positions for free weights (standing)
  • 32. Exercise Technique - FW
    • Identify and practice safe and effective alignment for the following free weight exercises:
    • Dead lift (barbell/dumbbell)
    • Upright row
    • The clean
    • Barbell biceps curl
    • Dumbbell biceps curl
    • Squat (barbell/dumbbell)
  • 33. Exercise Technique - FW
    • Identify and practice safe and effective alignment for the following free weight exercises:
    • Squat (barbell/dumbbell)
    • Shoulder press
    • Dumbbell lateral raise/Dumbbell front raise
    • Lunge (barbell/dumbbell)
    • Single arm row
    • Prone flyes
    • Dumbbell single arm triceps press
  • 34. Exercise Technique - FW
    • Dead lift (barbell/dumbbell)
  • 35. Exercise Technique - FW
    • Upright row
  • 36. Exercise Technique - FW
    • Barbell biceps curl
  • 37. Exercise Technique - FW
    • Dumbbell biceps curl
  • 38. Exercise Technique - FW
    • Squat
  • 39. Exercise Technique - FW
    • Dumbbell shoulder press
  • 40. Exercise Technique - FW
    • Dumbbell lateral raise
  • 41. Exercise Technique - FW
    • Lunge
  • 42. Exercise Technique - FW
    • Single arm row
  • 43. Exercise Technique - FW
    • Prone flyes
  • 44. Exercise Technique - FW
    • Dumbbell single arm triceps press
  • 45. How to Provide Gym-Based Exercise Exercise Technique – Free Weights Exercise (2) Level 2 Certificate in Fitness (Gym-Based Exercise)
  • 46. How to Provide Gym-Based Exercise Exercise Technique – FW2
    • By the end of this session you will be able to:
    • Identify safe and effective alignment for a range of gym-based exercise positions for free weights (floor based)
  • 47. Exercise Technique – FW2
    • Identify and practice safe and effective alignment for the following:
    • Bench press
    • Lying dumbbell chest flyes
    • Lying triceps press
    • Bent arm pullover
    • Safe lifting and passing technique
    • Spotting
  • 48. Exercise Technique – FW2
    • Bench press
  • 49. Exercise Technique – FW2
    • Lying dumbbell chest flyes
  • 50. Exercise Technique – FW2
    • Lying triceps press
  • 51. Exercise Technique – FW2
    • Bent arm pullover
  • 52. How to Provide Gym-Based Exercise Exercise Technique – Body Weight Exercises Level 2 Certificate in Fitness (Gym-Based Exercise)
  • 53. How to Provide Gym-Based Exercise Exercise Technique – Body Weight Exercises
    • By the end of this session you will be able
    • to:
    • Identify safe and effective alignment for a range of gym-based exercise positions for body weight exercises
  • 54. Exercise Technique - BW
    • Identify and practice safe and effective alignment for the following body weight exercises:
    • Abdominal curl/crunch
    • Oblique twist
    • Back raise/extension
    • Press ups
    • Chins
    • Lunge
    • Squat
  • 55. Exercise Technique - BW
    • Abdominal curl/crunch
  • 56. Exercise Technique - BW
    • Oblique twist
  • 57. Exercise Technique - BW
    • Back raise/extension
  • 58. Exercise Technique - BW
    • Press up
  • 59. Exercise Technique - BW
    • Chins
  • 60. Exercise Technique - BW
    • Lunge
  • 61. Exercise Technique - BW
    • Squat
  • 62. How to Provide Gym-Based Exercise Exercise Technique – Flexibility Level 2 Certificate in Fitness (Gym-Based Exercise)
  • 63. How to Provide Gym-Based Exercise Exercise Technique - Flexibility
    • By the end of this session you will be able to:
    • Identify safe and effective alignment for a range of gym-based exercise positions for maintaining or developing flexibility
  • 64. Exercise Technique - Flexibility
    • Identify and practice safe and effective alignment for stretches for the following muscles:
    • Gastrocnemius and soleus
    • Gastrocnemius
    • Hamstrings (standing, sitting and lying)
    • Quadriceps (standing and lying)
    • Adductors (standing and sitting)
    • Abductors (sitting and lying)
    • Hip flexors
  • 65. Exercise Technique - Flexibility
    • Identify and practice safe and effective alignment for stretches for the following muscles:
    • Obliques
    • Deltoids
    • Triceps
    • Pectoralis major
    • Latissimus Dorsi
    • Trapezius
    • Erector Spinae
  • 66. How to Provide Gym-Based Exercise Progression and Adaptation
    • By the end of this session you will be able to:
    • Identify different methods of adapting a gym-based exercise programme to ensure appropriate progression and/or regression
  • 67. Progression and Adaptation Cardiovascular machines Upright cycle RPM and level Recumbent cycle RPM and level Treadmill MPH/KPH and incline Stepper Stairs climbed/level/speed Rowing machine Pace/500m Elliptical trainer/Cross trainer RPM/level/incline N.B. This may vary depending on equipment
  • 68. Progression and Adaptation Resistance machines and free weights Range of motion Rate Repetitions Resistance Sets Systems used
  • 69. Progression and Adaptation Flexibility Alternative client position to accommodate physical limitations Use of small equipment (e.g. towels, yoga blocks, cushions) Length of hold
  • 70. How to Provide Gym-Based Exercise Exercise Technique – Teaching Strategies Level 2 Certificate in Fitness (Gym-Based Exercise)
  • 71. How to Provide Gym-Based Exercise Teaching Strategies
    • By the end of this session you will be able to:
    • Describe how to develop client coordination by building exercises/movements up gradually
  • 72. Teaching Strategies
    • Develop client coordination by building exercises/movements up gradually:
    • Use a logical teaching sequence (e.g. NAMSIT, IDEA or any other progressive sequence)
    • Ensure sufficient time to practice
    • Minimise external distraction
    • Work at appropriate speed
    • Use ‘whole part whole’ process
  • 73. Teaching Strategies
    • NAMSIT
    • N - N ame the exercise
    • A – name the A rea
    • M – name the M uscle
    • S – S ilent demonstration
    • I – I nstruct
    • T – T each into position
  • 74. Teaching Strategies
    • IDEA
    • I – I ntroduction
    • D – D emonstration
    • E – E xplanation
    • A - A ctivity
  • 75. How to Provide Gym-Based Exercise Teaching Strategies 2
    • By the end of this session you will be able to:
    • Describe the principles of behaviour management for group inductions
  • 76. Teaching Strategies 2
    • Be aware of different learning styles
    • Understand individual preferences for involvement
    • Adopt an inclusive approach to communication
  • 77. How to Prepare Self and Equipment for Gym-Based Exercise Session Preparation Level 2 Certificate in Fitness (Gym-Based Exercise)
  • 78. How to Prepare Self and Equipment for Gym-Based Exercise Session Preparation
    • By the end of this session you will be able to:
    • Prepare self to supervise gym-based exercise
    • Select equipment for gym-based exercise as appropriate to client needs
    • Prepare the environment and equipment as appropriate to client needs
  • 79. Session Preparation
    • Look professional (e.g. Cleanliness and appropriate clothing/footwear)
    • Be punctual
    • Carry the appropriate paperwork (e.g. Programme card and screening documentation)
  • 80. Session Preparation
    • Select equipment relevant to client needs:
    • CV machines
      • Choose appropriate machines in relation to needs/wants and physical capabilities of client
      • Choose appropriate programmes in relation to duration and intensity of the programme
    • RT machines
    • Free weights
  • 81. Session Preparation
    • Consider the following:
    • Skills and fitness of the client
    • A balanced, whole-body approach
    • MS, ME or muscular fitness
    • Effective use of equipment
    • Alternatives
  • 82. Session Preparation
    • Select equipment appropriate to client needs
    • Prepare environment and equipment, for example:
      • Complete an appropriate risk assessment and take action where required
      • Ensure equipment is in working order
      • Inform other responsible personnel of problems where appropriate
  • 83. How to Prepare Clients for Gym-Based Exercise Session Introduction
    • By the end of this session you will be able to:
    • Help clients feel welcome and at ease
    • Explain the purpose and value of the exercises, including warm up and cool down
    • Describe the exercises, including their physical and technique demands
    • Confirm or revise plans with clients as appropriate
    • Advise clients of the facility’s emergency procedures
    • Use warm up activities that are safe and effective
  • 84. Session Introduction
    • Help clients feel welcome and at ease by:
    • Professional conduct (dress/behaviour)
    • Reflection of equal opportunity (use of language, communication style)
    • Explanation of reasons for inclusion/exclusion (screening, deferral, referral)
  • 85. Session Introduction
    • Explain the purpose and value of exercises:
    • Give reasons for exercise choice
    • Explain the structure of the session
    • Identify the benefits to the client based on their goals, wants and needs
    • Give a brief overview of the main components of the session, and their content
  • 86. Session Introduction
    • Consider the need to confirm or revise plans with clients if there are:
    • Special requirements relating to the client
    • Environmental constraints (e.g. busy gym floor)
    • Provide alternatives where required if client objectives are not being met
  • 87. Session Introduction
    • Advise clients of emergency procedures, to include:
    • First aid
    • Emergency exits
    • Evacuation policy
  • 88. How to Prepare Clients for Gym-Based Exercise Warm Up
    • By the end of the session you will be able to:
    • Select appropriate exercises to achieve the purpose of a warm up, to include:
      • Mobility and pulse raising
      • Preparatory stretching
  • 89. How to Instruct Gym-Based Exercise Guidelines to Teaching
    • By the end of the session you will be able to:
    • Give explanations and demonstrations that are technically correct (with safe and effective alignment of exercise positions)
    • Communicate as appropriate to client needs and the environment
  • 90. Guidelines to Teaching
    • Consider the following:
    • Demonstrate correct alignment
    • Demonstrate strong, clear movement quality
    • Describe and identify the correct muscles
    • Use IDEA where appropriate
    • Use NAMSIT where appropriate
    • Use any other logical teaching sequence where appropriate
  • 91. Guidelines to Teaching
    • Communication skills:
    • Appropriate level of technical language
    • Volume, pitch and tone of voice
    • Body language
    • Awareness of diversity and equality
  • 92. How to Instruct Gym-Based Exercise Supervising Clients
    • By the end of the session you will be able to:
    • Adopt appropriate positions to observe clients and respond to their needs
    • Monitor the safety and intensity of exercise
    • Provide feedback and instructing points which are timely, clear and motivational
    • Adapt exercises with suitable progressions and regressions according to client needs
  • 93. Supervising Clients
    • Effective instructing includes the following skills:
    • Aiming to observe clients from all angles where possible
    • Using mirrors where available
    • Working at client level (when working on the floor)
    • Adapting teaching position where required (e.g. lack of space)
    • Understanding the safety aspects of machines and free weights
    • Using recognised methods of monitoring exercise intensity
  • 94. Supervising Clients
    • Effective instructing includes the following skills:
    • Recognising and responding to signs of over exertion
    • Monitoring the client’s performance throughout the session
  • 95. Supervising Clients
    • Monitoring the client includes:
    • Observation to identify errors and correct performance
    • Changes of teaching position
    • Teaching points to improve technique
    • Motivation and encouragement
    • Working within agreed timescales
    • Applying safe lifting and handling procedures
  • 96. Supervising Clients
    • Monitoring the client includes:
    • Deadlift/manual handling
    • Spotting (self spotting, use of spotter)
    • Use of racks, Smith machine
  • 97. Supervising Clients
    • Monitoring exercise intensity:
    • Observation
    • Talk test
    • Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE)
    • Heart rate
    • Combination of methods (if appropriate)
  • 98. Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) The Borg (RPE) Scale 6 No exertion at all 7 Extremely light 8 9 Very light 10 11 Light 12 13 Somewhat hard 14 15 Hard (heavy) 16 17 Very hard 18 19 Extremely hard 20 Maximal exertion
  • 99. Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) The Borg CR10 Scale 0 Nothing at all 0.5 Extremely weak – just noticeable 1 Very weak 2 Weak (light) 3 Moderate 4 Somewhat strong 5 Strong (heavy) 6 7 Very strong 8 9 10 Extremely strong (almost maximal) * Maximal
  • 100. Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) The ‘How it feels’ scale Very, very light / no problem 1 Very light / very easy 2 Fairly light / easy 3 Moderate / beginning to feel puffed 4 Fairly hard / feeling a bit puffed 5 Hard / feeling puffed 6 Very hard / tiring 7 Very, very hard / very tiring 8 Exhausted / out of breath – shattered 9 Maximum / exhausted 10
  • 101. Signs of Over Exertion
    • Excessive breathlessness
    • Pain
    • Changes in skin colour
  • 102. How to Bring a Gym-Based Exercise Session to an End
    • Allow sufficient time according to client’s level of experience
    • Use cool down activities that are safe and effective
    • Give clients an accurate summary of feedback on the session
    • Give clients the opportunity to ask questions
    • Make sure the clients understand how to continue their programme of gym-based exercise without supervision
    • Leave the environment in an acceptable condition for future use
  • 103. Ending the Session
    • Cool down:
    • Select appropriate exercises to achieve the purpose of a cool down, to include:
      • Pulse lowering (CV machines), or
      • Re-warm (if leading on from FW)
      • Stretching (maintenance and developmental)
  • 104. Ending the Session
    • Leave the environment in an acceptable condition for future use:
    • Report any maintenance needs
    • Replace mats and stacking equipment
    • Ensure equipment is hygienic for future use
    • Store free weights securely
  • 105. How to Review the Outcomes of Working with Clients and Client Feedback
    • By the end of the session you will be able to:
    • Review the outcomes of working with clients and client feedback
    • Identify how to improve personal practice
    • Explain the value of reflective practice
  • 106. Reflect on the Session
    • Consider the following:
    • How well the exercises met client needs
    • How effective the planned activities were
    • How effective and motivational the relationship with the client was
    • How well the instructing style matched client needs
    • Effectiveness of teaching methods
    • Safety and effectiveness of content and structure
    • Client responses and feedback
  • 107. Continuing Professional Development (CPD)
    • Consider how to improve personal practice – for example:
      • Request feedback from clients, peers, supervisors and managers
      • Improve personal coaching and future sessions
      • Create personal action plans and set goals
      • Identify CPD needs
      • Keep up to date
  • 108. Sources for Gathering Information
    • Questionnaires, comment slips, verbal
    • Self, client, supervisors, peers
    • Discussion of information with relevant personnel (gym/line manager)
  • 109. How to Support Clients Taking Part in Gym-Based Exercise
    • Present a positive image of self and organisation to clients
    • Establish an effective working relationship with clients
    • Communicate with clients in a way that makes them feel valued
    • Use motivational styles appropriate to the client and the exercise format