3. fitness,training & exercise
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  • 1. Fitness,Training and ExerciseTraining is a programme of exercise designed to help you reach yourfitness goals or targets.In order to ensure that a fitness training or exercise programme issafe and effective, it is vital that four guiding principles are applied.These are often referred to as the… Principles of Training They include… 1) Specificity 2) Overload: a) Frequency F b) Intensity I c) Time T d) Type T 3) Progression 4) Reversibility
  • 2. SpecificityEvery form of exercise or training has a different effect on your body.For example, a biceps curl with a weight will develop strength in thearms; it will not affect any other part of the body or component offitness. Specificity can be described as the specific effect each type of training has on the body.
  • 3. Marathon Runners… Weight Lifters…will undertake mainly endurance will undertake mainly strength work during their training. work during their training. Training must therefore be specific to…  the sport or activity;  the type of fitness required;  the individual.
  • 4. OverloadTo make the body fitter, you must make it work harder thannormal, over a prolonged period of time. As a result, it will adapt to theextra demand placed upon it by getting fitter.Example…Regular lifting of weights will result in the muscles getting larger(hypertrophy), improving a person’s strength. Leg extensions develop A pec deck develops strength in strength in the legs. the arms and chest.
  • 5. OverloadOverload can be described as… “making the body work harder than normal, so it adapts to the extra demands and becomes fitter”This can be achieved in 4 main ways - the word F.I.T.T. helps. 1) FrequencyIncrease how often you train or exercise each week. For example,progressing from 2 to 3 and then 4 times per week. S M T W T F S 
  • 6. OverloadOverload can be described as… “making the body work harder than normal, so it adapts to the extra demands and becomes fitter”This can be achieved in 4 main ways - the word F.I.T.T. helps. 1) FrequencyIncrease how often you train or exercise each week. Forexample, progressing from 2 to 3 and then 4 times per week. S M T W T F S S M T W T F S   
  • 7. OverloadOverload can be described as… “making the body work harder than normal, so it adapts to the extra demands and becomes fitter”This can be achieved in 4 main ways - the word F.I.T.T. helps. 1) FrequencyIncrease how often you train or exercise each week. For example,progressing from 2 to 3 and then 4 times per week. S M T W T F S S M T W T F S    
  • 8. 2) IntensityRaising intensity means increasing how hard you train or exercise.For example, running at a faster speed or lifting a heavier weight. 20 Kg lifted 40 Kg lifted Lifting heavier weights will increase muscle bulk (hypertrophy) and therefore improve strength.
  • 9. 3) TimeIncreasing how long (the ‘duration’) you train orexercise. For example, going from 15 to 30 andthen to 45 minutes per session.
  • 10. 4) TypeThis aspect of overload refers to the type of training or exerciseundertaken to achieve physical fitness goals. Some types of training areshown below - move your mouse over a box for more information.
  • 11. 4) TypeThis aspect of overload refers to the type of training or exerciseundertaken to achieve physical fitness goals. Some types of training areshown below - move your mouse over a box for more information.
  • 12. ProgressionThe body cannot adapt overnight to the increased demands placed uponit by exercise. It can only do this gradually or progressively, otherwisethe following is likely to occur:  Training too much will result in injury.  Training too little will result in no fitness benefits. Lifting very heavy weights too Lifting weights which are too soon will cause injury to the light will not develop any muscles and joints. improvements in strength.
  • 13. Progression can be described as… “gradually building up the level of exercise or training to ensure that fitness continues to be developed”This can be achieved in 4 main ways through the principle of overload: Overload Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Frequency (How Often) x2 x2 x3 x3 x4 x4 Intensity 5 mph 5 mph 6 mph 6 mph 7 mph 8 mph (How Hard) Time 20 40 40 50 50 60 (How Long) Mins Mins Mins Mins Mins Mins Type Jogging Jogging Jogging Jogging Jogging Jogging (Method) Cycling Cycling Cycling Cycling Cycling Cycling
  • 14. How is Progression Achieved? As the body adapts to the demands placed upon it by the extra training or exercise, it develops better fitness levels. Progress to the next level of fitness is achieved by gradually increasing one or more of the various aspects of overload.
  • 15. How is Progression Achieved? As the body adapts to the demands placed upon it by the extra training or exercise, it develops better fitness levels. Progress to the next level of fitness is achieved by gradually increasing one or more of the various aspects of overload. Training is developed through overload, which means increasing one or more of…  Frequency  Intensity  Time …or changing the  Type of training.
  • 16. ReversibilityAs you already know, to make the body fitter, you must make it workharder than normal over a prolonged period of time. This means… You must keep to a well planned training programme, if you really want to get fit. If you take a break or stop exercising, because of illness or a holiday, you will need to start again at a lower level.In short, if you stop exercising the fitness gained will be lost in a thirdof the time it took to develop!Question… A person trains for the London Marathon over a period of 6 months. If they stop, how long will it take for this fitness to be lost?Answer… 2 months
  • 17. Reversibility can be described as.. “the process of losing fitness, soon after stopping regular training or exercise” Regular weight training will Stop weight training and build muscle bulk. muscle bulk will be lost.
  • 18. QUESTIONS?1. What are the 4 Principles of Training?2. What does the acronym F.I.T.T stand for?3. What would happen if you progressed an exercise program too quickly?