European Exploration and Settlement CH 2: How did Europeans explore an establish settlements in the Americas?
Marco Polo 1200s Marco Polo travels Asia “the man with a million stories” Wrote a book about China Ri₵he$ of China: Silk Rare spices Gold & jewels Luxurious palaces Inspired European Exploration
Getting to Asia Surely, there is a shorter way!
Columbus’s Discoveries Inspired by Marco Polo Believed shorter route to Asia was in the west Spain sponsored trip in 1492 Found island in Caribbean Encounters Taino “Indians” Died thinking he found Indies
The Columbian Exchange
Slavery Comes to America Settlers forces Indians to work for them. European diseases kill them in great numbers. Africans are brought to replace them. Europeans traded guns and alcohol for slaves. Africans captured and sold slaves to Europeans.
Cortes Conquers Mexico Conquistadors: Spanish soldiers Mission: conquer an empire for Spain Hernán Cortés mistaken for Aztec god Guns, germs, and steel help conquer Aztecs
Pizarro Conquers Peru Francisco Pizarro conquers Incan Empire Smallpox kills thousands before Pizarro Incan ruler captured (Atahualpa) and ransomed for gold. Incans fill three rooms with gold and silver. Pizarro kills him anyway and takes over.
Settling the Borderlands Florida: Juan Ponce de Leon “Fountain of Youth” Dies from poison arrows Borderlands: Florida Texas New Mexico Arizona California Soldiers and missionaries settle in presidios
New France Jacques Cartier’s Northwest Passage France claims Canada Quebec: trading post French= explorers, soldiers, missionaries, traders, and fur trappers (coureurs de bois) Did not attract many settlers Indian business partners (Huron) Louisiana and Mississippi River
New England 1497: England John Cabot sails to Newfoundland (island off the coast of Canada) Roanoke: colony disappears 1607: Jamestown colony in Virginia Hunger and disease make life difficult Pocahontas saves Jamestown Starving Time: 60/500 survive the winter John Rolfe, Tobacco, & marriage CROATOAN
New Netherland Henry Hudson and that Northwest Passage Netherlands=Dutch Dutch West India Company start a colony Albany, New York Profit from fur trade like the French Peter Minuit buys Manhattan island for $24 Iroquois Confederacy New Amsterdam: diverse (Europeans, Africans, Jews) English chase off the Dutch due to wet gunpowder
Manhattan Island Then Now
Homework: How did Marco Polo encourage European exploration? How did the Columbian Exchange affect American Indians? Europeans? Africans? What kind of relationship did the French have with American Indians? What was the goals of: Columbus? Conquistadors? Missionaries? French & Dutch? How was New Amsterdam different from other settlements?