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  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • FORMAL: I have taught a range of subjects over the years such as mathematics, world literature, storytelling, art, anthropology, folklore, philosophy, world religion, and popular culture. I have a BA degree Mathematics and a PhD in Folklore, which reflects my passion for exploring a number of subjects and disciplines. I have taught for over fifteen years in a number of venues: universities, community colleges, high schools. My central interest in the study of folklore and the creative process: play, humor, and innovation; youth culture; stories, jokes, and informal networks; the reproduction of social class. the study of mediated communication and technology, and its key role in reshaping identity. INFORMAL: I live with my wife in Rodeo, CA, a small town located near Hercules, CA, in a rebuilt home with a small tabby cat and a beautiful garden. I love to run, swim, and bike long distances. I grew up in the northeast side of Chicago in a relatively lower middle-class family with two parents as educators (primary school teacher: mother; community services: father), attended public schools (including a large, technical high school, went to University of Illinois, UC Berkeley, and finally, University of Pennsylvania). I have a deep passion for teaching and learning new ideas, and keep an extensive collection of books at home. I also love cooking new dishes with friends and family.
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • Singing bowl: Tibetan, handmade from 3 metals, inscription on side: Lotus chant, sound and vibration created from gentling striking the side of the bowl (decreasing frequencies), which signify a “shift” from one experience to the next. A “ritual” is a repeated social occasion that is used to generate community meaning (births, weddings, funerals, weekly church meetings, baptisms, day one of school, etc.)
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • Why do people believe in different ideas? Why is there so much religious conflict? What the relationship between science and religion? Can change happen?
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • (for Benjamin, this quality surrounds the "original" work of art, and provides it with a sense of unreproducible "authenticity")
  • Seattle Public Library
  • Why do people believe in different ideas? Why is there so much religious conflict? What the relationship between science and religion? Can change happen?
  • Why do people believe in different ideas? Why is there so much religious conflict? What the relationship between science and religion? Can change happen?
  • Émile Durkheim (1858−1917)—author of The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912)—and others thought that Aboriginal groups provided a lens into the most basic forms of religious behavior. 1. Durkheim identified the primary force behind religion as the sacred and argued that the sacred serves as a mirror of a particular society. A society holds up symbols so that, in effect, it can worship itself and propagate its value system. 2. Durkheim viewed religion as an expression of social cohesion in human societies.
  • Émile Durkheim (1858−1917)—author of The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912)—and others thought that Aboriginal groups provided a lens into the most basic forms of religious behavior. 1. Durkheim identified the primary force behind religion as the sacred and argued that the sacred serves as a mirror of a particular society. A society holds up symbols so that, in effect, it can worship itself and propagate its value system. 2. Durkheim viewed religion as an expression of social cohesion in human societies.
  • Émile Durkheim (1858−1917)—author of The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912)—and others thought that Aboriginal groups provided a lens into the most basic forms of religious behavior. 1. Durkheim identified the primary force behind religion as the sacred and argued that the sacred serves as a mirror of a particular society. A society holds up symbols so that, in effect, it can worship itself and propagate its value system. 2. Durkheim viewed religion as an expression of social cohesion in human societies.
  • Émile Durkheim (1858−1917)—author of The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912)—and others thought that Aboriginal groups provided a lens into the most basic forms of religious behavior. 1. Durkheim identified the primary force behind religion as the sacred and argued that the sacred serves as a mirror of a particular society. A society holds up symbols so that, in effect, it can worship itself and propagate its value system. 2. Durkheim viewed religion as an expression of social cohesion in human societies.
  • Émile Durkheim (1858−1917)—author of The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912)—and others thought that Aboriginal groups provided a lens into the most basic forms of religious behavior. 1. Durkheim identified the primary force behind religion as the sacred and argued that the sacred serves as a mirror of a particular society. A society holds up symbols so that, in effect, it can worship itself and propagate its value system. 2. Durkheim viewed religion as an expression of social cohesion in human societies.
  • Émile Durkheim (1858−1917)—author of The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912)—and others thought that Aboriginal groups provided a lens into the most basic forms of religious behavior. 1. Durkheim identified the primary force behind religion as the sacred and argued that the sacred serves as a mirror of a particular society. A society holds up symbols so that, in effect, it can worship itself and propagate its value system. 2. Durkheim viewed religion as an expression of social cohesion in human societies.
  • Eliade suggests that at the heart of religious experience is human awareness of the sacred. He argued that the sacred is made known through heirophanies (manifestations of the sacred) and theophanies (manifestations of God). When people perceive a manifestation of the sacred, everything changes—objects, people, places, and even time. A theophany is a manifestation of God. 1. Moses encountered God and received the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai. 2. When Jesus was baptized in the Jordan River, the sky opened, a dove descended, and God’s resounding voice declared, “You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased!” 3. At a pivotal moment in the Bhagavad Gita, a dialogue takes place between Arjuna (a warrior about to go into battle, who is the focus of the Bhagavad Gita) and his chariot driver. The chariot driver reveals himself as Krishna, the incarnation of the Lord Vishnu. 4. From the Islamic tradition comes the time when, during an interlude of prayer and meditation, Muhammad was first called to be a prophet. A hierophany is a broader category indicating a manifestation of the sacred. For example, according to Buddhist tradition, Siddhartha Gautama was conceived during a miraculous vision by his mother and was born through her side as flowers bloomed out of season. Sages appeared to visit the newborn and make prophecies about his auspicious career. Sacred time is a universal category in the religions. 1. Easter Sunday is the most sacred day in the Christian calendar. Sunday, then, became the sacred day of the week—a shift from the Jewish Sabbath that starts Friday evening and lasts until sundown Saturday. 2. Muslims are required to fast and refrain from all pleasurable activities from sunrise until sunset throughout the sacred lunar month of Ramadan each year. 3. For Jews, the most holy day of the year is Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement. Traditionally, Yom Kippur is understood as the date on which Moses received the Ten Commandments for the second time. 4. The Hindu festival of Holi is celebrated each spring; devotees imitate Krishna’s frivolous play with the gopis (cowherds’ wives).
  • Eliade suggests that at the heart of religious experience is human awareness of the sacred. He argued that the sacred is made known through heirophanies (manifestations of the sacred) and theophanies (manifestations of God). When people perceive a manifestation of the sacred, everything changes—objects, people, places, and even time. A theophany is a manifestation of God. 1. Moses encountered God and received the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai. 2. When Jesus was baptized in the Jordan River, the sky opened, a dove descended, and God’s resounding voice declared, “You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased!” 3. At a pivotal moment in the Bhagavad Gita, a dialogue takes place between Arjuna (a warrior about to go into battle, who is the focus of the Bhagavad Gita) and his chariot driver. The chariot driver reveals himself as Krishna, the incarnation of the Lord Vishnu. 4. From the Islamic tradition comes the time when, during an interlude of prayer and meditation, Muhammad was first called to be a prophet. A hierophany is a broader category indicating a manifestation of the sacred. For example, according to Buddhist tradition, Siddhartha Gautama was conceived during a miraculous vision by his mother and was born through her side as flowers bloomed out of season. Sages appeared to visit the newborn and make prophecies about his auspicious career. Sacred time is a universal category in the religions. 1. Easter Sunday is the most sacred day in the Christian calendar. Sunday, then, became the sacred day of the week—a shift from the Jewish Sabbath that starts Friday evening and lasts until sundown Saturday. 2. Muslims are required to fast and refrain from all pleasurable activities from sunrise until sunset throughout the sacred lunar month of Ramadan each year. 3. For Jews, the most holy day of the year is Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement. Traditionally, Yom Kippur is understood as the date on which Moses received the Ten Commandments for the second time. 4. The Hindu festival of Holi is celebrated each spring; devotees imitate Krishna’s frivolous play with the gopis (cowherds’ wives).
  • In 1945, Schutz published an essay, “On Multiple Realities,” that extended the theory of The Phenomenology of the Social World and anticipated later essays applying that theory. While he reiterated earlier views about levels of activity, Bergsonian tensions of consciousness, and the structure of the social world, his work took a decidedly pragmatic twist, emphasizing “working” (Wirken) as involving bodily movements as opposed to the covert performances of mere thinking. He enlarged upon the “world of working” by demonstrating how reflection dissolves the self unified in lived action into partial, role-taking selves and by expanding Mead's idea of the “manipulatory sphere” to include worlds within “potential reach,” either restorable (from the past) or attainable (in the future). This “world of working” constitutes the paramount reality, organized in its interests in the face of the fundamental anxiety that derives, as it did for Heidegger, from the inescapability of one's own death. Following Husserl's views on how consciousness can modify its stances toward reality and de-ontologizing James's sub-universes of reality, Schutz developed the notion of various finite provinces of meaning. One enters any of these provinces, such as those of phantasms, dreams, the theater, religious experience, or theoretical contemplation, by undergoing different types of epoché, analogous to the phenomenological protoype, as when one slips into a daydream, falls asleep, watches theater curtains open, commences a ritual, or assumes the scientist's role. Each province contains its distinctive logical, temporal, corporal, and social dimensions, and movement between the provinces only becomes paradoxical (e.g., asking how phenomenologists are able to communicate their private findings publicly) if one conceives the provinces as ontological static realms to which one transmigrates as a soul to another world. Rather the provinces are permeable, and one adopts the attitudes of scientist or religious believer within the world of working as if it were seen through by another viewpoint, all the while that its communicative activities subtend these other provinces. There is something paradoxical, though, about describing one's dreams or theorizing about religious experience since to give an account one must absent oneself from the province for which one accounts, and Kierkegaard's notion of indirect communication and various postmodern critiques of theory address themselves to just such paradoxes.
  •   Enactive mode.  When dealing with the enactive mode, one is using some known aspects of reality without using words or imagination.  Therefore, it involves representing the past events through making motor responses.  It involves manly in knowing how to do something; it involves series of actions that are right for achieving some result e.g. Driving a car, skiing, tying a knot.  Iconic Mode.  This mode deals with the internal imagery, were the knowledge is characterised by a set of images that stand for the concept.  The iconic representation depends on visual or other sensory association and is principally defined by perceptual organisation and techniques for economically transforming perceptions into meaning for the individual.  3. Symbolic mode.  Through life one is always adding to the resources to the symbolic mode of representation of thought.  This representation is based upon an abstract, discretionary and flexible thought.  It allows one to deal with what might be and what might not, and is a major tool in reflective thinking.  This mode is illustrative of a person’s competence to consider propositions rather than objects, to give ideas a hierarchical structure and to consider alternative possibilities in a combinatorial fashion, (Spencer.K.,1991, p.185-187).
  • 1.   Enactive mode.  When dealing with the enactive mode, one is using some known aspects of reality without using words or imagination.  Therefore, it involves representing the past events through making motor responses.  It involves manly in knowing how to do something; it involves series of actions that are right for achieving some result e.g. Driving a car, skiing, tying a knot. 2.   Iconic Mode.  This mode deals with the internal imagery, were the knowledge is characterised by a set of images that stand for the concept.  The iconic representation depends on visual or other sensory association and is principally defined by perceptual organisation and techniques for economically transforming perceptions into meaning for the individual. 3. Symbolic mode.  Through life one is always adding to the resources to the symbolic mode of representation of thought.  This representation is based upon an abstract, discretionary and flexible thought.  It allows one to deal with what might be and what might not, and is a major tool in reflective thinking.  This mode is illustrative of a person’s competence to consider propositions rather than objects, to give ideas a hierarchical structure and to consider alternative possibilities in a combinatorial fashion, (Spencer.K.,1991, p.185-187).
  •   Enactive mode.  When dealing with the enactive mode, one is using some known aspects of reality without using words or imagination.  Therefore, it involves representing the past events through making motor responses.  It involves manly in knowing how to do something; it involves series of actions that are right for achieving some result e.g. Driving a car, skiing, tying a knot.  Iconic Mode.  This mode deals with the internal imagery, were the knowledge is characterised by a set of images that stand for the concept.  The iconic representation depends on visual or other sensory association and is principally defined by perceptual organisation and techniques for economically transforming perceptions into meaning for the individual.  3. Symbolic mode.  Through life one is always adding to the resources to the symbolic mode of representation of thought.  This representation is based upon an abstract, discretionary and flexible thought.  It allows one to deal with what might be and what might not, and is a major tool in reflective thinking.  This mode is illustrative of a person’s competence to consider propositions rather than objects, to give ideas a hierarchical structure and to consider alternative possibilities in a combinatorial fashion, (Spencer.K.,1991, p.185-187).
  •   Enactive mode.  When dealing with the enactive mode, one is using some known aspects of reality without using words or imagination.  Therefore, it involves representing the past events through making motor responses.  It involves manly in knowing how to do something; it involves series of actions that are right for achieving some result e.g. Driving a car, skiing, tying a knot.  Iconic Mode.  This mode deals with the internal imagery, were the knowledge is characterised by a set of images that stand for the concept.  The iconic representation depends on visual or other sensory association and is principally defined by perceptual organisation and techniques for economically transforming perceptions into meaning for the individual.  3. Symbolic mode.  Through life one is always adding to the resources to the symbolic mode of representation of thought.  This representation is based upon an abstract, discretionary and flexible thought.  It allows one to deal with what might be and what might not, and is a major tool in reflective thinking.  This mode is illustrative of a person’s competence to consider propositions rather than objects, to give ideas a hierarchical structure and to consider alternative possibilities in a combinatorial fashion, (Spencer.K.,1991, p.185-187).
  •   Enactive mode.  When dealing with the enactive mode, one is using some known aspects of reality without using words or imagination.  Therefore, it involves representing the past events through making motor responses.  It involves manly in knowing how to do something; it involves series of actions that are right for achieving some result e.g. Driving a car, skiing, tying a knot.  Iconic Mode.  This mode deals with the internal imagery, were the knowledge is characterised by a set of images that stand for the concept.  The iconic representation depends on visual or other sensory association and is principally defined by perceptual organisation and techniques for economically transforming perceptions into meaning for the individual.  3. Symbolic mode.  Through life one is always adding to the resources to the symbolic mode of representation of thought.  This representation is based upon an abstract, discretionary and flexible thought.  It allows one to deal with what might be and what might not, and is a major tool in reflective thinking.  This mode is illustrative of a person’s competence to consider propositions rather than objects, to give ideas a hierarchical structure and to consider alternative possibilities in a combinatorial fashion, (Spencer.K.,1991, p.185-187).
  •   Enactive mode.  When dealing with the enactive mode, one is using some known aspects of reality without using words or imagination.  Therefore, it involves representing the past events through making motor responses.  It involves manly in knowing how to do something; it involves series of actions that are right for achieving some result e.g. Driving a car, skiing, tying a knot.  Iconic Mode.  This mode deals with the internal imagery, were the knowledge is characterised by a set of images that stand for the concept.  The iconic representation depends on visual or other sensory association and is principally defined by perceptual organisation and techniques for economically transforming perceptions into meaning for the individual.  3. Symbolic mode.  Through life one is always adding to the resources to the symbolic mode of representation of thought.  This representation is based upon an abstract, discretionary and flexible thought.  It allows one to deal with what might be and what might not, and is a major tool in reflective thinking.  This mode is illustrative of a person’s competence to consider propositions rather than objects, to give ideas a hierarchical structure and to consider alternative possibilities in a combinatorial fashion, (Spencer.K.,1991, p.185-187).
  •   Enactive mode.  When dealing with the enactive mode, one is using some known aspects of reality without using words or imagination.  Therefore, it involves representing the past events through making motor responses.  It involves manly in knowing how to do something; it involves series of actions that are right for achieving some result e.g. Driving a car, skiing, tying a knot.  Iconic Mode.  This mode deals with the internal imagery, were the knowledge is characterised by a set of images that stand for the concept.  The iconic representation depends on visual or other sensory association and is principally defined by perceptual organisation and techniques for economically transforming perceptions into meaning for the individual.  3. Symbolic mode.  Through life one is always adding to the resources to the symbolic mode of representation of thought.  This representation is based upon an abstract, discretionary and flexible thought.  It allows one to deal with what might be and what might not, and is a major tool in reflective thinking.  This mode is illustrative of a person’s competence to consider propositions rather than objects, to give ideas a hierarchical structure and to consider alternative possibilities in a combinatorial fashion, (Spencer.K.,1991, p.185-187).
  •   Enactive mode.  When dealing with the enactive mode, one is using some known aspects of reality without using words or imagination.  Therefore, it involves representing the past events through making motor responses.  It involves manly in knowing how to do something; it involves series of actions that are right for achieving some result e.g. Driving a car, skiing, tying a knot.  Iconic Mode.  This mode deals with the internal imagery, were the knowledge is characterised by a set of images that stand for the concept.  The iconic representation depends on visual or other sensory association and is principally defined by perceptual organisation and techniques for economically transforming perceptions into meaning for the individual.  3. Symbolic mode.  Through life one is always adding to the resources to the symbolic mode of representation of thought.  This representation is based upon an abstract, discretionary and flexible thought.  It allows one to deal with what might be and what might not, and is a major tool in reflective thinking.  This mode is illustrative of a person’s competence to consider propositions rather than objects, to give ideas a hierarchical structure and to consider alternative possibilities in a combinatorial fashion, (Spencer.K.,1991, p.185-187).
  •   Enactive mode.  When dealing with the enactive mode, one is using some known aspects of reality without using words or imagination.  Therefore, it involves representing the past events through making motor responses.  It involves manly in knowing how to do something; it involves series of actions that are right for achieving some result e.g. Driving a car, skiing, tying a knot.  Iconic Mode.  This mode deals with the internal imagery, were the knowledge is characterised by a set of images that stand for the concept.  The iconic representation depends on visual or other sensory association and is principally defined by perceptual organisation and techniques for economically transforming perceptions into meaning for the individual.  3. Symbolic mode.  Through life one is always adding to the resources to the symbolic mode of representation of thought.  This representation is based upon an abstract, discretionary and flexible thought.  It allows one to deal with what might be and what might not, and is a major tool in reflective thinking.  This mode is illustrative of a person’s competence to consider propositions rather than objects, to give ideas a hierarchical structure and to consider alternative possibilities in a combinatorial fashion, (Spencer.K.,1991, p.185-187).
  •   Enactive mode.  When dealing with the enactive mode, one is using some known aspects of reality without using words or imagination.  Therefore, it involves representing the past events through making motor responses.  It involves manly in knowing how to do something; it involves series of actions that are right for achieving some result e.g. Driving a car, skiing, tying a knot.  Iconic Mode.  This mode deals with the internal imagery, were the knowledge is characterised by a set of images that stand for the concept.  The iconic representation depends on visual or other sensory association and is principally defined by perceptual organisation and techniques for economically transforming perceptions into meaning for the individual.  3. Symbolic mode.  Through life one is always adding to the resources to the symbolic mode of representation of thought.  This representation is based upon an abstract, discretionary and flexible thought.  It allows one to deal with what might be and what might not, and is a major tool in reflective thinking.  This mode is illustrative of a person’s competence to consider propositions rather than objects, to give ideas a hierarchical structure and to consider alternative possibilities in a combinatorial fashion, (Spencer.K.,1991, p.185-187).
  • WHOLENESS (unity; integration; tendency to one-ness; interconnectedness; simplicity; organization; structure; dichotomy-transcendence; order);PERFECTION (necessity; just-right-ness; just-so-ness; inevitability; suitability; justice; completeness; "oughtness");COMPLETION (ending; finality; justice; "it's finished"; fulfillment; finis and telos; destiny; fate);JUSTICE (fairness; orderliness; lawfulness; "oughtness");ALIVENESS (process; non-deadness; spontaneity; self-regulation; full-functioning);RICHNESS (differentiation, complexity; intricacy);SIMPLICITY (honesty; nakedness; essentiality; abstract, essential, skeletal structure);BEAUTY (rightness; form; aliveness; simplicity; richness; wholeness; perfection; completion; uniqueness; honesty);GOODNESS (rightness; desirability; oughtness; justice; benevolence; honesty);UNIQUENESS (idiosyncrasy; individuality; non-comparability; novelty);EFFORTLESSNESS (ease; lack of strain, striving or difficulty; grace; perfect, beautiful functioning);PLAYFULNESS (fun; joy; amusement; gaiety; humor; exuberance; effortlessness);TRUTH (honesty; reality; nakedness; simplicity; richness; oughtness; beauty; pure, clean and unadulterated; completeness; essentiality).SELF-SUFFICIENCY (autonomy; independence; not-needing-other-than-itself-in-order-to-be-itself; self-determining; environment-transcendence; separateness; living by its own laws).
  • Worship, Meditation, Pilgrimage, Sacrifice, Rites, and Healing. Example: impermanence (Buddhism); Original Sin (Christianity); interact with previous dimensions; some more strict or rigid than others: e.g., Catholicism more than Quakerism, Buddhism more than African religions, Theravada more than Zen. Stories: Christ’s life, death, and resurrection; Buddha’s life; Muhammad’s life; “founders” of religion. Secular examples: “history” instead of “myth”; history taught in schools is major generator of “national” identity; it enhances pride in our ancestors, our national heroes and heroines Examples: enlightenment of the Buddha, prophetic visions of Muhammad, conversion of Paul, etc. The Vision Quest: Zen, Native American classical religion, the idea of the “holy” (Otto)
  • Worship, Meditation, Pilgrimage, Sacrifice, Rites, and Healing. Example: impermanence (Buddhism); Original Sin (Christianity); interact with previous dimensions; some more strict or rigid than others: e.g., Catholicism more than Quakerism, Buddhism more than African religions, Theravada more than Zen. Stories: Christ’s life, death, and resurrection; Buddha’s life; Muhammad’s life; “founders” of religion. Secular examples: “history” instead of “myth”; history taught in schools is major generator of “national” identity; it enhances pride in our ancestors, our national heroes and heroines Examples: enlightenment of the Buddha, prophetic visions of Muhammad, conversion of Paul, etc. The Vision Quest: Zen, Native American classical religion, the idea of the “holy” (Otto)
  • Worship, Meditation, Pilgrimage, Sacrifice, Rites, and Healing. Example: impermanence (Buddhism); Original Sin (Christianity); interact with previous dimensions; some more strict or rigid than others: e.g., Catholicism more than Quakerism, Buddhism more than African religions, Theravada more than Zen. Stories: Christ’s life, death, and resurrection; Buddha’s life; Muhammad’s life; “founders” of religion. Secular examples: “history” instead of “myth”; history taught in schools is major generator of “national” identity; it enhances pride in our ancestors, our national heroes and heroines Examples: enlightenment of the Buddha, prophetic visions of Muhammad, conversion of Paul, etc. The Vision Quest: Zen, Native American classical religion, the idea of the “holy” (Otto) Torah, legal imperatives; Shari’a; Buddhism: four great virtues; Confucianism: morality: the ideal investment in human behavior. Religious specialists or priests: gurus, lawyers, pastors, rabbis, imams, shamans, etc.) Sacred sites of worship: chapels, cathedrals, temples, mosques, icons, books, pulpits, monasteries, etc.
  • Worship, Meditation, Pilgrimage, Sacrifice, Rites, and Healing. Example: impermanence (Buddhism); Original Sin (Christianity); interact with previous dimensions; some more strict or rigid than others: e.g., Catholicism more than Quakerism, Buddhism more than African religions, Theravada more than Zen. Stories: Christ’s life, death, and resurrection; Buddha’s life; Muhammad’s life; “founders” of religion. Secular examples: “history” instead of “myth”; history taught in schools is major generator of “national” identity; it enhances pride in our ancestors, our national heroes and heroines Examples: enlightenment of the Buddha, prophetic visions of Muhammad, conversion of Paul, etc. The Vision Quest: Zen, Native American classical religion, the idea of the “holy” (Otto) Torah, legal imperatives; Shari’a; Buddhism: four great virtues; Confucianism: morality: the ideal investment in human behavior. Religious specialists or priests: gurus, lawyers, pastors, rabbis, imams, shamans, etc.) Sacred sites of worship: chapels, cathedrals, temples, mosques, icons, books, pulpits, monasteries, etc.
  • Worship, Meditation, Pilgrimage, Sacrifice, Rites, and Healing. Example: impermanence (Buddhism); Original Sin (Christianity); interact with previous dimensions; some more strict or rigid than others: e.g., Catholicism more than Quakerism, Buddhism more than African religions, Theravada more than Zen. Stories: Christ’s life, death, and resurrection; Buddha’s life; Muhammad’s life; “founders” of religion. Secular examples: “history” instead of “myth”; history taught in schools is major generator of “national” identity; it enhances pride in our ancestors, our national heroes and heroines Examples: enlightenment of the Buddha, prophetic visions of Muhammad, conversion of Paul, etc. The Vision Quest: Zen, Native American classical religion, the idea of the “holy” (Otto) Torah, legal imperatives; Shari’a; Buddhism: four great virtues; Confucianism: morality: the ideal investment in human behavior. Religious specialists or priests: gurus, lawyers, pastors, rabbis, imams, shamans, etc.) Sacred sites of worship: chapels, cathedrals, temples, mosques, icons, books, pulpits, monasteries, etc.
  • Worship, Meditation, Pilgrimage, Sacrifice, Rites, and Healing. Example: impermanence (Buddhism); Original Sin (Christianity); interact with previous dimensions; some more strict or rigid than others: e.g., Catholicism more than Quakerism, Buddhism more than African religions, Theravada more than Zen. Stories: Christ’s life, death, and resurrection; Buddha’s life; Muhammad’s life; “founders” of religion. Secular examples: “history” instead of “myth”; history taught in schools is major generator of “national” identity; it enhances pride in our ancestors, our national heroes and heroines Examples: enlightenment of the Buddha, prophetic visions of Muhammad, conversion of Paul, etc. The Vision Quest: Zen, Native American classical religion, the idea of the “holy” (Otto) Torah, legal imperatives; Shari’a; Buddhism: four great virtues; Confucianism: morality: the ideal investment in human behavior. Religious specialists or priests: gurus, lawyers, pastors, rabbis, imams, shamans, etc.) Sacred sites of worship: chapels, cathedrals, temples, mosques, icons, books, pulpits, monasteries, etc. 
 Ethnic  sculpture and fugurines of the Jhakri culture. Jhakris in healing Ritual of sick person. Shamans/Jhakris get into a trace by singing, dancing, taking entheogens, meditating and drumming.

  • Worship, Meditation, Pilgrimage, Sacrifice, Rites, and Healing. Example: impermanence (Buddhism); Original Sin (Christianity); interact with previous dimensions; some more strict or rigid than others: e.g., Catholicism more than Quakerism, Buddhism more than African religions, Theravada more than Zen. Stories: Christ’s life, death, and resurrection; Buddha’s life; Muhammad’s life; “founders” of religion. Secular examples: “history” instead of “myth”; history taught in schools is major generator of “national” identity; it enhances pride in our ancestors, our national heroes and heroines Examples: enlightenment of the Buddha, prophetic visions of Muhammad, conversion of Paul, etc. The Vision Quest: Zen, Native American classical religion, the idea of the “holy” (Otto) Torah, legal imperatives; Shari’a; Buddhism: four great virtues; Confucianism: morality: the ideal investment in human behavior. Religious specialists or priests: gurus, lawyers, pastors, rabbis, imams, shamans, etc.) Sacred sites of worship: chapels, cathedrals, temples, mosques, icons, books, pulpits, monasteries, etc.
  • Worship, Meditation, Pilgrimage, Sacrifice, Rites, and Healing. Example: impermanence (Buddhism); Original Sin (Christianity); interact with previous dimensions; some more strict or rigid than others: e.g., Catholicism more than Quakerism, Buddhism more than African religions, Theravada more than Zen. Stories: Christ’s life, death, and resurrection; Buddha’s life; Muhammad’s life; “founders” of religion. Secular examples: “history” instead of “myth”; history taught in schools is major generator of “national” identity; it enhances pride in our ancestors, our national heroes and heroines Examples: enlightenment of the Buddha, prophetic visions of Muhammad, conversion of Paul, etc. The Vision Quest: Zen, Native American classical religion, the idea of the “holy” (Otto) Torah, legal imperatives; Shari’a; Buddhism: four great virtues; Confucianism: morality: the ideal investment in human behavior. Religious specialists or priests: gurus, lawyers, pastors, rabbis, imams, shamans, etc.) Sacred sites of worship: chapels, cathedrals, temples, mosques, icons, books, pulpits, monasteries, etc.
  • Worship, Meditation, Pilgrimage, Sacrifice, Rites, and Healing. Example: impermanence (Buddhism); Original Sin (Christianity); interact with previous dimensions; some more strict or rigid than others: e.g., Catholicism more than Quakerism, Buddhism more than African religions, Theravada more than Zen. Stories: Christ’s life, death, and resurrection; Buddha’s life; Muhammad’s life; “founders” of religion. Secular examples: “history” instead of “myth”; history taught in schools is major generator of “national” identity; it enhances pride in our ancestors, our national heroes and heroines Examples: enlightenment of the Buddha, prophetic visions of Muhammad, conversion of Paul, etc. The Vision Quest: Zen, Native American classical religion, the idea of the “holy” (Otto) Torah, legal imperatives; Shari’a; Buddhism: four great virtues; Confucianism: morality: the ideal investment in human behavior. Religious specialists or priests: gurus, lawyers, pastors, rabbis, imams, shamans, etc.) Sacred sites of worship: chapels, cathedrals, temples, mosques, icons, books, pulpits, monasteries, etc.
  • Worship, Meditation, Pilgrimage, Sacrifice, Rites, and Healing. Example: impermanence (Buddhism); Original Sin (Christianity); interact with previous dimensions; some more strict or rigid than others: e.g., Catholicism more than Quakerism, Buddhism more than African religions, Theravada more than Zen. Stories: Christ’s life, death, and resurrection; Buddha’s life; Muhammad’s life; “founders” of religion. Secular examples: “history” instead of “myth”; history taught in schools is major generator of “national” identity; it enhances pride in our ancestors, our national heroes and heroines Examples: enlightenment of the Buddha, prophetic visions of Muhammad, conversion of Paul, etc. The Vision Quest: Zen, Native American classical religion, the idea of the “holy” (Otto)
  • Worship, Meditation, Pilgrimage, Sacrifice, Rites, and Healing. Example: impermanence (Buddhism); Original Sin (Christianity); interact with previous dimensions; some more strict or rigid than others: e.g., Catholicism more than Quakerism, Buddhism more than African religions, Theravada more than Zen. Stories: Christ’s life, death, and resurrection; Buddha’s life; Muhammad’s life; “founders” of religion. Secular examples: “history” instead of “myth”; history taught in schools is major generator of “national” identity; it enhances pride in our ancestors, our national heroes and heroines Examples: enlightenment of the Buddha, prophetic visions of Muhammad, conversion of Paul, etc. The Vision Quest: Zen, Native American classical religion, the idea of the “holy” (Otto)

HUM40-Podcast-F11-Week1 HUM40-Podcast-F11-Week1 Presentation Transcript

  • Welcome to Humanities 40: Religions of the World Dr. Dylan Eret
  • This course meets all of the general education requirements for: 1. A.A. in Liberal Arts with emphasis in Arts and Humanities 2. CSU, area C2 3. IGETC, area 3 course articulation
  • CENTRAL WEBSITE http://humanities40.wordpress.com CENTRAL WEBSITE
  • SECRET PASSWORD holy Enter this password to access the FREE online flexbook, slides, study guides, etc.
  • ALL INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND HERE.
  • Week 1.1 (Opening Class)
    • Welcome!
    • My story. Who am I?
    • Name game & discussion in pairs.
    • The Big Picture : Why study religion?
    • The Nitty Gritty : Syllabus & Expectations
    • Guiding frameworks and disputed definitions.
  • I WILL NOT ADD ANY STUDENTS UNLESS OTHER STUDENTS DROP (OR DO NOT SHOW UP THIS WEEK).
  • YOU WILL BE DROPPED FROM THE COURSE IF YOU ARE ABSENT THIS WEEK.
  • POSSIBLE ADDS: WAITING LIST STUDENTS ONLY.
  • YOU MIGHT RECEIVE A PERMISSION NUMBER ON THE CONDITION THAT SOMEONE IS DROPPED AND YOU ARE NEAR THE TOP OF THE WAITING LIST .
  • WAITING LIST ADDS (DEPENDS ON CLASS) LIKELY: STUDENTS 1-3 NOT SO LIKELY: STUDENTS 4-7 UNLIKELY: STUDENTS 8-13
  • MY STORY
  • NAME GAME
  • Building Trust: Truth/Lie Game
    • Write down two truths and one lie about yourself.
    • Share this with your group and have them guess which statement is a lie.
  • Example: Truth/Lie Game
    • I have a cat named Spiderman.
    • I come from a wealthy family.
    • I am missing a spleen.
  • Example: Truth/Lie Game
    • I have a cat named Spiderman.
    • I come from a wealthy family.***(lie)
    • I am missing a spleen.
  • More Questions (After Name Game) Discuss the following questions with your group partner: 1. What is “religion”? 2. Why is religion important to study?
  • THE BIG PICTURE: WHY STUDY RELIGION? (Student Responses)
  • understanding different beliefs and values among diverse communities
  • effective communication
  • moral codes
  • tradition
  • history
  • culture
  • How should we live?
  • not rush to judgment
  • a framework for understanding the personal vs. community vs. the greater universe.
  • to look at yourself where you are
  • where we come from as a whole
  • how we got here
  • where we’re going
  • hope for the future
  • purpose
  • connection beyond just our physical presence
  • religion as a form of (sacred) storytelling
  • What is truth?
  • based on the spirituality of the individual
  • our souls
  • Where am I supposed to be at?
  • What am I supposed to do?
  • understanding the body
  • deeply personal
  • used and “good” and “bad” ways
  • religion as a form of social control
  • Politicians use religion to persuade populations and maintain order.
  • large role in history and politics
  • Religion goes beyond “texts.”
  • REQUIRED TEXT
  • COURSE TOPICS Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Yoruba Religions, New Religious Movements
  • BIG QUESTIONS Why are we here? What happens when we die? How should we live our lives? What is the self? Who (or what) is God?
  • READINGS
  • PODCAST
  • VERNACULAR RELIGION PROJECT
  • QUIZZES
  • FINAL PORTFOLIO
  • EMAIL BLOGS [email_address] AND [email_address] Use this email to send weekly blogs.
  • RECOMMENDED PREPARATION: ENGLISH 1A OR COMPOSITION
  • WHAT YOU NEED
    • Computer access
    • Two packs of index cards (white).
    • A three-ring binder (or portfolio).
    • Paper
  • WEEKLY RITUAL READ, WATCH, OR LISTEN TO MULTIMEDIA FLEXBOOK OR COURSE READER, AND COMPOSE A SHORT JOURNAL ENTRY OR ONLINE BLOG
  • WEEKLY BLOGS 1 Point, 1 Question, 100 words (minimum)
  • WEEKLY BLOGS 3 BLOGS DUE EVERY 6 WEEKS, 9 TOTAL BLOGS COUNTED TOTAL (EXTRA POINTS FOR TIMELINESS, QUALITY, COMMENTS, IMAGES, VIDEOS, LINKS)
  • WEEKLY BLOGS READ WEEKLY, GRADED CUMULATIVELY AT THE END OF THE SEMESTER (POINTS ASSIGNED FOR TIMELINESS, INSIGHT, ANALYTICAL RIGOR)
  • WEEKLY BLOGS USE ALIAS: (For example, “Dylan Eret” in today’s section would be “DYERB1”) (BLOG 1 DUE: FRI, AUG 26, 10:00am)
  • GRADES/ASSESSMENT http://engrade.com
  • ATTENDANCE POLICY
  • DROP OR WITHDRAWAL AFTER FOUR ABSENCES
  • YOU MUST LET ME KNOW BEFORE CLASS IF YOU NEED TO BE ABSENT.
  • GUIDING FRAMEWORKS
  • the basic structure underlying a system, concept, or text framework
  • 1. Religion is a cultural system. 2. Religion is best understood as a vernacular practice (as lived). Two propositions
  • BEFORE NEXT CLASS READ: Stephen Prothero, “Introduction” WATCH: Stephen Prothero on The Colbert Report
  • THE SACRED
  • Rediscovering the Sacred
    • What really matters to us?
    • What practices are so important to us that we cannot live without them?
    • What is sacred ?
  • Opening Exercise
    • How would you define “religion” ?
  • Opening Exercise
    • Why do “religions” exist?
    • religion (etymology):
    • ORIGIN Middle English (originally in the sense [life under monastic vows] ): from Old French, or from Latin religio(n-) ‘obligation, bond, reverence,’ perhaps based on Latin religare
    • ‘ to bind.’
  • The “Reality” of Religion sacred profane gray area religion “ reality”
    • religion (etymology):
    • ORIGIN Middle English (originally in the sense [life under monastic vows] ): from Old French, or from Latin religio(n-) ‘obligation, bond, reverence,’ perhaps based on Latin religare
    • ‘ to bind.’
  • Definitions of Religion
    • sacred vs. profane
      • profane: ordinary elements of life
      • sacred: extraordinary elements of life; revered and awed
    • religion as existential questioning
      • immortality; purpose in life
    • religion as supernature
      • beliefs about things outside of nature
    • Q: What is included or excluded in each
    • definition?
    • The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912)
    • He identified the primary force of religion as the sacred.
    EMILE DURKHEIM: SOCIOLOGIST
    • The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912)
    • The profane is made of “ordinary” events and experiences.
    EMILE DURKHEIM: SOCIOLOGIST
    • The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912)
    • The sacred is set apart from and forbidden.
    EMILE DURKHEIM: SOCIOLOGIST
    • The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912)
    • Religion is the expression of cohesion in human societies.
    EMILE DURKHEIM: SOCIOLOGIST
        • Collective Effervescence :
        • energy generated by gathering in groups
    EMILE DURKHEIM: SOCIOLOGIST
        • “ A society holds up symbols (or totems ) so that it can worship itself and propagate its value system.”
        • - Charles Kimball
    EMILE DURKHEIM: SOCIOLOGIST
    • Religious experience is characterized by human awareness of the sacred.
    MIRCEA ELIADE The Sacred and the Profane (1959)
    • Religious experiences are made of hierophanies (manifestions of the sacred) and theophanies (manifestations of God).
    MIRCEA ELIADE The Sacred and the Profane (1959)
  • Defining Religion
    • Substantive or essentialist definitions characterize religion by some basic essence which is common to all religious systems, but not to any non-religious systems. They say what religion is:
    “ Belief in invisible superhuman power together with feelings and practices that flow from such a belief.”
  • Defining Religion
    • Functionalist definitions focus on the way religion operates or functions in human life. They say what religion does :
    “ A set of beliefs and practices which serve to subordinate us to something superior or holy in order to justify the events that control our lives”
  • Definition
    • r eligion :
    • a set of symbolic forms and acts that relate man to the ultimate conditions of his existence
    • - Robert Bellah
  • Definition
    • r eligion :
    • (1) a system of symbols which acts to (2) establish powerful, pervasive, and long lasting moods and motivations in [people] by (3) formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and (4) clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality that the moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic. – Clifford Geertz
  • Alfred Schutz, “On Multiple Realties” (1945)
    • finite provinces of meaning :
    • a turning away of attention from the “ paramount reality” of everyday life such as the world of work and striving: e.g., being awake, absorbed, theorizing, dream, fantasy, etc.
  • Religious Analogues
    • Argument: Religious “realities” or experiences emerge from (or are a response to) the attitudes one takes on during everyday life activities.
    • Argument: The converse also holds: Everyday life, or ordinary events, when repeated in a meaningful manner, can resemble or become “religious” expressions of human experience.
  • Jerome Bruner
    • Model of Human Development :
  • Three Modes of Representation
    • Enactive : 0-18 months old
    • Iconic : 18 months - 6 years old
    • Symbolic : 6-18 years old
  • Jerome Bruner
    • Enactive : action-based representations
    • Iconic : image-based representations
    • Symbolic : language-based representations
  • Thought Processes
    • Enactive : learning by doing, motor skills, physical actions (e.g., tying a knot)
    • Iconic : thinking is based on mental images (iconic) based on different senses (e.g., creating shapes, images, patterns)
    • Symbolic : information is stored through language and other objects of representation (e.g., music, mathematics, poetics, art)
  • Religious Analogues
    • Argument: Religious experiences are forms of symbolic representation that attempt to meet the needs of individuals and groups during their psychosocial development.
    • In other words, religious experiences address the critical changes and transitions that occur during the human life-cycle through various forms of representation (body/ritual, image/art, story/order).
  • Mental/Bodily Processes
    • Enactive : body/ritual
    • Iconic : art/image/play
    • Symbolic : story/order
  • Religious Analogues
    • Enactive : ritual, liturgy, sequential movement (kneeling, sitting, standing, spinning, meditating (e.g., lotus posture), prostration, dancing, rhythmic movement, eating, drinking, fasting), “unitive” experiences (self-other merging)
  • Religious Analogues
    • Iconic : centered design, patterns, mandalas, ordered coherence, images;
    • self-other differentiation
  • Religious Analogues
    • 3. Symbolic : language, writing, music, mathematics, architecture, poetry, oratory, theology, law, moral codes, narrative, beliefs and values; self-development, integration with religious community, and differentiating self at the same time
  • Abraham Maslow
    • Deficiency-cognition : food, water, security, sex, sleep, etc. (a “deficiency” of these basic needs leads to the urge to eliminate them)
    • 2. Being-cognition : wholeness, perfection, completion, justice, aliveness, richness, simplicity, beauty, goodness, uniqueness, effortlessness, playfulness, truth, self-sufficiency (the state of “being” whole: the need to experience life “more fully” with purpose and meaning)
  • MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
  • World Religions
    • Christianity
    • Hinduism
    • Islam
    • Buddhism
    • Judaism
    • Size and influence on society
  • Seven Dimensions of the Sacred (Ninian Smart)
  • sacred: regarded with great respect or reverence by an individual or group
  • sacred: induces experiences of awe and wonder
  • wonder: a feeling of surprise mingled with admiration, caused by something beautiful, unexpected, unfamiliar, or inexplicable
    • SEVEN DIMENSION OF THE SACRED
    • (1) Ritual or Practical
    • (2) Doctrinal or Philosophical
    • (3) Mythic or Narrative
    • (4) Experiential or Emotional
    • (5) Ethical or Legal
    • (6) Organizational or Social
    • (7) Artistic or Material
    • Ritual or Practical
    Worship, meditation, pilgrimage, sacrifice rites, healing
    • Doctrinal or Philosophical
    fundamental beliefs and practices: e.g., impermanence, sin, nirvana, heaven, hell, etc.
    • belief:
    • a conviction or feeling that something is real or true
    • (2) intellectual assent to an idea
    • (3) mental acceptance of a proposition, statement, or fact as true, on the grounds of authority or evidence
    • Mythic or Narrative
    Stories, histories, traditions, “founding” myths, life, death, and resurrection, heroes and villains
    • Experiential or Emotional
    Enlightenment, redemption, visions, healing, holiness, health, conversion, redemption, quest
    • Ethical or Legal
    Legal codes, ethics, morals, virtues, taboos
    • Organizational or Social
    Religious specialists or authorities: gurus, lawyers, shamans, doctors, pastors, rabbis, imam, teachers, therapists, politicians, coaches, etc.
    • Artistic or Material
    Religious Sites: Churches, Chapels, Monasteries, Temples, etc.
  • Seven Dimensions of the Sacred: Examples
    • CHRISITIANITY (Orthodox/Classical after Constantine)
    • Ritual or Practical : Mass, Liturgy, Eucharist; ineffability of the Divine Being through re-enactment
    • (2) Doctrinal or Philosophical : fused together motifs from Jewish tradition and neo-Platonism (Plotinus and followers in the 3 rd and 4 th centuries B.C.);
    • (3) Mythic or Narrative : Egyptian mythology, Old and New Testament, Genesis, The Flood, The Last Supper
    • (4) Experiential or Emotional : Monasticism; devotional ritual, chanting
    • (5) Ethical or Legal : Ten Commandments
    • (6) Organizational or Social : priests, pastors
    • (7) Artistic or Material : monasteries, icons, churches
    • AMERICAN NATIONALISM
    • Ritual or Practical: Union, rebellion against British
    • (2) Doctrinal or Philosophical: democracy
    • (3) Mythic or Narrative: flag, wars, ceremonies, sports
    • (4) Experiential or Emotional: patriotism
    • (5) Ethical or Legal: Puritan ideals, values, legal system, Constitution
    • (6) Organizational or Social: military
    • (7) Artistic or Material: monuments, memorials