Hum40 podcast-week12-judaism-online

1,014 views
922 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Spiritual, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,014
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
332
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • F. Judaism represents an ongoing but constantly changing saga of 4,000 years. Each period left its distinct mark; thus, although certain basic beliefs were fixed, new expressions were constantly being added—or taking the place of earlier ones. II. The biblical period spans a period of 1,400 years. A. It begins with the earliest roots of the patriarchal family of Israel and its intimate relationship with God. B. The Bible then records the stages leading to the emergence of the Israelites as a nation: their liberation from bondage; acceptance of a body of teaching (Torah), revealed to them through Moses; and finally, the establishment of a kingdom in the land promised to their patriarchs. C. Israelite history and religion both begin with the same figure: the patriarch Abraham. D. Abraham is not only the progenitor of the Israelite people but also the father of its faith. He is described in the Bible as “having faith in God” (Gen. 15:6) and would later be perceived as the first human both to recognize God’s existence and to remove himself from the pervasive idolatrous culture of his day. E. Abraham’s faith is rewarded by a series of covenants with God. F. Abraham’s faith is later tested by God’s commandment and Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son Isaac. 1. The story became a defining moment for Jews throughout history, whose willingness to accept all sorts of pain and adversity while remaining steadfast in their faith would repeatedly be compared to that of their patriarch Abraham. 2. In later Jewish liturgy, God is repeatedly asked to remember Abraham’s total commitment as justification for forgiving his seed’s frequent lapses.
  • F. Judaism represents an ongoing but constantly changing saga of 4,000 years. Each period left its distinct mark; thus, although certain basic beliefs were fixed, new expressions were constantly being added—or taking the place of earlier ones. II. The biblical period spans a period of 1,400 years. A. It begins with the earliest roots of the patriarchal family of Israel and its intimate relationship with God. B. The Bible then records the stages leading to the emergence of the Israelites as a nation: their liberation from bondage; acceptance of a body of teaching (Torah), revealed to them through Moses; and finally, the establishment of a kingdom in the land promised to their patriarchs. C. Israelite history and religion both begin with the same figure: the patriarch Abraham. D. Abraham is not only the progenitor of the Israelite people but also the father of its faith. He is described in the Bible as “having faith in God” (Gen. 15:6) and would later be perceived as the first human both to recognize God’s existence and to remove himself from the pervasive idolatrous culture of his day. E. Abraham’s faith is rewarded by a series of covenants with God. F. Abraham’s faith is later tested by God’s commandment and Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son Isaac. 1. The story became a defining moment for Jews throughout history, whose willingness to accept all sorts of pain and adversity while remaining steadfast in their faith would repeatedly be compared to that of their patriarch Abraham. 2. In later Jewish liturgy, God is repeatedly asked to remember Abraham’s total commitment as justification for forgiving his seed’s frequent lapses.
  • F. Judaism represents an ongoing but constantly changing saga of 4,000 years. Each period left its distinct mark; thus, although certain basic beliefs were fixed, new expressions were constantly being added—or taking the place of earlier ones. II. The biblical period spans a period of 1,400 years. A. It begins with the earliest roots of the patriarchal family of Israel and its intimate relationship with God. B. The Bible then records the stages leading to the emergence of the Israelites as a nation: their liberation from bondage; acceptance of a body of teaching (Torah), revealed to them through Moses; and finally, the establishment of a kingdom in the land promised to their patriarchs. C. Israelite history and religion both begin with the same figure: the patriarch Abraham. D. Abraham is not only the progenitor of the Israelite people but also the father of its faith. He is described in the Bible as “having faith in God” (Gen. 15:6) and would later be perceived as the first human both to recognize God’s existence and to remove himself from the pervasive idolatrous culture of his day. E. Abraham’s faith is rewarded by a series of covenants with God. F. Abraham’s faith is later tested by God’s commandment and Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son Isaac. 1. The story became a defining moment for Jews throughout history, whose willingness to accept all sorts of pain and adversity while remaining steadfast in their faith would repeatedly be compared to that of their patriarch Abraham. 2. In later Jewish liturgy, God is repeatedly asked to remember Abraham’s total commitment as justification for forgiving his seed’s frequent lapses.
  • Christianity and Islam are faiths, or “systems of beliefs,” that embrace diverse communities and ethnic groups throughout the world. Although Judaism grandson of Abraham, the biblical progenitors of “the People of Israel.” Israel was the subsequent name given to Jacob in the biblical book of Genesis. B. With the establishment of an Israelite kingdom, the monarchy that would rule over it for approximately four centuries was founded by King David, a descendant of the tribe of Judah. The kingdom would ultimately go by the name of Judah; thus, the name took on a political, as well as geographical, significance. C. Jews (or Judaeans) were, in the first instance, those people either living in the land of that name or whose roots were in that land, even if their ancestors had chosen to live elsewhere or had been forcibly removed from it in the context of some military conquest. D. It was only in the Hellenistic period (2nd century B.C.E.) that the word Judaism (or Ioudaismos in Greek) appeared for the first time, as the designation of a culture, or “way of life,” maintained by those people linked to the land of “Judaea.” E. The term Judaism appears for the first time in the Second Book of Maccabees (2:21; 14:38), a work written by a Jew living in a Greek-speaking environment and describing the clash between the Jews of Judaea and the Hellenistic rulers of that territory, the Syrian Seleucid monarchy and its king, Antiocus IV Epiphanes (175–162 B.C.E.). That same book also contains the earliest use of the term Hellenism.
  • Christianity and Islam are faiths, or “systems of beliefs,” that embrace diverse communities and ethnic groups throughout the world. Although Judaism grandson of Abraham, the biblical progenitors of “the People of Israel.” Israel was the subsequent name given to Jacob in the biblical book of Genesis. B. With the establishment of an Israelite kingdom, the monarchy that would rule over it for approximately four centuries was founded by King David, a descendant of the tribe of Judah. The kingdom would ultimately go by the name of Judah; thus, the name took on a political, as well as geographical, significance. C. Jews (or Judaeans) were, in the first instance, those people either living in the land of that name or whose roots were in that land, even if their ancestors had chosen to live elsewhere or had been forcibly removed from it in the context of some military conquest. D. It was only in the Hellenistic period (2nd century B.C.E.) that the word Judaism (or Ioudaismos in Greek) appeared for the first time, as the designation of a culture, or “way of life,” maintained by those people linked to the land of “Judaea.” E. The term Judaism appears for the first time in the Second Book of Maccabees (2:21; 14:38), a work written by a Jew living in a Greek-speaking environment and describing the clash between the Jews of Judaea and the Hellenistic rulers of that territory, the Syrian Seleucid monarchy and its king, Antiocus IV Epiphanes (175–162 B.C.E.). That same book also contains the earliest use of the term Hellenism.
  • or Jews, there is a collective past that contributes enormously to their sense of unity and without which Judaism cannot be understood. A. The collective memory in Judaism is not merely a sequence of events that once transpired, but a story to be studied, transmitted, and in certain cases, even re-lived. Past and present come together in much of Judaism’s self-image, resulting in a variety of practical manifestations. B. The liberation, or exodus, of the Israelites from Egypt is not only discussed but, in a sense, re-lived at the yearly festival of Passover. C. Rabbinic tradition proclaims that the souls of all the future adherents to Judaism were actually present at the revelation of God at Mount Sinai. D. Jews mourn the destruction of the two Temples in Jerusalem to this day, with a series of fast days commemorating the various events connected to these ancient watersheds in Jewish religious tradition. E. Jews at prayer frequently turn to the past as part of their supplications regarding the present (or the future). Divine promises to the biblical patriarchs, or examples of their perfect faith, serve as arguments in petitioning God to have pity on their descendants in the present. F. Judaism represents an ongoing but constantly changing saga of 4,000 years. Each period left its distinct mark; thus, although certain basic beliefs were fixed, new expressions were constantly being added—or taking the place of earlier ones. II. The biblical period spans a period of 1,400 years. A. It begins with the earliest roots of the patriarchal family of Israel and its intimate relationship with God. B. The Bible then records the stages leading to the emergence of the Israelites as a nation: their liberation from bondage; acceptance of a
  • or Jews, there is a collective past that contributes enormously to their sense of unity and without which Judaism cannot be understood. A. The collective memory in Judaism is not merely a sequence of events that once transpired, but a story to be studied, transmitted, and in certain cases, even re-lived. Past and present come together in much of Judaism’s self-image, resulting in a variety of practical manifestations. B. The liberation, or exodus, of the Israelites from Egypt is not only discussed but, in a sense, re-lived at the yearly festival of Passover. C. Rabbinic tradition proclaims that the souls of all the future adherents to Judaism were actually present at the revelation of God at Mount Sinai. D. Jews mourn the destruction of the two Temples in Jerusalem to this day, with a series of fast days commemorating the various events connected to these ancient watersheds in Jewish religious tradition. E. Jews at prayer frequently turn to the past as part of their supplications regarding the present (or the future). Divine promises to the biblical patriarchs, or examples of their perfect faith, serve as arguments in petitioning God to have pity on their descendants in the present. F. Judaism represents an ongoing but constantly changing saga of 4,000 years. Each period left its distinct mark; thus, although certain basic beliefs were fixed, new expressions were constantly being added—or taking the place of earlier ones. II. The biblical period spans a period of 1,400 years. A. It begins with the earliest roots of the patriarchal family of Israel and its intimate relationship with God. B. The Bible then records the stages leading to the emergence of the Israelites as a nation: their liberation from bondage; acceptance of a
  • F. Judaism represents an ongoing but constantly changing saga of 4,000 years. Each period left its distinct mark; thus, although certain basic beliefs were fixed, new expressions were constantly being added—or taking the place of earlier ones. II. The biblical period spans a period of 1,400 years. A. It begins with the earliest roots of the patriarchal family of Israel and its intimate relationship with God. B. The Bible then records the stages leading to the emergence of the Israelites as a nation: their liberation from bondage; acceptance of a body of teaching (Torah), revealed to them through Moses; and finally, the establishment of a kingdom in the land promised to their patriarchs. C. Israelite history and religion both begin with the same figure: the patriarch Abraham. D. Abraham is not only the progenitor of the Israelite people but also the father of its faith. He is described in the Bible as “having faith in God” (Gen. 15:6) and would later be perceived as the first human both to recognize God’s existence and to remove himself from the pervasive idolatrous culture of his day. E. Abraham’s faith is rewarded by a series of covenants with God. F. Abraham’s faith is later tested by God’s commandment and Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son Isaac. 1. The story became a defining moment for Jews throughout history, whose willingness to accept all sorts of pain and adversity while remaining steadfast in their faith would repeatedly be compared to that of their patriarch Abraham. 2. In later Jewish liturgy, God is repeatedly asked to remember Abraham’s total commitment as justification for forgiving his seed’s frequent lapses.
  • F. Judaism represents an ongoing but constantly changing saga of 4,000 years. Each period left its distinct mark; thus, although certain basic beliefs were fixed, new expressions were constantly being added—or taking the place of earlier ones. II. The biblical period spans a period of 1,400 years. A. It begins with the earliest roots of the patriarchal family of Israel and its intimate relationship with God. B. The Bible then records the stages leading to the emergence of the Israelites as a nation: their liberation from bondage; acceptance of a body of teaching (Torah), revealed to them through Moses; and finally, the establishment of a kingdom in the land promised to their patriarchs. C. Israelite history and religion both begin with the same figure: the patriarch Abraham. D. Abraham is not only the progenitor of the Israelite people but also the father of its faith. He is described in the Bible as “having faith in God” (Gen. 15:6) and would later be perceived as the first human both to recognize God’s existence and to remove himself from the pervasive idolatrous culture of his day. E. Abraham’s faith is rewarded by a series of covenants with God. F. Abraham’s faith is later tested by God’s commandment and Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son Isaac. 1. The story became a defining moment for Jews throughout history, whose willingness to accept all sorts of pain and adversity while remaining steadfast in their faith would repeatedly be compared to that of their patriarch Abraham. 2. In later Jewish liturgy, God is repeatedly asked to remember Abraham’s total commitment as justification for forgiving his seed’s frequent lapses.
  • F. Judaism represents an ongoing but constantly changing saga of 4,000 years. Each period left its distinct mark; thus, although certain basic beliefs were fixed, new expressions were constantly being added—or taking the place of earlier ones. II. The biblical period spans a period of 1,400 years. A. It begins with the earliest roots of the patriarchal family of Israel and its intimate relationship with God. B. The Bible then records the stages leading to the emergence of the Israelites as a nation: their liberation from bondage; acceptance of a body of teaching (Torah), revealed to them through Moses; and finally, the establishment of a kingdom in the land promised to their patriarchs. C. Israelite history and religion both begin with the same figure: the patriarch Abraham. D. Abraham is not only the progenitor of the Israelite people but also the father of its faith. He is described in the Bible as “having faith in God” (Gen. 15:6) and would later be perceived as the first human both to recognize God’s existence and to remove himself from the pervasive idolatrous culture of his day. E. Abraham’s faith is rewarded by a series of covenants with God. F. Abraham’s faith is later tested by God’s commandment and Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son Isaac. 1. The story became a defining moment for Jews throughout history, whose willingness to accept all sorts of pain and adversity while remaining steadfast in their faith would repeatedly be compared to that of their patriarch Abraham. 2. In later Jewish liturgy, God is repeatedly asked to remember Abraham’s total commitment as justification for forgiving his seed’s frequent lapses.
  • F. Judaism represents an ongoing but constantly changing saga of 4,000 years. Each period left its distinct mark; thus, although certain basic beliefs were fixed, new expressions were constantly being added—or taking the place of earlier ones. II. The biblical period spans a period of 1,400 years. A. It begins with the earliest roots of the patriarchal family of Israel and its intimate relationship with God. B. The Bible then records the stages leading to the emergence of the Israelites as a nation: their liberation from bondage; acceptance of a body of teaching (Torah), revealed to them through Moses; and finally, the establishment of a kingdom in the land promised to their patriarchs. C. Israelite history and religion both begin with the same figure: the patriarch Abraham. D. Abraham is not only the progenitor of the Israelite people but also the father of its faith. He is described in the Bible as “having faith in God” (Gen. 15:6) and would later be perceived as the first human both to recognize God’s existence and to remove himself from the pervasive idolatrous culture of his day. E. Abraham’s faith is rewarded by a series of covenants with God. F. Abraham’s faith is later tested by God’s commandment and Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son Isaac. 1. The story became a defining moment for Jews throughout history, whose willingness to accept all sorts of pain and adversity while remaining steadfast in their faith would repeatedly be compared to that of their patriarch Abraham. 2. In later Jewish liturgy, God is repeatedly asked to remember Abraham’s total commitment as justification for forgiving his seed’s frequent lapses.
  • F. Judaism represents an ongoing but constantly changing saga of 4,000 years. Each period left its distinct mark; thus, although certain basic beliefs were fixed, new expressions were constantly being added—or taking the place of earlier ones. II. The biblical period spans a period of 1,400 years. A. It begins with the earliest roots of the patriarchal family of Israel and its intimate relationship with God. B. The Bible then records the stages leading to the emergence of the Israelites as a nation: their liberation from bondage; acceptance of a body of teaching (Torah), revealed to them through Moses; and finally, the establishment of a kingdom in the land promised to their patriarchs. C. Israelite history and religion both begin with the same figure: the patriarch Abraham. D. Abraham is not only the progenitor of the Israelite people but also the father of its faith. He is described in the Bible as “having faith in God” (Gen. 15:6) and would later be perceived as the first human both to recognize God’s existence and to remove himself from the pervasive idolatrous culture of his day. E. Abraham’s faith is rewarded by a series of covenants with God. F. Abraham’s faith is later tested by God’s commandment and Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son Isaac. 1. The story became a defining moment for Jews throughout history, whose willingness to accept all sorts of pain and adversity while remaining steadfast in their faith would repeatedly be compared to that of their patriarch Abraham. 2. In later Jewish liturgy, God is repeatedly asked to remember Abraham’s total commitment as justification for forgiving his seed’s frequent lapses.
  • F. Judaism represents an ongoing but constantly changing saga of 4,000 years. Each period left its distinct mark; thus, although certain basic beliefs were fixed, new expressions were constantly being added—or taking the place of earlier ones. II. The biblical period spans a period of 1,400 years. A. It begins with the earliest roots of the patriarchal family of Israel and its intimate relationship with God. B. The Bible then records the stages leading to the emergence of the Israelites as a nation: their liberation from bondage; acceptance of a body of teaching (Torah), revealed to them through Moses; and finally, the establishment of a kingdom in the land promised to their patriarchs. C. Israelite history and religion both begin with the same figure: the patriarch Abraham. D. Abraham is not only the progenitor of the Israelite people but also the father of its faith. He is described in the Bible as “having faith in God” (Gen. 15:6) and would later be perceived as the first human both to recognize God’s existence and to remove himself from the pervasive idolatrous culture of his day. E. Abraham’s faith is rewarded by a series of covenants with God. F. Abraham’s faith is later tested by God’s commandment and Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son Isaac. 1. The story became a defining moment for Jews throughout history, whose willingness to accept all sorts of pain and adversity while remaining steadfast in their faith would repeatedly be compared to that of their patriarch Abraham. 2. In later Jewish liturgy, God is repeatedly asked to remember Abraham’s total commitment as justification for forgiving his seed’s frequent lapses.
  • F. Judaism represents an ongoing but constantly changing saga of 4,000 years. Each period left its distinct mark; thus, although certain basic beliefs were fixed, new expressions were constantly being added—or taking the place of earlier ones. II. The biblical period spans a period of 1,400 years. A. It begins with the earliest roots of the patriarchal family of Israel and its intimate relationship with God. B. The Bible then records the stages leading to the emergence of the Israelites as a nation: their liberation from bondage; acceptance of a body of teaching (Torah), revealed to them through Moses; and finally, the establishment of a kingdom in the land promised to their patriarchs. C. Israelite history and religion both begin with the same figure: the patriarch Abraham. D. Abraham is not only the progenitor of the Israelite people but also the father of its faith. He is described in the Bible as “having faith in God” (Gen. 15:6) and would later be perceived as the first human both to recognize God’s existence and to remove himself from the pervasive idolatrous culture of his day. E. Abraham’s faith is rewarded by a series of covenants with God. F. Abraham’s faith is later tested by God’s commandment and Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son Isaac. 1. The story became a defining moment for Jews throughout history, whose willingness to accept all sorts of pain and adversity while remaining steadfast in their faith would repeatedly be compared to that of their patriarch Abraham. 2. In later Jewish liturgy, God is repeatedly asked to remember Abraham’s total commitment as justification for forgiving his seed’s frequent lapses.
  • F. Judaism represents an ongoing but constantly changing saga of 4,000 years. Each period left its distinct mark; thus, although certain basic beliefs were fixed, new expressions were constantly being added—or taking the place of earlier ones. II. The biblical period spans a period of 1,400 years. A. It begins with the earliest roots of the patriarchal family of Israel and its intimate relationship with God. B. The Bible then records the stages leading to the emergence of the Israelites as a nation: their liberation from bondage; acceptance of a body of teaching (Torah), revealed to them through Moses; and finally, the establishment of a kingdom in the land promised to their patriarchs. C. Israelite history and religion both begin with the same figure: the patriarch Abraham. D. Abraham is not only the progenitor of the Israelite people but also the father of its faith. He is described in the Bible as “having faith in God” (Gen. 15:6) and would later be perceived as the first human both to recognize God’s existence and to remove himself from the pervasive idolatrous culture of his day. E. Abraham’s faith is rewarded by a series of covenants with God. F. Abraham’s faith is later tested by God’s commandment and Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son Isaac. 1. The story became a defining moment for Jews throughout history, whose willingness to accept all sorts of pain and adversity while remaining steadfast in their faith would repeatedly be compared to that of their patriarch Abraham. 2. In later Jewish liturgy, God is repeatedly asked to remember Abraham’s total commitment as justification for forgiving his seed’s frequent lapses.
  • . Abraham’s faith is rewarded by a series of covenants with God. F. Abraham’s faith is later tested by God’s commandment and Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son Isaac. The story became a defining moment for Jews throughout history, whose willingness to accept all sorts of pain and adversity while remaining steadfast in their faith would repeatedly be compared to that of their patriarch Abraham. 2. In later Jewish liturgy, God is repeatedly asked to remember Abraham’s total commitment as justification for forgiving his seed’s frequent lapses.
  • . Abraham’s faith is rewarded by a series of covenants with God. F. Abraham’s faith is later tested by God’s commandment and Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son Isaac. The story became a defining moment for Jews throughout history, whose willingness to accept all sorts of pain and adversity while remaining steadfast in their faith would repeatedly be compared to that of their patriarch Abraham. 2. In later Jewish liturgy, God is repeatedly asked to remember Abraham’s total commitment as justification for forgiving his seed’s frequent lapses.
  • The events surrounding the patriarchs represent the earliest strands of a collective memory that binds all the subsequent adherents to Judaism. 1. As such, our interest is not in establishing their historicity, nor does the Bible itself attempt to contextualize these stories into a broader historical framework. 2. It should, however, be noted that scholars have tended to place the migratory processes alluded to in the stories of the patriarchs somewhere within the 20th and 16th centuries B.C.E.
  • The second critical stage in the biblical account of Israel’s emergence as a nation is the bondage of Abraham’s descendants in Egypt for hundreds of years, culminating with their exodus from that land under the leadership of Moses. A. The biblical book of Genesis has God informing Abraham centuries in advance of this process; this would lend a crucial sense of providential involvement in all the subsequent history of Israel, thereby stressing that nothing in the nation’s history transpires by chance. B. The centuries of bondage in Egypt coincide with Israel’s transformation from an extended family of some 70 people to a nation of hundreds of thousands. C. Preceded by divine intervention and punishment of the Egyptians for their cruel enslavement, the Israelites are led out of Egypt by Moses, the most important figure in the emergence of Judaism.
  • The second critical stage in the biblical account of Israel’s emergence as a nation is the bondage of Abraham’s descendants in Egypt for hundreds of years, culminating with their exodus from that land under the leadership of Moses. A. The biblical book of Genesis has God informing Abraham centuries in advance of this process; this would lend a crucial sense of providential involvement in all the subsequent history of Israel, thereby stressing that nothing in the nation’s history transpires by chance. B. The centuries of bondage in Egypt coincide with Israel’s transformation from an extended family of some 70 people to a nation of hundreds of thousands. C. Preceded by divine intervention and punishment of the Egyptians for their cruel enslavement, the Israelites are led out of Egypt by Moses, the most important figure in the emergence of Judaism.
  • redemption was destined to become one of the great defining moments in the collective memory of Judaism, enhanced even more by the first of God’s Ten Commandments: “I am the Lord your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt, the house of bondage. You shall have no other Gods but me…” (Exod. 20:2). D . The liberation from Egypt often serves as a prototype for hopes of a future redemption in Jewish history and is alluded to regularly in Jewish prayer.
  • redemption was destined to become one of the great defining moments in the collective memory of Judaism, enhanced even more by the first of God’s Ten Commandments: “I am the Lord your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt, the house of bondage. You shall have no other Gods but me…” (Exod. 20:2). D . The liberation from Egypt often serves as a prototype for hopes of a future redemption in Jewish history and is alluded to regularly in Jewish prayer.
  • Wandering in the desert, the Israelites arrive at Mount Sinai, where the ultimate revelation takes place. A. God calls Moses to the top of the mountain, where he stays for 40 days and nights. B. While on the mountain, Moses receives from God a complete system of laws and instruction, which he subsequently transmits to the People of Israel. This “teaching,” known as the Torah, will serve as the divine basis for all subsequent aspects of Jewish law and behavior. C. Traditional Judaism accepts that all the five Books of Moses, the Pentateuch, were dictated by God to Moses at Sinai. The more liberal denominations of contemporary Judaism, following modern scholarship, have modified this article of faith by assigning a greater role for human authorship of the Torah. D. Having received their physical freedom and spiritual substructure, the final stage of the primal ethnographic saga was now ready. After wandering for 40 years in the desert, the Israelites, under the leadership of Moses’s successor, Joshua, capture the land of Canaan, thus fulfilling God’s promise to the patriarchs.
  • Wandering in the desert, the Israelites arrive at Mount Sinai, where the ultimate revelation takes place. A. God calls Moses to the top of the mountain, where he stays for 40 days and nights. B. While on the mountain, Moses receives from God a complete system of laws and instruction, which he subsequently transmits to the People of Israel. This “teaching,” known as the Torah, will serve as the divine basis for all subsequent aspects of Jewish law and behavior. C. Traditional Judaism accepts that all the five Books of Moses, the Pentateuch, were dictated by God to Moses at Sinai. The more liberal denominations of contemporary Judaism, following modern scholarship, have modified this article of faith by assigning a greater role for human authorship of the Torah. D. Having received their physical freedom and spiritual substructure, the final stage of the primal ethnographic saga was now ready. After wandering for 40 years in the desert, the Israelites, under the leadership of Moses’s successor, Joshua, capture the land of Canaan, thus fulfilling God’s promise to the patriarchs.
  • Wandering in the desert, the Israelites arrive at Mount Sinai, where the ultimate revelation takes place. A. God calls Moses to the top of the mountain, where he stays for 40 days and nights. B. While on the mountain, Moses receives from God a complete system of laws and instruction, which he subsequently transmits to the People of Israel. This “teaching,” known as the Torah, will serve as the divine basis for all subsequent aspects of Jewish law and behavior. C. Traditional Judaism accepts that all the five Books of Moses, the Pentateuch, were dictated by God to Moses at Sinai. The more liberal denominations of contemporary Judaism, following modern scholarship, have modified this article of faith by assigning a greater role for human authorship of the Torah. D. Having received their physical freedom and spiritual substructure, the final stage of the primal ethnographic saga was now ready. After wandering for 40 years in the desert, the Israelites, under the leadership of Moses’s successor, Joshua, capture the land of Canaan, thus fulfilling God’s promise to the patriarchs.
  • he subsequent portions of the Hebrew Bible now describe the stages in the establishment of Israel as a nation in its land. Following conquest and a period of political consolidation under a series of “judges,” a monarchy finally emerged. David, the second king of Israel, whose reign is commonly dated to the 10th century B.C.E., was the founder of a monarchical dynasty that would rule Israel for four centuries, until the fall of the Kingdom of Judah in 586 B.C.E. to the Babylonians. The period of the Davidic monarchy coincides with two major phenomena, both having a lasting effect on Judaism as a religion. B. David moved his capital to Jerusalem, and under his son Solomon, a Temple was established as the focal point of Jewish worship. Jerusalem would henceforth play a dual role in the Judaic psyche: It became the political capital of Judaism as a people and, at the same time, its sole legitimate religious center. C. The period of the monarchy coincides with the appearance of the great prophets of Israel. Their teachings, stressing the moral and ethical imperatives of the nation and its rulers, serve as a cornerstone of Christianity, as well as Judaism. 2. The Jewish reform movement that emerged in the 19th century attributes a heightened significance to the words of the prophets, in many ways surpassing the prominence of the Torah, whose practical commandments it no longer considered binding.
  • he subsequent portions of the Hebrew Bible now describe the stages in the establishment of Israel as a nation in its land. Following conquest and a period of political consolidation under a series of “judges,” a monarchy finally emerged. David, the second king of Israel, whose reign is commonly dated to the 10th century B.C.E., was the founder of a monarchical dynasty that would rule Israel for four centuries, until the fall of the Kingdom of Judah in 586 B.C.E. to the Babylonians. The period of the Davidic monarchy coincides with two major phenomena, both having a lasting effect on Judaism as a religion. B. David moved his capital to Jerusalem, and under his son Solomon, a Temple was established as the focal point of Jewish worship. Jerusalem would henceforth play a dual role in the Judaic psyche: It became the political capital of Judaism as a people and, at the same time, its sole legitimate religious center. C. The period of the monarchy coincides with the appearance of the great prophets of Israel. Their teachings, stressing the moral and ethical imperatives of the nation and its rulers, serve as a cornerstone of Christianity, as well as Judaism. 2. The Jewish reform movement that emerged in the 19th century attributes a heightened significance to the words of the prophets, in many ways surpassing the prominence of the Torah, whose practical commandments it no longer considered binding.
  • he subsequent portions of the Hebrew Bible now describe the stages in the establishment of Israel as a nation in its land. Following conquest and a period of political consolidation under a series of “judges,” a monarchy finally emerged. David, the second king of Israel, whose reign is commonly dated to the 10th century B.C.E., was the founder of a monarchical dynasty that would rule Israel for four centuries, until the fall of the Kingdom of Judah in 586 B.C.E. to the Babylonians. The period of the Davidic monarchy coincides with two major phenomena, both having a lasting effect on Judaism as a religion. B. David moved his capital to Jerusalem, and under his son Solomon, a Temple was established as the focal point of Jewish worship. Jerusalem would henceforth play a dual role in the Judaic psyche: It became the political capital of Judaism as a people and, at the same time, its sole legitimate religious center. C. The period of the monarchy coincides with the appearance of the great prophets of Israel. Their teachings, stressing the moral and ethical imperatives of the nation and its rulers, serve as a cornerstone of Christianity, as well as Judaism. 2. The Jewish reform movement that emerged in the 19th century attributes a heightened significance to the words of the prophets, in many ways surpassing the prominence of the Torah, whose practical commandments it no longer considered binding.
  • he subsequent portions of the Hebrew Bible now describe the stages in the establishment of Israel as a nation in its land. Following conquest and a period of political consolidation under a series of “judges,” a monarchy finally emerged. David, the second king of Israel, whose reign is commonly dated to the 10th century B.C.E., was the founder of a monarchical dynasty that would rule Israel for four centuries, until the fall of the Kingdom of Judah in 586 B.C.E. to the Babylonians. The period of the Davidic monarchy coincides with two major phenomena, both having a lasting effect on Judaism as a religion. B. David moved his capital to Jerusalem, and under his son Solomon, a Temple was established as the focal point of Jewish worship. Jerusalem would henceforth play a dual role in the Judaic psyche: It became the political capital of Judaism as a people and, at the same time, its sole legitimate religious center. C. The period of the monarchy coincides with the appearance of the great prophets of Israel. Their teachings, stressing the moral and ethical imperatives of the nation and its rulers, serve as a cornerstone of Christianity, as well as Judaism. 2. The Jewish reform movement that emerged in the 19th century attributes a heightened significance to the words of the prophets, in many ways surpassing the prominence of the Torah, whose practical commandments it no longer considered binding.
  • he subsequent portions of the Hebrew Bible now describe the stages in the establishment of Israel as a nation in its land. Following conquest and a period of political consolidation under a series of “judges,” a monarchy finally emerged. David, the second king of Israel, whose reign is commonly dated to the 10th century B.C.E., was the founder of a monarchical dynasty that would rule Israel for four centuries, until the fall of the Kingdom of Judah in 586 B.C.E. to the Babylonians. The period of the Davidic monarchy coincides with two major phenomena, both having a lasting effect on Judaism as a religion. B. David moved his capital to Jerusalem, and under his son Solomon, a Temple was established as the focal point of Jewish worship. Jerusalem would henceforth play a dual role in the Judaic psyche: It became the political capital of Judaism as a people and, at the same time, its sole legitimate religious center. C. The period of the monarchy coincides with the appearance of the great prophets of Israel. Their teachings, stressing the moral and ethical imperatives of the nation and its rulers, serve as a cornerstone of Christianity, as well as Judaism. 2. The Jewish reform movement that emerged in the 19th century attributes a heightened significance to the words of the prophets, in many ways surpassing the prominence of the Torah, whose practical commandments it no longer considered binding.
  • he fall of the kingdom in 586 B.C.E., coupled with the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, marks the end of the first and formative section of Jewish history. The Hebrew Bible ends with the first stirrings of restoration, facilitated by the declaration of the Persian King Cyrus that allowed the captives in Babylon to return to Zion and rebuild a temple. The Second Temple of Jerusalem was completed in 516 B.C.E. and stood until its destruction by the Romans in 70 C.E. The events and changes that transpired in this second stage of Judaism’s development were of major significance. B. Ruled by a succession of conquering empires (Persian, Hellenistic, and Roman) for most of this period, and without a continuation of biblical prophecy, a new model of Jewish spiritual leadership, in the form of sages versed in the Torah, began to appear. 1. One of the prototypes of this new form of leadership was Ezra the Scribe. 2. These scholars served as forerunners to the rabbinic phenomenon. C. A second major development at this stage was the initial appearance of a widespread Jewish diaspora. This diaspora would also play an important role in early Christianity.
  • he fall of the kingdom in 586 B.C.E., coupled with the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, marks the end of the first and formative section of Jewish history. The Hebrew Bible ends with the first stirrings of restoration, facilitated by the declaration of the Persian King Cyrus that allowed the captives in Babylon to return to Zion and rebuild a temple. The Second Temple of Jerusalem was completed in 516 B.C.E. and stood until its destruction by the Romans in 70 C.E. The events and changes that transpired in this second stage of Judaism’s development were of major significance. B. Ruled by a succession of conquering empires (Persian, Hellenistic, and Roman) for most of this period, and without a continuation of biblical prophecy, a new model of Jewish spiritual leadership, in the form of sages versed in the Torah, began to appear. 1. One of the prototypes of this new form of leadership was Ezra the Scribe. 2. These scholars served as forerunners to the rabbinic phenomenon. C. A second major development at this stage was the initial appearance of a widespread Jewish diaspora. This diaspora would also play an important role in early Christianity. With the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 C.E., Judaism encountered a major challenge to its very existence. Without a recognized and unifying cultic center, and without access to sacrificial worship as the prime mode of religious expression, new systems and contexts for Jewish religious life began to emerge. VIII. In the Middle Ages, new challenges appear. A. The vast majority of Jews no longer resided in a Jewish homeland but were dispersed throughout lands controlled by either Moslem or Christian rulers. B. No less important were the intellectual challenges to Judaism from the theologians of both religions. C. This reality stimulated an enormous literary output, including philosophical treatises, a growing corpus of mystical literature, polemical works, and the expansion and application of the existing legal system of Judaism to meet new realities.
  • Each of these religions trace their spiritual lineage to the biblical patriarch Abraham. Judaism gave rise to two other world religions: Christianity and Islam. Judaism is the smallest of the three, yet its historical influence is far greater than its numbers would suggest. This is because it was with the Jewish people that monotheism—the belief in one God—originated. Judaism is most commonly inherited rather than chosen, thus Judaism is frequently considered an ‘ethnic’ religion. A substantial number of North Americans, Europeans, and Israelis identify themselves as Jews but do not take part in the religious tradition.
  • In North America there are three major groupings of Jews: Reform, Conservative, and Orthodox. Jews believe that God expects all human beings to follow the same fundamental moral code. In addition, Jews understand themselves to be bound by a covenant with a number of special rules. For this reason, Jews think of themselves as God’s special people in the sense that they have been elected to fulfill a special responsibility: to serve as God’s priests in the world.
  • In North America there are three major groupings of Jews: Reform, Conservative, and Orthodox. Jews believe that God expects all human beings to follow the same fundamental moral code. In addition, Jews understand themselves to be bound by a covenant with a number of special rules. For this reason, Jews think of themselves as God’s special people in the sense that they have been elected to fulfill a special responsibility: to serve as God’s priests in the world.
  • Each of these religions trace their spiritual lineage to the biblical patriarch Abraham. Judaism gave rise to two other world religions: Christianity and Islam. Judaism is the smallest of the three, yet its historical influence is far greater than its numbers would suggest. This is because it was with the Jewish people that monotheism—the belief in one God—originated. Judaism is most commonly inherited rather than chosen, thus Judaism is frequently considered an ‘ethnic’ religion. A substantial number of North Americans, Europeans, and Israelis identify themselves as Jews but do not take part in the religious tradition.
  • Each of these religions trace their spiritual lineage to the biblical patriarch Abraham. Judaism gave rise to two other world religions: Christianity and Islam. Judaism is the smallest of the three, yet its historical influence is far greater than its numbers would suggest. This is because it was with the Jewish people that monotheism—the belief in one God—originated. Judaism is most commonly inherited rather than chosen, thus Judaism is frequently considered an ‘ethnic’ religion. A substantial number of North Americans, Europeans, and Israelis identify themselves as Jews but do not take part in the religious tradition.
  • The Biblical Period The Hebrew Bible is a sacred scripture for Christians and Muslims, as well as Jews. The earliest known references to Israel in secular historical records date from the 13 th century BCE. The first eleven chapters of Genesis describe the primeval history of the universe. The Eden story explains that pain and evil are the consequences of human disobedience and lack of moral discernment. The story of the flood was virtually universal in the mythologies of the ancient Near East. In the Hebrew version, the flood is punishment for the evils that humans have perpetrated and clears the way for a fresh start.
  • The Biblical Period The Hebrew Bible is a sacred scripture for Christians and Muslims, as well as Jews. The earliest known references to Israel in secular historical records date from the 13 th century BCE. The first eleven chapters of Genesis describe the primeval history of the universe. The Eden story explains that pain and evil are the consequences of human disobedience and lack of moral discernment. The story of the flood was virtually universal in the mythologies of the ancient Near East. In the Hebrew version, the flood is punishment for the evils that humans have perpetrated and clears the way for a fresh start.
  • The Biblical Period The Hebrew Bible is a sacred scripture for Christians and Muslims, as well as Jews. The earliest known references to Israel in secular historical records date from the 13 th century BCE. The first eleven chapters of Genesis describe the primeval history of the universe. The Eden story explains that pain and evil are the consequences of human disobedience and lack of moral discernment. The story of the flood was virtually universal in the mythologies of the ancient Near East. In the Hebrew version, the flood is punishment for the evils that humans have perpetrated and clears the way for a fresh start.
  • The Biblical Period The Hebrew Bible is a sacred scripture for Christians and Muslims, as well as Jews. The earliest known references to Israel in secular historical records date from the 13 th century BCE. The first eleven chapters of Genesis describe the primeval history of the universe. The Eden story explains that pain and evil are the consequences of human disobedience and lack of moral discernment. The story of the flood was virtually universal in the mythologies of the ancient Near East. In the Hebrew version, the flood is punishment for the evils that humans have perpetrated and clears the way for a fresh start.
  • The central organizing concept in the ancient Hebrews’ religion was the covenant. God promises Abraham that he and his descendants will have the land of Canaan for their own—but both sides must live according to specific obligations. God’s providence is expressed in the form of a treaty between two great chiefs. The narratives of the patriarchs as national ancestors are followed by the dramatic account of Moses as leader and lawgiver in Exodus. God identifies himself to Moses and gives his personal name, represented in Hebrew by the four letters YHWH. Conventionally, scholars write this Hebrew word as ‘Yahweh’, though without the vowels it is impossible to know how that name would have been pronounced. Over the centuries it came to be considered blasphemous to pronounce the name at all, therefore Jews reading aloud would substitute the Hebrew word adonay (‘lord’).
  • The central organizing concept in the ancient Hebrews’ religion was the covenant. God promises Abraham that he and his descendants will have the land of Canaan for their own—but both sides must live according to specific obligations. God’s providence is expressed in the form of a treaty between two great chiefs. The narratives of the patriarchs as national ancestors are followed by the dramatic account of Moses as leader and lawgiver in Exodus. God identifies himself to Moses and gives his personal name, represented in Hebrew by the four letters YHWH. Conventionally, scholars write this Hebrew word as ‘Yahweh’, though without the vowels it is impossible to know how that name would have been pronounced. Over the centuries it came to be considered blasphemous to pronounce the name at all, therefore Jews reading aloud would substitute the Hebrew word adonay (‘lord’).
  • The central organizing concept in the ancient Hebrews’ religion was the covenant. God promises Abraham that he and his descendants will have the land of Canaan for their own—but both sides must live according to specific obligations. God’s providence is expressed in the form of a treaty between two great chiefs. The narratives of the patriarchs as national ancestors are followed by the dramatic account of Moses as leader and lawgiver in Exodus. God identifies himself to Moses and gives his personal name, represented in Hebrew by the four letters YHWH. Conventionally, scholars write this Hebrew word as ‘Yahweh’, though without the vowels it is impossible to know how that name would have been pronounced. Over the centuries it came to be considered blasphemous to pronounce the name at all, therefore Jews reading aloud would substitute the Hebrew word adonay (‘lord’).
  • In time, all Jewish people would come to identify with the Exodus story as a metaphor of the transition from slavery to freedom. During the 40 years of nomadic life in the Exodus story the legal foundations of Israelite society are laid. Moses receives the Ten Commandments as the core of Israel’s law. The people proceed from nomadic to settled life in the land of Canaan under Moses’ successors, living as a loose tribal confederation informally ruled by chieftains. In the two generations coming shortly after 1,000 BCE, Israelite society experienced a shift to a centralized monarchy, lead first by King Saul, then King David. David unified the northern and southern tribes as a single Israelite people. David’s successor was Solomon, who constructed a lavish Temple to Yahweh on the hill called Zion in Jerusalem.
  • In time, all Jewish people would come to identify with the Exodus story as a metaphor of the transition from slavery to freedom. During the 40 years of nomadic life in the Exodus story the legal foundations of Israelite society are laid. Moses receives the Ten Commandments as the core of Israel’s law. The people proceed from nomadic to settled life in the land of Canaan under Moses’ successors, living as a loose tribal confederation informally ruled by chieftains. In the two generations coming shortly after 1,000 BCE, Israelite society experienced a shift to a centralized monarchy, lead first by King Saul, then King David. David unified the northern and southern tribes as a single Israelite people. David’s successor was Solomon, who constructed a lavish Temple to Yahweh on the hill called Zion in Jerusalem.
  • In time, all Jewish people would come to identify with the Exodus story as a metaphor of the transition from slavery to freedom. During the 40 years of nomadic life in the Exodus story the legal foundations of Israelite society are laid. Moses receives the Ten Commandments as the core of Israel’s law. The people proceed from nomadic to settled life in the land of Canaan under Moses’ successors, living as a loose tribal confederation informally ruled by chieftains. In the two generations coming shortly after 1,000 BCE, Israelite society experienced a shift to a centralized monarchy, lead first by King Saul, then King David. David unified the northern and southern tribes as a single Israelite people. David’s successor was Solomon, who constructed a lavish Temple to Yahweh on the hill called Zion in Jerusalem.
  • In time, all Jewish people would come to identify with the Exodus story as a metaphor of the transition from slavery to freedom. During the 40 years of nomadic life in the Exodus story the legal foundations of Israelite society are laid. Moses receives the Ten Commandments as the core of Israel’s law. The people proceed from nomadic to settled life in the land of Canaan under Moses’ successors, living as a loose tribal confederation informally ruled by chieftains. In the two generations coming shortly after 1,000 BCE, Israelite society experienced a shift to a centralized monarchy, lead first by King Saul, then King David. David unified the northern and southern tribes as a single Israelite people. David’s successor was Solomon, who constructed a lavish Temple to Yahweh on the hill called Zion in Jerusalem.
  • In time, all Jewish people would come to identify with the Exodus story as a metaphor of the transition from slavery to freedom. During the 40 years of nomadic life in the Exodus story the legal foundations of Israelite society are laid. Moses receives the Ten Commandments as the core of Israel’s law. The people proceed from nomadic to settled life in the land of Canaan under Moses’ successors, living as a loose tribal confederation informally ruled by chieftains. In the two generations coming shortly after 1,000 BCE, Israelite society experienced a shift to a centralized monarchy, lead first by King Saul, then King David. David unified the northern and southern tribes as a single Israelite people. David’s successor was Solomon, who constructed a lavish Temple to Yahweh on the hill called Zion in Jerusalem.
  • In time, all Jewish people would come to identify with the Exodus story as a metaphor of the transition from slavery to freedom. During the 40 years of nomadic life in the Exodus story the legal foundations of Israelite society are laid. Moses receives the Ten Commandments as the core of Israel’s law. The people proceed from nomadic to settled life in the land of Canaan under Moses’ successors, living as a loose tribal confederation informally ruled by chieftains. In the two generations coming shortly after 1,000 BCE, Israelite society experienced a shift to a centralized monarchy, lead first by King Saul, then King David. David unified the northern and southern tribes as a single Israelite people. David’s successor was Solomon, who constructed a lavish Temple to Yahweh on the hill called Zion in Jerusalem.
  • On the death of Solomon, about 921 BCE, the kingdom broke up. The northern tribes made Samaria their capital and take the name Israel. After they were overrun and dispersed, they became known as the ‘ten lost tribes’. The southern tribes, centred on Jerusalem, took the name Judah. Israelite Society Marriage was almost universal among Hebrews, though the nature of the interaction between men and women is not so clear. The Hebrews appear to have put more emphasis on fairness than their neighbours. Monetary restitution for crime was more common than bodily mutilation and capital punishment for murder and adultery was consistent regardless of social status.
  • On the death of Solomon, about 921 BCE, the kingdom broke up. The northern tribes made Samaria their capital and take the name Israel. After they were overrun and dispersed, they became known as the ‘ten lost tribes’. The southern tribes, centred on Jerusalem, took the name Judah. Israelite Society Marriage was almost universal among Hebrews, though the nature of the interaction between men and women is not so clear. The Hebrews appear to have put more emphasis on fairness than their neighbours. Monetary restitution for crime was more common than bodily mutilation and capital punishment for murder and adultery was consistent regardless of social status.
  • On the death of Solomon, about 921 BCE, the kingdom broke up. The northern tribes made Samaria their capital and take the name Israel. After they were overrun and dispersed, they became known as the ‘ten lost tribes’. The southern tribes, centred on Jerusalem, took the name Judah. Israelite Society Marriage was almost universal among Hebrews, though the nature of the interaction between men and women is not so clear. The Hebrews appear to have put more emphasis on fairness than their neighbours. Monetary restitution for crime was more common than bodily mutilation and capital punishment for murder and adultery was consistent regardless of social status.
  • The Prophets Hebrew prophecy appears to have grown out of ancient Near Eastern traditions of spirit possession. How the prophets received their messages is unknown. They presented themselves as the intermediaries used by God to communicate with his people. The message was always the same: the people are not living up to God’s covenant and they will soon be punished if they do not change their ways.
  • The Prophets Hebrew prophecy appears to have grown out of ancient Near Eastern traditions of spirit possession. How the prophets received their messages is unknown. They presented themselves as the intermediaries used by God to communicate with his people. The message was always the same: the people are not living up to God’s covenant and they will soon be punished if they do not change their ways.
  • The Babylonian Exile In 586 BCE the Judean kingdom fell, marking the transition of the Hebrew tradition from the national cult of an ancient kingdom to the religious heritage of a widely dispersed people. From the 6 th century BCE on, we can speak of Jews (i.e. Judaens) and Judaism, rather than of Hebrews or Israelites. In the absence of the Temple, the focus shifted away from formal worship towards congregational life and the institution known as the synagogue was born. The longing for restoration of Yahweh’s sovereignty expressed itself in a variety of ways, including visions of a deliverer king (messianism) or of a cosmic battle followed by judgment at the end of the age (apocalypticism). Modern Theories of the Composition of the Bible 19-century Bible scholars imagined individual people writing specific documents at specific times.
  • The Babylonian Exile In 586 BCE the Judean kingdom fell, marking the transition of the Hebrew tradition from the national cult of an ancient kingdom to the religious heritage of a widely dispersed people. From the 6 th century BCE on, we can speak of Jews (i.e. Judaens) and Judaism, rather than of Hebrews or Israelites. In the absence of the Temple, the focus shifted away from formal worship towards congregational life and the institution known as the synagogue was born. The longing for restoration of Yahweh’s sovereignty expressed itself in a variety of ways, including visions of a deliverer king (messianism) or of a cosmic battle followed by judgment at the end of the age (apocalypticism). Modern Theories of the Composition of the Bible 19-century Bible scholars imagined individual people writing specific documents at specific times.
  • The Documentary Hypothesis, articulated by German scholar Julius Wellhasuen in the 19 th century, suggests four major blocks of material in the Pentateuch, the five books of Moses. The Yahwist, who used the name Yahweh for God and is identified by the letter J (Yahweh in German begins with J), is thought to have worked in the southern kingdom of Judah, probably beginning before the division of the kingdoms in the late tenth century BCE. The second source, E, or the Elohist, for its use of the generic term ‘Elohim’ to refer to God, wrote in the northern kingdom after its separation, probably starting during the ninth century BCE and emphasized northern local traditions. In many places the two strands, J and E, have been woven together to create a great Hebrew epic known as JE, which can be recognized by its use of the term ‘the LORD God’ to speak of the divinity.
  • The Documentary Hypothesis, articulated by German scholar Julius Wellhasuen in the 19 th century, suggests four major blocks of material in the Pentateuch, the five books of Moses. The Yahwist, who used the name Yahweh for God and is identified by the letter J (Yahweh in German begins with J), is thought to have worked in the southern kingdom of Judah, probably beginning before the division of the kingdoms in the late tenth century BCE. The second source, E, or the Elohist, for its use of the generic term ‘Elohim’ to refer to God, wrote in the northern kingdom after its separation, probably starting during the ninth century BCE and emphasized northern local traditions. In many places the two strands, J and E, have been woven together to create a great Hebrew epic known as JE, which can be recognized by its use of the term ‘the LORD God’ to speak of the divinity. J (the Jahwist or Jerusalem source) uses the Tetragrammaton as God's name. This source's interests indicate it was active in the southern Kingdom of Judah in the time of the divided Kingdom. J is responsible for most of Genesis. E (the Elohist or Ephraimitic source) uses Elohim ("God") for the divine name until Exodus 3-6, where the Tetragrammaton is revealed to Moses and to Israel. This source seems to have lived in the northern Kingdom of Israel during the divided Kingdom. E wrote the Aqedah (Binding of Isaac) story and other parts of Genesis, and much of Exodus and Numbers. J and E were joined fairly early, apparently after the fall of the Northern Kingdom in 722 BCE. It is often difficult to separate J and E stories that have merged. D (the Deuteronomist) wrote almost all of Deuteronomy (and probably also Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings). Scholars often associate Deuteronomy with the book found by King Josiah in 622 BCE (see 2 Kings 22). P (the Priestly source) provided the first chapter of Genesis; the book of Leviticus; and other sections with genealogical information, the priesthood, and worship. According to Wellhausen, P was the latest source and the priestly editors put the Torah in its final form sometime after 539 BCE. Recent scholars (for example, James Milgrom) are more likely to see P as containing pre-exilic material. Contemporary critical scholars disagree with Wellhausen and with one another on details and on whether D or P was added last. But they agree that the general approach of the Documentary Hypothesis best explains the doublets, contradictions, differences in terminology and theology, and the geographical and historical interests that we find in various parts of the Torah. The traditional Jewish view, still held by Orthodox Judaism today, holds that God revealed his will to Moses at Mount Sinai in a verbal fashion. This view is also held by many Christians, within most branches of Christianity. According to Jewish tradition, this dictation is said to have been exactly transcribed by Moses. The Torah was then exactly copied by scribes, from one generation to the next. Based on the Talmud (Tractate Gittin 60a) some believe that the Torah may have been given piece-by-piece, over the 40 years that the Israelites wandered in the desert. In either case, the Torah is considered a direct quote from God. However, there are a number of exceptions to this belief within Orthodox Judaism.
  • The Documentary Hypothesis, articulated by German scholar Julius Wellhasuen in the 19 th century, suggests four major blocks of material in the Pentateuch, the five books of Moses. The Yahwist, who used the name Yahweh for God and is identified by the letter J (Yahweh in German begins with J), is thought to have worked in the southern kingdom of Judah, probably beginning before the division of the kingdoms in the late tenth century BCE. The second source, E, or the Elohist, for its use of the generic term ‘Elohim’ to refer to God, wrote in the northern kingdom after its separation, probably starting during the ninth century BCE and emphasized northern local traditions. In many places the two strands, J and E, have been woven together to create a great Hebrew epic known as JE, which can be recognized by its use of the term ‘the LORD God’ to speak of the divinity. · Genesis 11:31 describes Abraham as living in the Ur of the Chaldeans. But the Chaldeans did not exist at the time of Abraham. · Numbers 25 describes the rebellion at Peor, and refers to Moabite women; the next sentence says the women were Midianites. · Deuteronomy 34 describes the death of Moses. · The list of Edomite kings included Kings who were not born until after Moses' death. · Some locations are identified by names, which did not exist until long after the time of Moses. · The Torah often says that something has lasted "to this day," which seems to imply that the words were written at a later date. Classical commentaries usually interpret such verses to mean until the day they are read, in other words forever. · Deuteronomy 34:10 states "There never again arose a prophet in Israel like Moses..." which seems to imply that the verse was written long after. However, this can be understood as "There would never again arise.."
  • The Documentary Hypothesis, articulated by German scholar Julius Wellhasuen in the 19 th century, suggests four major blocks of material in the Pentateuch, the five books of Moses. The Yahwist, who used the name Yahweh for God and is identified by the letter J (Yahweh in German begins with J), is thought to have worked in the southern kingdom of Judah, probably beginning before the division of the kingdoms in the late tenth century BCE. The second source, E, or the Elohist, for its use of the generic term ‘Elohim’ to refer to God, wrote in the northern kingdom after its separation, probably starting during the ninth century BCE and emphasized northern local traditions. In many places the two strands, J and E, have been woven together to create a great Hebrew epic known as JE, which can be recognized by its use of the term ‘the LORD God’ to speak of the divinity.
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A Alienation: Marx Learned Helplessness: Martin Seligman Contempoary society depicted in crisis and upheaval or disintegration; attributed to natural disasters, presidents, etc. Examples: wars, revolutions, pollution, political tension, disease, famine, crime, drugs, lawlessness, destruction of the family, threat of nuclear war LINDSEY: liberalism, seculaiization, evils of modern world SECULAR: economic collapse, war, nuclear proliferation; inevitable, determined by forces beyond one’s control
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A Psychological concept: causality of events Examples: 1. Magical beliefs, “ominpotence of thought” (Freud) 2. God’s will, the devil, Satan, the government, one’s parents, configuration of planets at birth, 3. What would “luck” fall under?
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • The Babylonian Exile In 586 BCE the Judean kingdom fell, marking the transition of the Hebrew tradition from the national cult of an ancient kingdom to the religious heritage of a widely dispersed people. From the 6 th century BCE on, we can speak of Jews (i.e. Judaens) and Judaism, rather than of Hebrews or Israelites. In the absence of the Temple, the focus shifted away from formal worship towards congregational life and the institution known as the synagogue was born. The longing for restoration of Yahweh’s sovereignty expressed itself in a variety of ways, including visions of a deliverer king (messianism) or of a cosmic battle followed by judgment at the end of the age (apocalypticism). Modern Theories of the Composition of the Bible 19-century Bible scholars imagined individual people writing specific documents at specific times.
  • The Babylonian Exile In 586 BCE the Judean kingdom fell, marking the transition of the Hebrew tradition from the national cult of an ancient kingdom to the religious heritage of a widely dispersed people. From the 6 th century BCE on, we can speak of Jews (i.e. Judaens) and Judaism, rather than of Hebrews or Israelites. In the absence of the Temple, the focus shifted away from formal worship towards congregational life and the institution known as the synagogue was born. The longing for restoration of Yahweh’s sovereignty expressed itself in a variety of ways, including visions of a deliverer king (messianism) or of a cosmic battle followed by judgment at the end of the age (apocalypticism). Modern Theories of the Composition of the Bible 19-century Bible scholars imagined individual people writing specific documents at specific times.
  • The Babylonian Exile In 586 BCE the Judean kingdom fell, marking the transition of the Hebrew tradition from the national cult of an ancient kingdom to the religious heritage of a widely dispersed people. From the 6 th century BCE on, we can speak of Jews (i.e. Judaens) and Judaism, rather than of Hebrews or Israelites. In the absence of the Temple, the focus shifted away from formal worship towards congregational life and the institution known as the synagogue was born. The longing for restoration of Yahweh’s sovereignty expressed itself in a variety of ways, including visions of a deliverer king (messianism) or of a cosmic battle followed by judgment at the end of the age (apocalypticism). Modern Theories of the Composition of the Bible 19-century Bible scholars imagined individual people writing specific documents at specific times.
  • The Babylonian Exile In 586 BCE the Judean kingdom fell, marking the transition of the Hebrew tradition from the national cult of an ancient kingdom to the religious heritage of a widely dispersed people. From the 6 th century BCE on, we can speak of Jews (i.e. Judaens) and Judaism, rather than of Hebrews or Israelites. In the absence of the Temple, the focus shifted away from formal worship towards congregational life and the institution known as the synagogue was born. The longing for restoration of Yahweh’s sovereignty expressed itself in a variety of ways, including visions of a deliverer king (messianism) or of a cosmic battle followed by judgment at the end of the age (apocalypticism). Modern Theories of the Composition of the Bible 19-century Bible scholars imagined individual people writing specific documents at specific times.
  • Humanities 13A Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: "What went wrong? Has God abandoned us? Is the Babylonians' God more powerful than our God? Is there some other reason why this fate has befallen us?" They began to think, "Maybe it's not god's fault. Maybe it's our fault." NARRATOR: To answer those questions, the Jewish prophets were forced to reexamine, rethink and rewrite their own history, and this is where the long line of Jewish apocalyptic literature begins. [www.pbs.org: Explore Jewish apocalyptic literature] Prof. JAMES TABOR: The exile was a complete shattering of the hopes and dreams of ancient Judaism. And then the prophets come in - Isaiah, Jeremiah, all the prophets - and they began to predict this glorious future. The Jews will return. They'll rebuild the temple. The Messiah will come. Israel will realize its historic destiny. NARRATOR: And so the Jewish people began to rewrite the story of their covenant with God. In doing so, prophets like Ezekial began to conjure up symbols and images, such as "the new Jerusalem," that will reappear in the Book of Revelation. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: In his vision, Ezekial sees the city of Jerusalem literally rebuilt, the temple standing up in the middle as the centerpiece of Jewish identity. Prof. JOHN J. COLLINS, University of Chicago: This gives rise to a motif that we still find in the Book of Revelation, the motif of the new Jerusalem. Prof. PAULA FREDRIKSEN, Boston University: Babylon and Jerusalem are two eternal poles in human experience. They're the urban expressions of the idea of good and evil. NARRATOR: The resurrection of the dead in Revelation can also be traced back to the Book of Ezekial. Prof. JOHN COLLINS: In the Book of Ezekiel, there is a great vision where Ezekiel sees a valley full of dry bones. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: Ezekial is said to have been picked up by God's hand and transported to a distant valley strewn with dry bones. All of a sudden, these dry bones are brought back to life and then raised again to living beings. In its original form, this was understood as symbolizing the resurrection of the nation of Israel itself. Prof. PAULA FREDRIKSEN: This idea will resonate as the resurrection of the dead at the end of time. Ezekial's another main architect of the way the West imagines the end of time. READER: And he cried out mightily with a strong voice, saying "Babylon the Great is fallen, is fallen." NARRATOR: Fifty years after the destruction of Jerusalem, Babylon itself was overthrown by Cyrus the Great, king of the Persians. For the next 300 years, the Jewish people were ruled from Persepolis. In 538 B.C.E., Cyrus allowed the Jews to return home and rebuild their temple. The Book of Isaiah called Cyrus "the Lord's Messiah." Prof. NORMAN COHN, Author, "Pursuit of the Millennium": It was a benign rule. It allowed them to pursue their religion. It actually financed the rebuilding of the temple after its devastation by the Babylonians. They were well treated. NARRATOR: The religion of the ancient Persians left its mark on Judaism. Named after Zoroaster, the great prophet who lived 2,500 years ago, Zoroastrianism is still alive in modern Iran. Deep in the salt desert beyond the town of Yazd in Iran, some of the 150,000 who still follow Zoroaster make a pilgrimage to Chek Chek. Cut into the side of a mountain, the holy temple gets its name, Chek Chek, from the drip-drip of spring water seeping through the rock. What lies at the very heart of their system of belief is the dualism of light and dark. Prof. JOHN COLLINS: Dualism is generally the idea that human life is governed by two opposing powers, between good and evil or, as it's sometimes put, between light and darkness. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: In the Persian mythological tradition, we have Ahura Masda, the good god, the god of light, who is at war with Areman, the evil god. Prof. NORMAN COHN: The idea that of the world as the battleground for the two great forces, the divine force and the devil, is of Zoroastrian origin. The earliest apocalyptic belief is Zoroastrian. The influence which Iranian religion exercised over Jewish apocalyptic thinking, and through that over Christian apocalyptic thinking, was profound. NARRATOR: The next great impact on the apocalyptic tradition came in 333 B.C.E., when Alexander the Great's army swept across the Middle East and crushed the Persian empire. In Iran today, traditional storytellers still recall the exploits of Alexander. IRANIAN STORYTELLER: [subtitles] Alexander made a swift turn, reached for his sword and galloped into the battlefield! NICHOLAS CAMPION, Author, "The Great Year": One of the most amazing events in the ancient world were the conquests of Alexander the Great. In the period of 10 to 15 years, Alexander conquered much of the known world- Greece, Egypt, Persia, through to Northern India, including Palestine. And the effect of this was to produce an amazing cultural intermingling between all these different traditions. NARRATOR: Westerners see him in an heroic light, but here Alexander is seen as a dark, destructive tyrant who laughed when he burned Persepolis. Prof. PAULA FREDRIKSEN, Boston University: What Alexander brings with him is an incredibly powerful international idea. He brings Greek. He brings the idea of Greek culture, which scholars refer to as Hellenism. Prof. JOHN J. COLLINS, University of Chicago: Alexander the Great brought with him a tremendous reversal of values. In Jewish culture, purity was an extremely high value. Modesty- a great value. No exposure of the human body. The Greeks were quite the opposite. The statues they put up were typically of naked human beings. And this must have brought a great sense of shock, a great sense of a different culture. NARRATOR: This altar of Zeus shows the blending of cultures. Here Greek gods and heroes are locked in combat with the beasts and serpents of Middle Eastern myth. In about 250 B.C.E., an anonymous Jew writing under the name of Enoch borrowed images from Greek mythology which were to resonate through apocalyptic literature, down to the Book of Revelation. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: The head angel who rebels against God is thrown down to earth. He's imprisoned in a pit below the earth that comes to be called Hades- Hell. We have evil and Satan. We have angels. First Enoch gives us some of the most important components of what we think of as later Jewish and Christian apocalyptic tradition. NARRATOR: But there was a political price to pay for Greek culture. Israel found itself ruled by the Greek tyrant Antiochus. Prof. PAULA FREDRIKSEN: The point of no return was when Antiochus himself put a statue to Zeus with his own features in the temple. Having an idol introduced into the temple was something that people couldn't live with. NARRATOR: The response was the Maccabean revolt. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: A small band of warriors under Judas the Maccabee - his name literally means "Judas the hammer" - began a kind of guerrilla war against these Greek armies. In the year 164, a small band under command of Judas himself actually manages to retake the temple, and while holding off the Greek armies, proceeds then to repurify and rededicate the temple. That is the event celebrated as the feast of rededication, or Hanukkah. NARRATOR: But there was another way of fighting back against Greek oppression. The Book of Daniel was written at the time of the Maccabean revolt, but its author set his story in the time of the Babylonian exile some 400 years earlier. In the book, Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, dreams of a colossal statue, and only Daniel can interpret its meaning. READER: This image's head was of fine gold, his breast and his arms of silver, his belly and his thighs of brass, his legs of iron. NICHOLAS CAMPION, Author, "The Great Year": Daniel said that this represented the four great periods of history, the four great empires. Each metal corresponded to an empire. NARRATOR: The golden head represented Babylon, silver Persia. The Greeks were the legs of bronze, and the tyrannical dynasty of Antiochus were the feet of clay. Like the statue, these empires were doomed to fall. NICHOLAS CAMPION: He said that the shattering of the statue represented the end of history, the final end of human corruption and decadence, and the inauguration of the kingdom of God. NARRATOR: Daniel's author is telling the Jewish people that their time has come at last, that God's earthly kingdom will be established in Israel. READER: His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his Kingdom that which shall not be destroyed. [Dan. 7:14] Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: So the visions of Daniel are responding to a period of crisis and oppression and using Apocalypse as a way of saying, "Hold fast. Stay faithful. God will deliver. God will triumph." Prof. JOHN J. COLLINS, University of Chicago: The last great oppressor that you meet in the ancient Jewish apocalyptic literature is Rome. Rome first came on the scene as friend of the Jews. The Maccabees, after they attained their independence, sent a delegation to Rome and said, "Oh, you're a great people. Come and help us," which was probably the most foolish thing they ever did. NARRATOR: Jerusalem fell within Rome's orbit of power. It was ruled by a client king, the infamous Herod, who rebuilt the city and restored the temple. But some Jews viewed Herod and the Romans as oppressors. Once again they were forced to reinterpret their past. This created another wave of apocalyptic fervor in Jewish thought. Prof. JOHN COLLINS: Jesus and John the Baptist can accurately be described as apocalyptic prophets, meaning that they were people who expected an abrupt and decisive change that you might describe as the manifestation of the kingdom of God, some big overturning. NARRATOR: To Jews like John and Jesus, the temple, the seat of divine favor, had now become the symbol of collaboration. Their apocalyptic preaching put them in direct conflict with the power of Rome. Prof. JOHN COLLINS: John the Baptist taught that the wrath was coming, that there was a great day of judgment coming. And the practice of baptism was a kind of communal repentance before the great day of the Lord. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: The classic formulation of John the Baptist is "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. Let's return to a pure nation of Israel." And in the case of Jesus, it's also "The kingdom is at hand." Prof. PAULA FREDRIKSEN, Boston University: When Jesus says "Repent, for the kingdom of God is at hand," he means the end of normal time and the beginning of a reign of goodness and peace. Yes, I think Jesus was apocalyptic. NARRATOR: Even after Jesus died on the cross, executed by the Romans, his followers continued to believe the end was near. Prof. PAUL BOYER, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison: Certainly, the earliest Christians took away from his message the belief that his return would occur in their own lifetime. [www.pbs.org: Examine Jesus' apocalyptic message] Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: Even a full generation after the death of Jesus, in Paul's later letters, he says that "The night is far gone. The dawn is very near." Something's about to happen soon, and it's quite clear, if you read Paul, he never expected to die before the kingdom arrived. NARRATOR: John and Jesus were not alone. An apocalyptic sect called the Essenes had already withdrawn to the desert and established a community on the shores of the Dead Sea. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: It's on those cliffs of the Dead Sea, in this extremely harsh wilderness environment, that the Essenes, fulfilling the prophesies of Isaiah, sought to build the pure community where they would await for the coming of the Messiah. NARRATOR: The discovery in these caves of the Dead Sea Scrolls gave a vivid insight into Jewish apocalyptic belief at this time. Prof. JOHN COLLINS: Now, all of these texts have a strong apocalyptic coloring, that there will be a final judgment in which they will be vindicated and their enemies discomforted. NARRATOR: The Dead Sea Scrolls preserved in this museum provide modern scholarship with no evidence that John or Jesus were directly influenced by the Essenes. But the Scrolls do show their visions of the end time had much in common. Prof. JAMES TABOR, Univ. of North Carolina at Charlotte: One of the major intact Scrolls that was found in the very first cave in 1947 we call "the war of the children of light with the children of darkness." It's set in terms of a battle that takes place for Jerusalem. Prof. JOHN J. COLLINS, University of Chicago: On the face of it, it seems to be a script for a final battle. As they figure it, the key to their success will be the heavenly army will show up. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: They take this quite literally. They're planning to fight this battle. And indeed, in the war of 66 to 70, the first revolt against Rome, the Essenes themselves, following this battle plan, literally marched out to war against the Roman soldiers and were annihilated. NARRATOR: The Essenes must have thought the great revolt against Rome was the end-time battle described in their war scroll. [www.pbs.org: Read the War Scrolls] Prof. JOHN COLLINS: The story of the Jewish revolt, like many popular rebellions against great powers, was one of apparent success at first. Prof. ADELA YARBRO COLLINS, University of Chicago: The revolt began in Galilee, and then the Romans moved towards Jerusalem. Prof. JOHN COLLINS: Some of the rebels had taken over Jerusalem and thrown out the high priests. The climax of the war really was the siege of Jerusalem. Prof. ADELA COLLINS: The leaders of the revolt seem to have believed that God would not allow the temple to be taken. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: In the end, the Romans broke through the city walls, burned and destroyed the city, and worst of all, destroyed the temple once again. Prof. ADELA COLLINS: The Romans took the leader of the revolt, Simon, to Rome and led him in triumph. The Arch of Titus shows the Romans taking the great treasures from the temple, taking them away, taking them to Rome, the most striking one of these being the Menorah, but also temple vessels. Prof. PAULA FREDRIKSEN: Many Jews, including those Jews who were Christian, interpreted the destruction of the second temple as an apocalyptic signal that the end of time is at hand. NARRATOR: All that remains of the second temple is its western wall, the famous Wailing Wall. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: The destruction of Jerusalem in the year 70 C.E. leads to yet another stage of apocalyptic reinterpretation. Prof. PAULA FREDRIKSEN: The Roman destruction of Jerusalem immediately sets up a vibration with the Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem half a millennium earlier. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: They have to retell their story. They have to rethink their own past. In the period between roughly 75 and 100 C.E., we have a proliferation of new Apocalypses. One of these is the Book of Revelation itself. NARRATOR: Ephesus in present-day Turkey was one of the great centers of the early church. The Book of Revelation was written at the same time as the Gospels, in about the year 95, by a Christian Jew living in Ephesus. Prof. ADELA COLLINS: Christian tradition attributes the Book of Revelation to John, the son of Zebedee, who was one of the 12 disciples of Jesus or one of the 12 Apostles. And he was entrusted with care of the mother of Jesus, according to the Gospel of John. So the idea was that he and Mary, the mother of Jesus, moved to Ephesus. Prof. BERNARD McGINN, University of Chicago: Well, the traditional view is that the author of the Apocalypse - that is John, the beloved disciple - lived to an advanced age in Asia minor and was exiled to the island of Patmos because of his opposition to the Roman government. NARRATOR: Legend has it that John was shipwrecked and washed ashore on the island of Patmos. Patmos is a remote Greek island, hard to get to and hard to escape from. For a thousand years there has been a monastery here, which is dedicated to the memory of "John the theologian." A short way downhill from the monastery, the monks still tend a small chapel in a cave. According to local tradition, John was asleep in this cave when he had a vision. READER: On the Lord's Day, I was in the Spirit and I heard behind me a voice like a trumpet. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: In John's own account, he is in the spirit on the Lord's Day and begins to hear a voice and begins to see a vision of a lampstand and lights. READER: I turned around to see the voice that was speaking to me. I saw seven golden lampstands. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: And we begin to get this revelation of the future of the world. NARRATOR: Today biblical scholars take a different view of the Book of Revelation, who wrote it and what it was all about. Prof. BERNARD McGINN: Modern scholarship really separates John the wandering prophet, from John the evangelist. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: It's not absolutely clear that John was either in prison or even in exile. The author simply says he was on Patmos on account of preaching the word of the Lord. That could even sound as if he's kind of a circuit preacher and this is one of his stops. NARRATOR: Close study of the Book of Revelation lays bare its strident vision of a Satanic threat to Christianity. The author draws on ancient prophets and earlier apocalyptic writers, using words and images that hark back to the oppression by Babylon. READER: She held a golden cup in her hand filled with abominable things and the filth of her adulteries. Babylon the great, the mother of prostitutes and of the abominations of the earth. Prof. ADELA YARBRO COLLINS, University of Chicago: The "whore of Babylon" is an interesting image. The author of Revelation indicates that he means the city of Rome by describing the whore as seated upon a Beast and defining the Beast as seven hills. And to any ancient reader, that would mean Rome. READER: The seven heads are seven hills on which the woman sits. NICHOLAS CAMPION, Author, "The Great Year": John is using the idea of Babylon as the most corrupt and decadent city in the world, and saying "Look, here's Rome, just the new Babylon." NARRATOR: What outrages the author of Revelation above all else is the imperial cult, which demanded submission to the deified emperor in Rome. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: What made it a problem for Jews and Christians to participate in the imperial cult was that you had to perform sacrifices to the emperor or in honor of the emperor. That runs very close to idolatry. We have references to the image of the Beast that people are forced to bow down and worship. READER: They also worshipped the Beast and asked "Who is like the Beast?" [Rev. 13:14] Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: You must be a part of the empire. You must be loyal to Rome. NARRATOR: Only 20 years after the sack of Jerusalem, the author of Revelation refuses to make sacrifice for emperors who had crucified Jesus and ´MDNMªdestroyed the temple. In Revelation, Rome is the evil empire. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: What John is suggesting is that when the forces of the devil and the Roman empire is toppled, a new heaven and earth will be created, like a new beginning of the earth. NARRATOR: The emperor Domitian, who had just inaugurated a temple to himself in Ephesus, is the Beast of the Apocalypse with the mysterious mark "666." Revelation says Domitian's days are numbered and predicts the exact date on which his empire will fall. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: The Roman empire will actually be destroyed in three and a half years, and God will reign in a new, triumphant kingdom immediately thereafter. The expectations of John didn't come to pass. The Roman Empire lasted for a great deal longer. NARRATOR: On the island of Patmos, where John is said to have written the Book of Revelation, the monks celebrate Easter. Their celebrations are pregnant with symbols from the apocalyptic tradition, from Babylon the longing for a new Jerusalem. READER: I saw the Holy City, the New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God. [Rev. 21:2] NARRATOR: From Persia, the images of light and dark. READER: There will be no more night for the Lord God will give them light. [Rev. 22:5] NARRATOR: From the Hellenistic crisis come angels, devils, heaven, hell and the dream of victory in the war between God and Satan. READER: Then I saw the Beast and the kings of the earth and their armies gathered together to make war. [Rev. 19:19] NARRATOR: For Greek Orthodox Christians, the stroke of midnight on Easter Sunday marks the moment when Christ rose from the dead. Christ's resurrection prefigures his second coming. To celebrate, the monks hammer on a wooden spar they believe comes from Noah's Ark. Throughout Christian history, Christ's resurrection prefigures his second coming, his victory over evil at Armageddon, his thousand-year reign of peace. But ever since it was written, interpreters have tried to understand Revelation's predictions for the millennium and the day of judgment. In the Book of Revelation, an angel appears on the island of Patmos and tells John to write what he sees on a scroll and send it to the seven churches across the sea in Asia minor. But other New Testament writers living in the great cities of the Roman empire rejected the Book of Revelation and its subversive message. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: The revelation of John is probably not the mainstream view. The author of 1st Peter will say "Be subject to governing authorities. Pay homage to the Emperor." Well, that stands in sharp contrast to the Book of Revelation. NARRATOR: Ignored for nearly 100 years, the Book of Revelation would come back to haunt the church. In the late 2nd century, an apocalyptic prophet called Montanus inspired thousands to follow him to a remote hilltop. Montanus had interpreted an outbreak of plague as a clear sign that the thousand-year reign of Christ was at hand. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: Montanus seemed to expect that, literally, a new Jerusalem would descend out of heaven and land on a mountaintop in central Turkey, at his home town of Perpuza. Well, needless to say, it didn't quite happen that way. Prof. NORMAN COHN, Author, "Pursuit of the Millennium": From the time of Montanus onwards, there have been innumerable prophets who believed in the literal truth of Book of Revelation. Not only that but that the prophecies were to be fulfilled here and now, at any moment. NARRATOR: A century later the city of Rome, now 1,000 years old, became the next great focus of apocalyptic expectation. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: This is the first time 1,000 becomes a significant number. People say, "Wait a minute. This looks like things that John predicts for the end of time." NARRATOR: Rome's millennium celebrations triggered the most vicious persecutions of Christians the empire had ever seen. As the blood of martyrs was shed in amphitheaters, some saw the emperor Decius as the Beast of Revelation, and this the last fling of evil. READER: And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded because of their testimony for Jesus and because of the word of God. They reigned with Christ a thousand years. [Rev. 20:4] NARRATOR: For two centuries, the power of Rome and the early church had coexisted uneasily, and the anti-imperial invective in the Book of Revelation did nothing to improve matters. But everything changed in the year 313, when the emperor Constantine saw a vision of the cross, defeated his enemies and declared Christianity a legitimate religion. Prof. PAULA FREDRIKSEN, Boston University: From the point of view of Constantine's bishops, the awkwardness for Christianity, with its own apocalyptic heritage, comes with Christianity's political success. The traditional apocalyptic reading has to be wrong because now the empire is Christian. Rome can't be Babylon. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: The Christian church itself, and especially its leaders, doesn't know quite what to do with the Book of Revelation. NARRATOR: Most church leaders favored excluding Revelation from the Bible. To this day, it does not appear in the Bible of the Greek Orthodox Church. Then, at a council of bishops in the year 394, Augustine, the great Christian scholar and saint, argued that the Book of Revelation was written by the Apostle John and should be included in the New Testament, if interpreted correctly. Prof. BERNARD McGINN, University of Chicago: Augustine is the dominant Christian leader and thinker of the western Christian tradition in his time. NARRATOR: The truly apocalyptic events that were about to engulf the Roman world influenced Augustine's interpretation of Revelation. Prof. PAULA FREDRIKSEN: Augustine himself happened to live - it was his good or bad luck - happened to live in an apocalyptic hot zone. Prof. BERNARD McGINN: Well, the most dramatic event in Augustine's lifetime, of course, is the sack of the city of Rome in the year 410. It was this destruction that moved Augustine to write his great book, "The City of God." Prof. PAULA FREDRIKSEN: Rome had been identified with the church and therefore, if Rome fell, that meant that it's the beginning of the period of the antichrist. Prof. BERNARD McGINN: What Augustine said is, "No, empires rise and empires fall. What is constant is the internal history of the building up of the City of God through the agency of the church." Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: In Augustine's reinterpretation of the Book of Revelation, what he essentially does is to say that the symbolism that some people before had been taking literally- none of them were literal. He did not believe in a literal thousand-year reign. He did not believe in a literal figure that would come as a kind of antichrist or anything like that. Prof. BERNARD McGINN: It drew the apocalyticism out of the Apocalypse. And through Augustine's "City of God," this spiritualizing interpretation of the Apocalypse became dominant in the West for a thousand years. PBS DOC: The key to understanding some of the wilder imagery in Revelation lies in the fact that much of it is grounded in 600 years of Jewish history. Armageddon is a real place. The word comes from Megido, an ancient stronghold where kings of Israel once stabled their war chariots. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE, Univ. of Texas at Austin: Megido was a major fortress governing the landscape, and it's where a number of important battles took place. It's not hard to imagine the chariot wars and the other kinds of battles that took place here. There's lots of reliefs from antiquity that show just such battles happening and the victories that resulted there. "Megido" means "place of battle," "place of triumph." It just depends on who's going to triumph. NARRATOR: The origins of the Book of Revelation lie in war, defeat and despair. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: The political history of the Jewish people is central to the story, and it really begins in the year 586. Prof. JAMES TABOR, Univ. of North Carolina at Charlotte: In the year 586 B.C., the famous King Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, actually enters Jerusalem, burns the temple, sacks it, destroys the city itself and takes the population into exile. NARRATOR: The partly restored ruins of Babylon in modern Iraq, with its great ceremonial gate, preserve the power and glory of this ancient oppressor. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: Babylon was a magnificent city for its day, with huge stone walls decorated with these enormous, gorgeous pictures of beasts. NARRATOR: Savage beasts, mythic serpents and many-headed dragons appear in the Book of Revelation and will haunt the apocalyptic imagination for 2,500 years. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: If you think about the imagery of demons and dragons and beasts that we find so commonly in apocalyptic literature, some of it comes from this very experience of seeing the powerful images of the enemy, Babylon. NARRATOR: Babylon shook the Israelites' faith in their god to its core. In the Jewish calendar, July 22nd is the ninth day in the month of Av. On that day, a commemorative service is held here at an ancient fortress. Modern Israeli Jews come here to mourn the destruction of the first temple and the exile in Babylon. Prof. JOHN J. COLLINS, University of Chicago: You get a great sense in the biblical literature of homesickness. You find this especially in the Psalms. "How can you sing the psalm of the Lord in a foreign land?" The destruction of Jerusalem, the exile of the Jewish people, posed what you might call a situation of cognitive dissonance. According to their religion, they were the chosen people of the most powerful God. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: "What went wrong? Has God abandoned us? Is the Babylonians' God more powerful than our God? Is there some other reason why this fate has befallen us?" They began to think, "Maybe it's not god's fault. Maybe it's our fault." NARRATOR: To answer those questions, the Jewish prophets were forced to reexamine, rethink and rewrite their own history, and this is where the long line of Jewish apocalyptic literature begins. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: "What went wrong? Has God abandoned us? Is the Babylonians' God more powerful than our God? Is there some other reason why this fate has befallen us?" They began to think, "Maybe it's not god's fault. Maybe it's our fault." NARRATOR: To answer those questions, the Jewish prophets were forced to reexamine, rethink and rewrite their own history, and this is where the long line of Jewish apocalyptic literature begins. [www.pbs.org: Explore Jewish apocalyptic literature] Prof. JAMES TABOR: The exile was a complete shattering of the hopes and dreams of ancient Judaism. And then the prophets come in - Isaiah, Jeremiah, all the prophets - and they began to predict this glorious future. The Jews will return. They'll rebuild the temple. The Messiah will come. Israel will realize its historic destiny. NARRATOR: And so the Jewish people began to rewrite the story of their covenant with God. In doing so, prophets like Ezekial began to conjure up symbols and images, such as "the new Jerusalem," that will reappear in the Book of Revelation. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: In his vision, Ezekial sees the city of Jerusalem literally rebuilt, the temple standing up in the middle as the centerpiece of Jewish identity. Prof. JOHN J. COLLINS, University of Chicago: This gives rise to a motif that we still find in the Book of Revelation, the motif of the new Jerusalem. Prof. PAULA FREDRIKSEN, Boston University: Babylon and Jerusalem are two eternal poles in human experience. They're the urban expressions of the idea of good and evil. NARRATOR: The resurrection of the dead in Revelation can also be traced back to the Book of Ezekial. Prof. JOHN COLLINS: In the Book of Ezekiel, there is a great vision where Ezekiel sees a valley full of dry bones. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE: Ezekial is said to have been picked up by God's hand and transported to a distant valley strewn with dry bones. All of a sudden, these dry bones are brought back to life and then raised again to living beings. In its original form, this was understood as symbolizing the resurrection of the nation of Israel itself. Prof. PAULA FREDRIKSEN: This idea will resonate as the resurrection of the dead at the end of time. Ezekial's another main architect of the way the West imagines the end of time. READER: And he cried out mightily with a strong voice, saying "Babylon the Great is fallen, is fallen." NARRATOR: Fifty years after the destruction of Jerusalem, Babylon itself was overthrown by Cyrus the Great, king of the Persians. For the next 300 years, the Jewish people were ruled from Persepolis. In 538 B.C.E., Cyrus allowed the Jews to return home and rebuild their temple. The Book of Isaiah called Cyrus "the Lord's Messiah." Prof. NORMAN COHN, Author, "Pursuit of the Millennium": It was a benign rule. It allowed them to pursue their religion. It actually financed the rebuilding of the temple after its devastation by the Babylonians. They were well treated. NARRATOR: The religion of the ancient Persians left its mark on Judaism. Named after Zoroaster, the great prophet who lived 2,500 years ago, Zoroastrianism is still alive in modern Iran. Deep in the salt desert beyond the town of Yazd in Iran, some of the 150,000 who still follow Zoroaster make a pilgrimage to Chek Chek. Cut into the side of a mountain, the holy temple gets its name, Chek Chek, from the drip-drip of spring water seeping through the rock. What lies at the very heart of their system of belief is the dualism of light and dark. Prof. JOHN COLLINS: Dualism is generally the idea that human life is governed by two opposing powers, between good and evil or, as it's sometimes put, between light and darkness. Prof. L. MICHAEL WHITE:
  • Humanities 13A Revelation 16:12-21 “ And the sixth angel poured out his vial upon the great river Euphrates; and the water thereof was dried up, that the way of the kings of the east might be prepared. 13 And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet. 14 For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty. 15 Behold, I come as a thief. Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame. 16 And he gathered them together into a place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon. 17 And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air; and there came a great voice out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying, It is done. 18 And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings; and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth, so mighty an earthquake, and so great. 19 And the great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell: and great Babylon came in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath. 20 And every island fled away, and the mountains were not found. 21 And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent: and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great.”
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • Hum40 podcast-week12-judaism-online

    1. 1. <ul><li>Judaism : </li></ul><ul><li>Stories of Exile and Return </li></ul>The Wailing Wall, Jerusalem, Israel
    2. 2. <ul><li>Chronology </li></ul>Israel ± 2000 BCE Patriarchs 1200? Exodus: intertribal Israel 1020 Saul 920 David Solomon Israel Judah 800  “historic” prophets
    3. 3. <ul><li>story and law </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>story: </li></ul><ul><li>recollection </li></ul><ul><li>of important events; </li></ul><ul><li>collective memory </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>law: </li></ul><ul><li>principles or set of rules one is expected to follow </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Origins of “Judaism”* </li></ul><ul><li>“ Judaism” refers to the ethnic and geographical roots of the phrase, rather a religious entity. </li></ul>*Sources: Isaiah Gafni. Great World Religions: Judaism. 2003. Stephen Prothero. God is Not One. 2010.
    7. 7. <ul><li>Judah </li></ul><ul><li>Judah was the fourth son of the patriarch Jacob, son of Isaac and grandson of Abraham, the biblical progenitors of “the People of Israel. </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>The Origins of “Jews” </li></ul><ul><li>Jews (or Judaeans) were, in the first instance, those people either living in the land of that name or whose roots were in that land. </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Collective Memory </li></ul><ul><li>For Jews, there is a collective past that contributes enormously to their sense of unity. </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Exile and Return </li></ul><ul><li>The liberation, or exodus , of the Israelites from Egypt is not only discussed but, in a sense, re-lived at the yearly festival of Passover. </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Collective Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Judaism represents an ongoing but constantly changing saga of 4,000 years. </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Family Lineage </li></ul><ul><li>It begins with the earliest roots of the patriarchal family of Israel and its intimate relationship with God. </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>The Emergence of </li></ul><ul><li>Israelites </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Abraham </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>progenitor of the Israelite people </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>the father of its faith </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>story and law </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>Convenants with God </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham’s faith is rewarded by a series of covenants ( berit ) with God. </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>The Sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham’s faith is later tested by God’s commandment and Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son Isaac. </li></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>faith in God despite pain and adversity </li></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>Emergence </li></ul><ul><li>2000-1500 B.C.E. </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Emergence </li></ul><ul><li>The events coincide with Israel’s transformation from an extended family of some 70 people to a nation of hundreds of thousands. </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>Defining Moment </li></ul><ul><li>Israelites are led out of Egypt by Moses , the most important figure in the emergence of Judaism. </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>Defining Moment </li></ul><ul><li>“ I am the Lord your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt, the house of bondage. You shall have no other Gods but me…” (Exod. 20:2). </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>Defining Moment </li></ul><ul><li>The liberation from Egypt creates hope for future redemption in Jewish history. </li></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><li>Mount Sinai </li></ul><ul><li>God calls Moses to the top of the mountain, where he stays for 40 days and nights. </li></ul>
    27. 27. <ul><li>Mount Sinai </li></ul><ul><li>While on the mountain, Moses receives from God a complete system of laws and instruction , which he subsequently transmits to the People of Israel. </li></ul>
    28. 28. <ul><li>The Torah </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>King David </li></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>10 th century B.C.E. </li></ul>
    31. 31. <ul><li>ruled for four centuries </li></ul>
    32. 32. <ul><li>King David moved his capital to Jerusalem , and under his son Solomon, a Temple was established as the focal point of Jewish worship. </li></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><li>Jerusalem became the political capital of Judaism as a people and, at the same time, its sole legitimate religious center. </li></ul>
    34. 34. <ul><li>586 B.C.E. </li></ul>
    35. 35. <ul><li>70 C.E. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Foundations <ul><li>Judaism is most commonly inherited rather than chosen, thus Judaism is frequently considered an “ethnic” religion. </li></ul>
    37. 37. Foundations <ul><li>Jews believe that God expects all human beings to follow the same fundamental moral code. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Foundations <ul><li>Jews understand themselves to be bound by a covenant (contract or agreement) with a number of special rules. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Some Present Facts <ul><li>Today, Jews probably number just under 14 million worldwide. </li></ul>
    40. 40. Some Present Facts <ul><li>Approximately half now live in Israel. </li></ul>
    41. 41. Origins <ul><ul><li>The Hebrew Bible is a sacred scripture for Christians and Muslims, as well as Jews. </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Origins <ul><ul><li>The first eleven chapters of Genesis describe the primeval history of the universe. </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Origins <ul><ul><li>The Garden of Eden </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Origins <ul><ul><li>Noah and the Flood </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. The Promised Land <ul><ul><ul><li>God promises Abraham that he and his descendants will have the land of Canaan for their own —but both sides must live according to specific obligations. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    46. 46. The Promised Land <ul><ul><li>God identifies himself to Moses and gives his personal name, represented in Hebrew by the four letters YHWH. </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. The Promised Land <ul><ul><li>adonay: “Lord” </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Exodus <ul><ul><li>This story becomes a metaphor of the transition from slavery to freedom. </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. Exodus <ul><ul><li>The legal foundations of Israelite society was laid during the forty years of nomadic life. </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Exodus <ul><ul><li>shift from nomadic to settled life in the land of Canaan </li></ul></ul>
    51. 51. Exodus: The Story of Moses http://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/9862
    52. 52. Passover: A Jewish Holiday
    53. 53. The Ten Commandments: Director, Cecil B. DeMille; Actor: Charlton Heston (1956) http://movieclips.com/mcQGT-the-ten-commandments-movie-moses-parts-the-sea/
    54. 54. History of the World, Part I: Director, Actor: Mel Brooks (1985) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4TAtRCJIqnk
    55. 55. Exodus <ul><ul><li>After 1000 B.C.E., Israelite society experienced a shift to a centralized monarchy , lead first by King Saul, then King David. </li></ul></ul>
    56. 56. Exodus <ul><ul><li>David unified the northern and southern tribes as a single Israelite people. </li></ul></ul>
    57. 57. Exodus <ul><ul><li>David’s successor was Solomon, who constructed a lavish Temple to Yahweh on the hill called Zion in Jerusalem. </li></ul></ul>
    58. 58. Exodus <ul><ul><li>On the death of Solomon, about 921 BCE , the kingdom broke up. </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. Exodus <ul><ul><li>The northern tribes made Samaria their capital and take the name Israel. </li></ul></ul>
    60. 60. Exodus <ul><ul><li>The southern tribes, centered on Jerusalem, took the name Judah. </li></ul></ul>
    61. 61. The Prophets <ul><ul><li>It is unknown how the prophets received their messages (angels, dreams?). </li></ul></ul>
    62. 62. The Prophets <ul><ul><li>Common message: the people are not living up to God’s covenant and they will soon be punished if they do not change their ways. </li></ul></ul>
    63. 63. Who Wrote the Torah?
    64. 64. The Torah
    65. 65. Biblical Origins <ul><ul><li>Divine transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentary Hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral Transmission </li></ul></ul>
    66. 66. Graf-Wellhausen Hypothesis The Torah is composed by a series of editors out of four major strands of literary traditions. These traditions are known as J, E, D, and P.
    67. 67. The Documentary Hypothesis
    68. 68. The Documentary Hypothesis
    69. 69. The Folklore Hypothesis
    70. 70. End of Times: Jewish Apocalyptic Traditions
    71. 71. “ categorical destruction of the world or current society” by supernatural forces, natural forces, or human actions* *Daniel Wojcik. 1997. Faith, Fatalism, and Apocalypse in America. New York: NYU Press, p. 12. Apocalypse
    72. 72. “ the degree to which an individual perceives a lack of ability to control his future; a generalized sense of powerlessness and alienation” *Everett Rodgers and Lynne Svenning, qtd. In Daniel Wojcik. 1997. Faith, Fatalism, and Apocalypse in America. New York: NYU Press, p. 134. Fatalism
    73. 73. “ the degree to which an individual perceives a lack of ability to control his future; a generalized sense of powerlessness and alienation” *Everett Rodgers and Lynne Svenning, qtd. In Daniel Wojcik. 1997. Faith, Fatalism, and Apocalypse in America. New York: NYU Press, p. 134. Fatalism
    74. 74. the sense of control that individuals feel over their environment; the ways individuals interpret events *Daniel Wojcik. 1997. Faith, Fatalism, and Apocalypse in America. New York: NYU Press, p. 135-6. Locus of Control
    75. 75. INTERNAL: events determined of controlled by one’s own efforts EXTERNAL: events determined by forces outside of oneself *Daniel Wojcik. 1997. Faith, Fatalism, and Apocalypse in America. New York: NYU Press, p. 135-6. Locus of Control
    76. 76. prophesy : to make predictions about the future; prophet : person responsible for communicating divine knowledge *Daniel Wojcik. 1997. Faith, Fatalism, and Apocalypse in America. New York: NYU Press, p. 12. Prophecy
    77. 77. ORIGIN: Old English, via Old French and ecclesiastical Latin from Greek apokalupsis, from apokaluptein ‘uncover, reveal,’ from apo- ‘un-’ + kaluptein ‘to cover.’ Apocalypse
    78. 78. the study of “last things” or “end times”* *Daniel Wojcik. 1997. Faith, Fatalism, and Apocalypse in America. New York: NYU Press, p. 12. Eschatology
    79. 79. Apocalyptic Traditions nuclear conflict zombies The Rapture Armageddon vampires 2012 punk prophecies global warming UFOs
    80. 80. Eschatology (Examples) Heaven judgment of the dead afterlife reincarnation end of humanity Hell transmigration of souls
    81. 81. 586 B.C.E. King Nebuchadnezzar First Apocalypse
    82. 82. The Babylonian Exile <ul><ul><li>In 586 BCE, the Judean kingdom fell , marking the transition of the Hebrew tradition from the national cult of an ancient kingdom to the religious heritage of a widely dispersed people ( Diaspora ). </li></ul></ul>
    83. 83. The Babylonian Exile <ul><ul><li>Judeans, or Jews, longed for return, or restoration of Yahweh’s sovereignty. </li></ul></ul>
    84. 84. The Babylonian Exile <ul><ul><li>messiah: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vision of a deliverer king </li></ul></ul>
    85. 85. The Babylonian Exile <ul><ul><li>apocalypse: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cosmic battle followed by judgment at the end of the age </li></ul></ul>
    86. 86. Jewish Prophecies The Wailing Wall, Jerusalem, Israel
    87. 87. Apocalyptic Traditions http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OJDrBD0AGL4&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wTutZ4ydlgg&feature=related
    88. 88. What is cultural memory ? <ul><li>a form of storytelling </li></ul><ul><li> a process of forgetting </li></ul><ul><li> a “mystery” </li></ul>
    89. 89. Experience or Event Memory, Representation, or Interpretation
    90. 90. The Civil Rights Movement Sex, Drugs & Rock ‘n’ Roll Betty Friedan, NOW SCLC Birth Control Pill Elvis, The Beatles The Rolling Stones Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta, UFW Rights Pete Seeger Ella Baker, Jo Ann Robinson King’s “ I Have A Dream” speech Human “ Be-In” SNCC JFK Shot Representing the 1960s (United States) TV James Brown Vietnam War
    91. 91. We often select cultural memories that eclipse or overshadow the experiences of people considered too “ordinary” to be noticed. The Problem of Representation KEY POINT
    92. 92. What is cultural memory ? Cultural memories are memories that are “shared outside the avenues of formal historical discourse yet is entangled with cultural products and imbued with cultural meaning” (Sturken 1997).
    93. 93. What is cultural memory ? Cultural memories are also “created in tandem with forgetting - it is a narrative rather than a replica of an experience that can be retrieved and relived (Sturken 1997).”
    94. 94. History happens all at once, but specific cultural memories are chosen as representations of a particular time period or era based on their ability to support an idealized national or regional form of identity . Key Argument
    95. 95. History is therefore always interpreted through lens of its “experts”- and we must question who these authoritative “experts” are and whether or not their narratives of the past really represent the human experience in all of its variety and complexity. Key Argument (continued)

    ×