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  • C. In the context of a deeply divided 1st-century Judaism, Jesus met conflict with Jewish leaders and was executed by crucifixion under Roman authority. III. Christianity is born as a religion centered on the revelation of God in Jesus Christ through the resurrection experience. The proper understanding of the Resurrection is critical to grasping Christianity’s claims. 1. The claim is not that Jesus was resuscitated and continued his mortal existence but that he transcended mortality by entering into a share in God’s life and power. 2. The essential designation of Jesus as “Lord” signifies that Jesus has been exalted to the status of God and has become “Life-Giving Spirit” (1 Cor 15:45). 3. The Resurrection is not historical but eschatological, a “new creation” that transforms humans through a new power of life. B. The Resurrection is the basis for other fundamental convictions concerning Jesus. 1. The Resurrection reveals what Jesus was already in his mortal life, namely, God’s unique Son. 2. The Resurrection is the premise for the expectation that Jesus will come again as judge of the world. 3. The Resurrection makes Jesus not simply a Jewish messiah (in fact, he fails at that) but establishes him as “a new Adam,” the start of a new humanity. 4. The Resurrection is the basis for Christianity becoming a worldwide religion rather than a sect within Judaism.
  • Sangha, monks
  • Sangha, monks
  • Sangha, monks
  • Sangha, monks
  • Sangha, monks
  • Sangha, monks
  • Holy communion very center of community; the power of the church to include everyone gives it leverage; “We are a body knit together.”
  • Holy communion very center of community; the power of the church to include everyone gives it leverage; “We are a body knit together.”
  • Holy communion very center of community; the power of the church to include everyone gives it leverage; “We are a body knit together.”
  • Once Paul came to think that Jesus’s death and Resurrection were the keys to salvation, he had to rethink his understanding of his own Jewish religion: If Christ is the way of salvation, what about the salvation God had already provided his people through the Law? 1. Paul came to think that the Jewish Law was misunderstood if it was taken to be a way to maintain a right relationship with God. 2. The Jewish Law can tell a person how to live, but it does not provide anyone with the power to do what it demands. It is itself good, then, but it is not able to bring salvation, only condemnation. 3. Everyone is under the cosmic power of sin in this evil world, and as such, no one is able to fulfill the righteous demands of the Law. 4. Christ, though, broke the cosmic powers of sin and death (evidence: he overcame death!). Those who believe in his death and Resurrection can be made right with God (= justified)—not by keeping the Jewish Law, but by having faith in the one who triumphed over evil. E. Because salvation comes apart from the Law, it is available to everyone, both Jew and Gentile, on equal terms. It comes by faith in Jesus, not by joining the Jewish people or by keeping the Jewish Law. 1. Once Paul became convinced of this, he became a missionary to take the “good news” (the literal meaning of gospel) to others, understanding himself principally as an apostle to the Gentiles (that is, “non-Jews”). 2. He went on numerous missionary expeditions, setting up Christian churches in major urban areas in Cilicia, Asia Minor, Macedonia, and Achaia (modern Turkey and Greece) and converting former pagans to belief in the one God of the Jews and Jesus, his Son, whose death brought salvation. 3. Once Paul established a church in one place, he would move on to another, working to convert as many people as he could as quickly as possible, because for him, “The end is near.” IV. With one exception, the surviving writings of Paul are all letters that he wrote to his churches after he left. A. Problems would arise in these churches, involving questions of what to believe and how to act, and Paul
  • Once Paul came to think that Jesus’s death and Resurrection were the keys to salvation, he had to rethink his understanding of his own Jewish religion: If Christ is the way of salvation, what about the salvation God had already provided his people through the Law? 1. Paul came to think that the Jewish Law was misunderstood if it was taken to be a way to maintain a right relationship with God. 2. The Jewish Law can tell a person how to live, but it does not provide anyone with the power to do what it demands. It is itself good, then, but it is not able to bring salvation, only condemnation. 3. Everyone is under the cosmic power of sin in this evil world, and as such, no one is able to fulfill the righteous demands of the Law. 4. Christ, though, broke the cosmic powers of sin and death (evidence: he overcame death!). Those who believe in his death and Resurrection can be made right with God (= justified)—not by keeping the Jewish Law, but by having faith in the one who triumphed over evil. E. Because salvation comes apart from the Law, it is available to everyone, both Jew and Gentile, on equal terms. It comes by faith in Jesus, not by joining the Jewish people or by keeping the Jewish Law. 1. Once Paul became convinced of this, he became a missionary to take the “good news” (the literal meaning of gospel) to others, understanding himself principally as an apostle to the Gentiles (that is, “non-Jews”). 2. He went on numerous missionary expeditions, setting up Christian churches in major urban areas in Cilicia, Asia Minor, Macedonia, and Achaia (modern Turkey and Greece) and converting former pagans to belief in the one God of the Jews and Jesus, his Son, whose death brought salvation. 3. Once Paul established a church in one place, he would move on to another, working to convert as many people as he could as quickly as possible, because for him, “The end is near.” IV. With one exception, the surviving writings of Paul are all letters that he wrote to his churches after he left. A. Problems would arise in these churches, involving questions of what to believe and how to act, and Paul
  • Early Buddhism: denial that God exists or that the Self exists, regardless of wealth or power, caster, anyone can achieve enlightenment, Principal radical egalitariansm Legit. Is built into archaic systems of religion
  • Early Buddhism: denial that God exists or that the Self exists, regardless of wealth or power, caster, anyone can achieve enlightenment, Principal radical egalitariansm Legit. Is built into archaic systems of religion
  • claim universality, include all members of the society within their ranks, and have a strong tendency to equate 'citizenship' with 'membershipexercise religious monopoly and try to eliminate religious competitionvery closely allied with the state and secular powers - frequently there is overlapping of responsibilities and much mutual reinforcementextensively organized as a hierarchical bureaucratic institution with a complex division of laboremploy professional, full-time clergy who possess the appropriate credentials of education and formal ordinationalmost by definition gain new members through natural reproduction and the socialization of children into the ranksallow for diversity by creating different groups within the church (e.g., orders of nuns or monks) rather than through the formation of new religions DENOM: similar to churches, but unlike sects, in being on relatively good terms with the state and secular powers and may even attempt to influence government at timesmaintain at least tolerant and usually fairly friendly relationships with other denominations in a context of religious pluralismrely primarily on birth for membership increase, though it will also accept converts; some even actively pursue evangelizationaccept the principle of at least modestly changing doctrine and practice and tolerate some theological diversity and disputefollow a fairly routinized ritual and worship service that explicitly discourages spontaneous emotional expressiontrain and employ professional clergy who must meet formal requirements for certificationaccept less extensive involvement from members than do sects, but more involvement than churchesoften draw disproportionately from the middle and upper classes of society Sects are newly formed religious groups that form to protest elements of their parent religion (generally a denomination). Their motivation tends to be situated in accusations of apostasy or heresy in the parent denomination; they are often decrying liberal trends in denominational development and advocating a return to true religion. Cults are, like sects, new religious groups. But, unlike sects, they can form without breaking off from another religious group (though they often do). The characteristic that most distinguishes cults from sects is that they are not advocating a return to pure religion but rather the embracement of something new or something that has been completely lost or forgotten (e.g., lost scripture or new prophecy). Cults are also more likely to be led by charismatic leaders than are other religious groups and the charismatic leaders tend to be the individuals who bring forth the new or lost component that is the focal element of the cult.
  • claim universality, include all members of the society within their ranks, and have a strong tendency to equate 'citizenship' with 'membershipexercise religious monopoly and try to eliminate religious competitionvery closely allied with the state and secular powers - frequently there is overlapping of responsibilities and much mutual reinforcementextensively organized as a hierarchical bureaucratic institution with a complex division of laboremploy professional, full-time clergy who possess the appropriate credentials of education and formal ordinationalmost by definition gain new members through natural reproduction and the socialization of children into the ranksallow for diversity by creating different groups within the church (e.g., orders of nuns or monks) rather than through the formation of new religions DENOM: similar to churches, but unlike sects, in being on relatively good terms with the state and secular powers and may even attempt to influence government at timesmaintain at least tolerant and usually fairly friendly relationships with other denominations in a context of religious pluralismrely primarily on birth for membership increase, though it will also accept converts; some even actively pursue evangelizationaccept the principle of at least modestly changing doctrine and practice and tolerate some theological diversity and disputefollow a fairly routinized ritual and worship service that explicitly discourages spontaneous emotional expressiontrain and employ professional clergy who must meet formal requirements for certificationaccept less extensive involvement from members than do sects, but more involvement than churchesoften draw disproportionately from the middle and upper classes of society Sects are newly formed religious groups that form to protest elements of their parent religion (generally a denomination). Their motivation tends to be situated in accusations of apostasy or heresy in the parent denomination; they are often decrying liberal trends in denominational development and advocating a return to true religion. Cults are, like sects, new religious groups. But, unlike sects, they can form without breaking off from another religious group (though they often do). The characteristic that most distinguishes cults from sects is that they are not advocating a return to pure religion but rather the embracement of something new or something that has been completely lost or forgotten (e.g., lost scripture or new prophecy). Cults are also more likely to be led by charismatic leaders than are other religious groups and the charismatic leaders tend to be the individuals who bring forth the new or lost component that is the focal element of the cult.
  • claim universality, include all members of the society within their ranks, and have a strong tendency to equate 'citizenship' with 'membershipexercise religious monopoly and try to eliminate religious competitionvery closely allied with the state and secular powers - frequently there is overlapping of responsibilities and much mutual reinforcementextensively organized as a hierarchical bureaucratic institution with a complex division of laboremploy professional, full-time clergy who possess the appropriate credentials of education and formal ordinationalmost by definition gain new members through natural reproduction and the socialization of children into the ranksallow for diversity by creating different groups within the church (e.g., orders of nuns or monks) rather than through the formation of new religions DENOM: similar to churches, but unlike sects, in being on relatively good terms with the state and secular powers and may even attempt to influence government at timesmaintain at least tolerant and usually fairly friendly relationships with other denominations in a context of religious pluralismrely primarily on birth for membership increase, though it will also accept converts; some even actively pursue evangelizationaccept the principle of at least modestly changing doctrine and practice and tolerate some theological diversity and disputefollow a fairly routinized ritual and worship service that explicitly discourages spontaneous emotional expressiontrain and employ professional clergy who must meet formal requirements for certificationaccept less extensive involvement from members than do sects, but more involvement than churchesoften draw disproportionately from the middle and upper classes of society Sects are newly formed religious groups that form to protest elements of their parent religion (generally a denomination). Their motivation tends to be situated in accusations of apostasy or heresy in the parent denomination; they are often decrying liberal trends in denominational development and advocating a return to true religion. Cults are, like sects, new religious groups. But, unlike sects, they can form without breaking off from another religious group (though they often do). The characteristic that most distinguishes cults from sects is that they are not advocating a return to pure religion but rather the embracement of something new or something that has been completely lost or forgotten (e.g., lost scripture or new prophecy). Cults are also more likely to be led by charismatic leaders than are other religious groups and the charismatic leaders tend to be the individuals who bring forth the new or lost component that is the focal element of the cult.
  • claim universality, include all members of the society within their ranks, and have a strong tendency to equate 'citizenship' with 'membershipexercise religious monopoly and try to eliminate religious competitionvery closely allied with the state and secular powers - frequently there is overlapping of responsibilities and much mutual reinforcementextensively organized as a hierarchical bureaucratic institution with a complex division of laboremploy professional, full-time clergy who possess the appropriate credentials of education and formal ordinationalmost by definition gain new members through natural reproduction and the socialization of children into the ranksallow for diversity by creating different groups within the church (e.g., orders of nuns or monks) rather than through the formation of new religions DENOM: similar to churches, but unlike sects, in being on relatively good terms with the state and secular powers and may even attempt to influence government at timesmaintain at least tolerant and usually fairly friendly relationships with other denominations in a context of religious pluralismrely primarily on birth for membership increase, though it will also accept converts; some even actively pursue evangelizationaccept the principle of at least modestly changing doctrine and practice and tolerate some theological diversity and disputefollow a fairly routinized ritual and worship service that explicitly discourages spontaneous emotional expressiontrain and employ professional clergy who must meet formal requirements for certificationaccept less extensive involvement from members than do sects, but more involvement than churchesoften draw disproportionately from the middle and upper classes of society Sects are newly formed religious groups that form to protest elements of their parent religion (generally a denomination). Their motivation tends to be situated in accusations of apostasy or heresy in the parent denomination; they are often decrying liberal trends in denominational development and advocating a return to true religion. Cults are, like sects, new religious groups. But, unlike sects, they can form without breaking off from another religious group (though they often do). The characteristic that most distinguishes cults from sects is that they are not advocating a return to pure religion but rather the embracement of something new or something that has been completely lost or forgotten (e.g., lost scripture or new prophecy). Cults are also more likely to be led by charismatic leaders than are other religious groups and the charismatic leaders tend to be the individuals who bring forth the new or lost component that is the focal element of the cult.
  • claim universality, include all members of the society within their ranks, and have a strong tendency to equate 'citizenship' with 'membershipexercise religious monopoly and try to eliminate religious competitionvery closely allied with the state and secular powers - frequently there is overlapping of responsibilities and much mutual reinforcementextensively organized as a hierarchical bureaucratic institution with a complex division of laboremploy professional, full-time clergy who possess the appropriate credentials of education and formal ordinationalmost by definition gain new members through natural reproduction and the socialization of children into the ranksallow for diversity by creating different groups within the church (e.g., orders of nuns or monks) rather than through the formation of new religions DENOM: similar to churches, but unlike sects, in being on relatively good terms with the state and secular powers and may even attempt to influence government at timesmaintain at least tolerant and usually fairly friendly relationships with other denominations in a context of religious pluralismrely primarily on birth for membership increase, though it will also accept converts; some even actively pursue evangelizationaccept the principle of at least modestly changing doctrine and practice and tolerate some theological diversity and disputefollow a fairly routinized ritual and worship service that explicitly discourages spontaneous emotional expressiontrain and employ professional clergy who must meet formal requirements for certificationaccept less extensive involvement from members than do sects, but more involvement than churchesoften draw disproportionately from the middle and upper classes of society Sects are newly formed religious groups that form to protest elements of their parent religion (generally a denomination). Their motivation tends to be situated in accusations of apostasy or heresy in the parent denomination; they are often decrying liberal trends in denominational development and advocating a return to true religion. Cults are, like sects, new religious groups. But, unlike sects, they can form without breaking off from another religious group (though they often do). The characteristic that most distinguishes cults from sects is that they are not advocating a return to pure religion but rather the embracement of something new or something that has been completely lost or forgotten (e.g., lost scripture or new prophecy). Cults are also more likely to be led by charismatic leaders than are other religious groups and the charismatic leaders tend to be the individuals who bring forth the new or lost component that is the focal element of the cult.
  • claim universality, include all members of the society within their ranks, and have a strong tendency to equate 'citizenship' with 'membershipexercise religious monopoly and try to eliminate religious competitionvery closely allied with the state and secular powers - frequently there is overlapping of responsibilities and much mutual reinforcementextensively organized as a hierarchical bureaucratic institution with a complex division of laboremploy professional, full-time clergy who possess the appropriate credentials of education and formal ordinationalmost by definition gain new members through natural reproduction and the socialization of children into the ranksallow for diversity by creating different groups within the church (e.g., orders of nuns or monks) rather than through the formation of new religions DENOM: similar to churches, but unlike sects, in being on relatively good terms with the state and secular powers and may even attempt to influence government at timesmaintain at least tolerant and usually fairly friendly relationships with other denominations in a context of religious pluralismrely primarily on birth for membership increase, though it will also accept converts; some even actively pursue evangelizationaccept the principle of at least modestly changing doctrine and practice and tolerate some theological diversity and disputefollow a fairly routinized ritual and worship service that explicitly discourages spontaneous emotional expressiontrain and employ professional clergy who must meet formal requirements for certificationaccept less extensive involvement from members than do sects, but more involvement than churchesoften draw disproportionately from the middle and upper classes of society Sects are newly formed religious groups that form to protest elements of their parent religion (generally a denomination). Their motivation tends to be situated in accusations of apostasy or heresy in the parent denomination; they are often decrying liberal trends in denominational development and advocating a return to true religion. Cults are, like sects, new religious groups. But, unlike sects, they can form without breaking off from another religious group (though they often do). The characteristic that most distinguishes cults from sects is that they are not advocating a return to pure religion but rather the embracement of something new or something that has been completely lost or forgotten (e.g., lost scripture or new prophecy). Cults are also more likely to be led by charismatic leaders than are other religious groups and the charismatic leaders tend to be the individuals who bring forth the new or lost component that is the focal element of the cult.
  • claim universality, include all members of the society within their ranks, and have a strong tendency to equate 'citizenship' with 'membershipexercise religious monopoly and try to eliminate religious competitionvery closely allied with the state and secular powers - frequently there is overlapping of responsibilities and much mutual reinforcementextensively organized as a hierarchical bureaucratic institution with a complex division of laboremploy professional, full-time clergy who possess the appropriate credentials of education and formal ordinationalmost by definition gain new members through natural reproduction and the socialization of children into the ranksallow for diversity by creating different groups within the church (e.g., orders of nuns or monks) rather than through the formation of new religions DENOM: similar to churches, but unlike sects, in being on relatively good terms with the state and secular powers and may even attempt to influence government at timesmaintain at least tolerant and usually fairly friendly relationships with other denominations in a context of religious pluralismrely primarily on birth for membership increase, though it will also accept converts; some even actively pursue evangelizationaccept the principle of at least modestly changing doctrine and practice and tolerate some theological diversity and disputefollow a fairly routinized ritual and worship service that explicitly discourages spontaneous emotional expressiontrain and employ professional clergy who must meet formal requirements for certificationaccept less extensive involvement from members than do sects, but more involvement than churchesoften draw disproportionately from the middle and upper classes of society Sects are newly formed religious groups that form to protest elements of their parent religion (generally a denomination). Their motivation tends to be situated in accusations of apostasy or heresy in the parent denomination; they are often decrying liberal trends in denominational development and advocating a return to true religion. Cults are, like sects, new religious groups. But, unlike sects, they can form without breaking off from another religious group (though they often do). The characteristic that most distinguishes cults from sects is that they are not advocating a return to pure religion but rather the embracement of something new or something that has been completely lost or forgotten (e.g., lost scripture or new prophecy). Cults are also more likely to be led by charismatic leaders than are other religious groups and the charismatic leaders tend to be the individuals who bring forth the new or lost component that is the focal element of the cult.
  • I. Christianity is a religion that has unity as an ideal but has experienced conflict and division throughout its history. A. The ideal of unity is expressed in the New Testament and is stated by the creed as one of the four “marks of the church.” B. The early centuries were marked by a variety of severe conflicts concerning belief and practice: 1. The New Testament shows sharp disagreements between Christian groups (see Galatians, 2 and 3 John). 2. The 2nd century struggle for self-definition involved sharp ideological and political divisions. 3. The battles involving Trinitarian and Christological doctrine in the 4th and 5th centuries likewise had ecclesiastical and political overtones. C. The three great families in Christianity arose from specific contentious circumstances between the 11th and 16th centuries and led to three distinct and usually competing versions of the religion. Each of them claims to best represent the essence of Christianity. 2. Each of them claims a particular kind of continuity with Christian origins. 3. All of them share the same basic story, creed, and moral teaching but differ most on questions of organization, theological emphasis, and worship.
  • withauthority coming from the Bishop of Rome (the pope), through archbishops and bishops, to the local clergy and laity of dioceses throughout the world.
  • withauthority coming from the Bishop of Rome (the pope), through archbishops and bishops, to the local clergy and laity of dioceses throughout the world. The Catholic clergy is all male, is celibate, and has a sacramental focus. The ministry of local parish priests is supplemented by that of active religious orders, such as the Jesuits and Dominicans. D. Catholicism claims and cultivates a powerful intellectual tradition reaching from Augustine and other patristic authors, through Aquinas and other Scholastic masters, to contemporary philosophers and theologians. E. The sacramental piety of Catholicism extends to devotion to the “ communion of saints,” among whom Mary, the Mother of Jesus, receives most attention.
  • withauthority coming from the Bishop of Rome (the pope), through archbishops and bishops, to the local clergy and laity of dioceses throughout the world. The Catholic clergy is all male, is celibate, and has a sacramental focus. The ministry of local parish priests is supplemented by that of active religious orders, such as the Jesuits and Dominicans. D. Catholicism claims and cultivates a powerful intellectual tradition reaching from Augustine and other patristic authors, through Aquinas and other Scholastic masters, to contemporary philosophers and theologians. E. The sacramental piety of Catholicism extends to devotion to the “ communion of saints,” among whom Mary, the Mother of Jesus, receives most attention.
  • withauthority coming from the Bishop of Rome (the pope), through archbishops and bishops, to the local clergy and laity of dioceses throughout the world. The Catholic clergy is all male, is celibate, and has a sacramental focus. The ministry of local parish priests is supplemented by that of active religious orders, such as the Jesuits and Dominicans. D. Catholicism claims and cultivates a powerful intellectual tradition reaching from Augustine and other patristic authors, through Aquinas and other Scholastic masters, to contemporary philosophers and theologians. E. The sacramental piety of Catholicism extends to devotion to the “ communion of saints,” among whom Mary, the Mother of Jesus, receives most attention.
  • III. The Orthodox tradition also claims continuity with the earliest church. Indeed, the embrace of “holy tradition” ( hagia paradosis) is emphatic in a version of Christianity that eschews change. A. Orthodoxy shares most with Catholicism. The two camps split as a result of schism in 1054, the climax of centuries of growing tension between the old Rome and the “New Rome” of Constantinople. 1. Political rivalry between capitals was expressed by religious rivalry between patriarchates, and the Latin-speaking West (facing the rapid changes subsequent on barbarian invasions) grew culturally apart from the more stable Greek-speaking East. 2. Specific causes of schism involved diplomatic misunderstandings and the theological dustup around the phrase “and the Son” ( filioque) in the creed.
  • III. The Orthodox tradition also claims continuity with the earliest church. Indeed, the embrace of “holy tradition” ( hagia paradosis) is emphatic in a version of Christianity that eschews change. A. Orthodoxy shares most with Catholicism. The two camps split as a result of schism in 1054, the climax of centuries of growing tension between the old Rome and the “New Rome” of Constantinople. 1. Political rivalry between capitals was expressed by religious rivalry between patriarchates, and the Latin-speaking West (facing the rapid changes subsequent on barbarian invasions) grew culturally apart from the more stable Greek-speaking East. 2. Specific causes of schism involved diplomatic misunderstandings and the theological dustup around the phrase “and the Son” ( filioque) in the creed. The Orthodox tradition is dominant in Greece, Russia, the Slavic nations, Turkey, Cyprus, and the Middle East. Organization is patriarchal, with special honor given to the Patriarch of Constantinople. Local clergy are married, but the long-standing monastic tradition is celibate, and bishops are drawn from among monks. C. Orthodox spirituality is rich and complex, with particular emphasis on an apophatic mysticism. The veneration of the saints is reflected in the use of icons in liturgy and in contemplative prayer. The resistance to the iconoclastic movement within Orthodoxy (influenced by Islam) was a defining moment in shaping this tradition’s character. D. Orthodoxy is centered in worship. The liturgy is regarded as a participation in the heavenly worship and is a powerfully moving and transforming experience.
  • III. The Orthodox tradition also claims continuity with the earliest church. Indeed, the embrace of “holy tradition” ( hagia paradosis) is emphatic in a version of Christianity that eschews change. A. Orthodoxy shares most with Catholicism. The two camps split as a result of schism in 1054, the climax of centuries of growing tension between the old Rome and the “New Rome” of Constantinople. 1. Political rivalry between capitals was expressed by religious rivalry between patriarchates, and the Latin-speaking West (facing the rapid changes subsequent on barbarian invasions) grew culturally apart from the more stable Greek-speaking East. 2. Specific causes of schism involved diplomatic misunderstandings and the theological dustup around the phrase “and the Son” ( filioque) in the creed. The Orthodox tradition is dominant in Greece, Russia, the Slavic nations, Turkey, Cyprus, and the Middle East. Organization is patriarchal, with special honor given to the Patriarch of Constantinople. Local clergy are married, but the long-standing monastic tradition is celibate, and bishops are drawn from among monks. C. Orthodox spirituality is rich and complex, with particular emphasis on an apophatic mysticism. The veneration of the saints is reflected in the use of icons in liturgy and in contemplative prayer. The resistance to the iconoclastic movement within Orthodoxy (influenced by Islam) was a defining moment in shaping this tradition’s character. D. Orthodoxy is centered in worship. The liturgy is regarded as a participation in the heavenly worship and is a powerfully moving and transforming experience.
  • The Protestant tradition began in the 16th century as an attempt to reform what was regarded as the corrupt Catholicism of the late-medieval period. Although symbolically connected to the figure of Martin Luther and John Calvin, the Reformation took many forms from the beginning and has developed in distinct ways. The overall feature that most distinguishes Protestantism from Catholicism and Orthodoxy is its emphasis on verbal revelation, preaching, and Scripture. A. The Lutheran tradition emphasized a return to Scripture as the norm for Christian life and a concentration on faith as the means of being in right relationship with God. It is found especially among Germanic and Nordic populations. B. The Anglican tradition began as a schismatic break with Rome by King Henry VIII but, under Thomas Cranmer, developed a distinctive reform of the Catholic tradition, reflected above all, in the forms of piety found in the Book of Common Prayer. Anglicans (or Anglo-Catholics, or Episcopalians) are primarily English speaking. This tradition uses both ancient tradition and reason in its reading of Scripture and is, therefore, characterized by a highly intellectual character. C. In the 18th century, Methodism began as a lay reform reform movement within Anglicanism that emphasized fervent piety in imitation of the ancient monks. Methodists, in addition to Scripture, tradition, and reason as norms for their lives, add, revealingly, experience. The Methodist (or Wesleyan) tradition places a high premium on experience and the transformation of the heart. D. The Reformed tradition began in France and Switzerland with John Calvin but achieved great success among English-speaking populations under John Knox. Strict and intellectually rigorous, the Presbyterian tradition embraces the doctrine of predestination and elicits an enthusiastic commitment to good works. E. The Anabaptist (meaning, “to be baptized again”) movement in 16thcentury Germany emphasized free and intentional commitment reflected in the practice of adult baptism. It broke away from the centralized, hierarchical tradition of other sects and is centered in the local congregation, each local congregation being freestanding. The Baptists represent the largest (and most “evangelical”) form of Protestantism worldwide; most Baptists reject any form of creed or hierarchy and put tremendous emphasis on liberty. F. There are literally thousands of other versions of Protestantism, including Holiness and Pentecostal traditions, and a spectrum of local or national amalgamations of the dominant traditions. V. The biggest scandal to non-Christians in this constant proliferation of Christian denominations is the intense rivalry and hostility that has so often existed among them, deriving from each one’s claim to be the exclusive representative of authentic Christianity.
  • The Protestant tradition began in the 16th century as an attempt to reform what was regarded as the corrupt Catholicism of the late-medieval period. Although symbolically connected to the figure of Martin Luther and John Calvin, the Reformation took many forms from the beginning and has developed in distinct ways. The overall feature that most distinguishes Protestantism from Catholicism and Orthodoxy is its emphasis on verbal revelation, preaching, and Scripture. A. The Lutheran tradition emphasized a return to Scripture as the norm for Christian life and a concentration on faith as the means of being in right relationship with God. It is found especially among Germanic and Nordic populations. B. The Anglican tradition began as a schismatic break with Rome by King Henry VIII but, under Thomas Cranmer, developed a distinctive reform of the Catholic tradition, reflected above all, in the forms of piety found in the Book of Common Prayer. Anglicans (or Anglo-Catholics, or Episcopalians) are primarily English speaking. This tradition uses both ancient tradition and reason in its reading of Scripture and is, therefore, characterized by a highly intellectual character. C. In the 18th century, Methodism began as a lay reform reform movement within Anglicanism that emphasized fervent piety in imitation of the ancient monks. Methodists, in addition to Scripture, tradition, and reason as norms for their lives, add, revealingly, experience. The Methodist (or Wesleyan) tradition places a high premium on experience and the transformation of the heart. D. The Reformed tradition began in France and Switzerland with John Calvin but achieved great success among English-speaking populations under John Knox. Strict and intellectually rigorous, the Presbyterian tradition embraces the doctrine of predestination and elicits an enthusiastic commitment to good works. E. The Anabaptist (meaning, “to be baptized again”) movement in 16thcentury Germany emphasized free and intentional commitment reflected in the practice of adult baptism. It broke away from the centralized, hierarchical tradition of other sects and is centered in the local congregation, each local congregation being freestanding. The Baptists represent the largest (and most “evangelical”) form of Protestantism worldwide; most Baptists reject any form of creed or hierarchy and put tremendous emphasis on liberty. F. There are literally thousands of other versions of Protestantism, including Holiness and Pentecostal traditions, and a spectrum of local or national amalgamations of the dominant traditions. V. The biggest scandal to non-Christians in this constant proliferation of Christian denominations is the intense rivalry and hostility that has so often existed among them, deriving from each one’s claim to be the exclusive representative of authentic Christianity.
  • I. Columbus’s discovery of the Americas narrowly preceded the Reformation. Religious hatreds were added to intense national rivalries in the ensuing 200 years, which poisoned relations among the powers that colonized America. Attitudes about the Reformation also affected patterns of migration to the New World. II. The Reformation. A. For several centuries, Protestants looked back to the Reformation as a dawn of truth, while Catholics looked on it as a massive outbreak of heresy. Today, historians seek more to understand than to condemn, but they have to take seriously the intensity with which rival religious ideals were debated and defended. B. Martin Luther’s criticism of Johann Tetzel, the seller of papal indulgences, led to a broader controversy with the Vatican. 1. The heart of Luther’s teaching was embodied in the three principles sola scriptura (Christianity should be based on scripture alone, rather than scripture and tradition), sola fide (that man is saved by faith alone, not faith and works), and the priesthood of all believers, without the need for priestly intermediaries. 2. He was protected, after his 1521 excommunication, by Prince Frederick of Saxony. 3. Luther’s support for the German princes in suppressing the Peasant Revolt of the 1520s ensured that Lutheranism could become a state religion in much of north Germany and Scandinavia. C. The Swiss Reformation, especially the work of John Calvin in Geneva, created a rigorous Protestant way of life. 1. Calvin emphasized God’s power and man’s sinfulness in the theology of predestination. 2. Calvinism was iconoclastic, seeking to annihilate all Catholic vestiges. 3. Calvin organized a theocratic government for Geneva, which many later Protestants regarded as a model. . The English Reformation sprang from Henry VIII’s eagerness to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn, in the hope of siring a male heir. 1. Henry had criticized Luther in a 1521 pamphlet and won papal thanks. 2. The Pope’s Spanish connections forestalled Henry’s divorce project. 3. He declared himself head of the English church and seized its extensive properties, making himself much richer and more powerful than before. 4. He did not want to adopt Protestantism wholesale inside English Christianity.
  • I. Columbus’s discovery of the Americas narrowly preceded the Reformation. Religious hatreds were added to intense national rivalries in the ensuing 200 years, which poisoned relations among the powers that colonized America. Attitudes about the Reformation also affected patterns of migration to the New World. II. The Reformation. A. For several centuries, Protestants looked back to the Reformation as a dawn of truth, while Catholics looked on it as a massive outbreak of heresy. Today, historians seek more to understand than to condemn, but they have to take seriously the intensity with which rival religious ideals were debated and defended. B. Martin Luther’s criticism of Johann Tetzel, the seller of papal indulgences, led to a broader controversy with the Vatican. 1. The heart of Luther’s teaching was embodied in the three principles sola scriptura (Christianity should be based on scripture alone, rather than scripture and tradition), sola fide (that man is saved by faith alone, not faith and works), and the priesthood of all believers, without the need for priestly intermediaries. 2. He was protected, after his 1521 excommunication, by Prince Frederick of Saxony. 3. Luther’s support for the German princes in suppressing the Peasant Revolt of the 1520s ensured that Lutheranism could become a state religion in much of north Germany and Scandinavia. C. The Swiss Reformation, especially the work of John Calvin in Geneva, created a rigorous Protestant way of life. 1. Calvin emphasized God’s power and man’s sinfulness in the theology of predestination. 2. Calvinism was iconoclastic, seeking to annihilate all Catholic vestiges. 3. Calvin organized a theocratic government for Geneva, which many later Protestants regarded as a model. . The English Reformation sprang from Henry VIII’s eagerness to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn, in the hope of siring a male heir. 1. Henry had criticized Luther in a 1521 pamphlet and won papal thanks. 2. The Pope’s Spanish connections forestalled Henry’s divorce project. 3. He declared himself head of the English church and seized its extensive properties, making himself much richer and more powerful than before. 4. He did not want to adopt Protestantism wholesale inside English Christianity.
  • I. Columbus’s discovery of the Americas narrowly preceded the Reformation. Religious hatreds were added to intense national rivalries in the ensuing 200 years, which poisoned relations among the powers that colonized America. Attitudes about the Reformation also affected patterns of migration to the New World. II. The Reformation. A. For several centuries, Protestants looked back to the Reformation as a dawn of truth, while Catholics looked on it as a massive outbreak of heresy. Today, historians seek more to understand than to condemn, but they have to take seriously the intensity with which rival religious ideals were debated and defended. B. Martin Luther’s criticism of Johann Tetzel, the seller of papal indulgences, led to a broader controversy with the Vatican. 1. The heart of Luther’s teaching was embodied in the three principles sola scriptura (Christianity should be based on scripture alone, rather than scripture and tradition), sola fide (that man is saved by faith alone, not faith and works), and the priesthood of all believers, without the need for priestly intermediaries. 2. He was protected, after his 1521 excommunication, by Prince Frederick of Saxony. 3. Luther’s support for the German princes in suppressing the Peasant Revolt of the 1520s ensured that Lutheranism could become a state religion in much of north Germany and Scandinavia. C. The Swiss Reformation, especially the work of John Calvin in Geneva, created a rigorous Protestant way of life. 1. Calvin emphasized God’s power and man’s sinfulness in the theology of predestination. 2. Calvinism was iconoclastic, seeking to annihilate all Catholic vestiges. 3. Calvin organized a theocratic government for Geneva, which many later Protestants regarded as a model. . The English Reformation sprang from Henry VIII’s eagerness to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn, in the hope of siring a male heir. 1. Henry had criticized Luther in a 1521 pamphlet and won papal thanks. 2. The Pope’s Spanish connections forestalled Henry’s divorce project. 3. He declared himself head of the English church and seized its extensive properties, making himself much richer and more powerful than before. 4. He did not want to adopt Protestantism wholesale inside English Christianity.
  • I. Columbus’s discovery of the Americas narrowly preceded the Reformation. Religious hatreds were added to intense national rivalries in the ensuing 200 years, which poisoned relations among the powers that colonized America. Attitudes about the Reformation also affected patterns of migration to the New World. II. The Reformation. A. For several centuries, Protestants looked back to the Reformation as a dawn of truth, while Catholics looked on it as a massive outbreak of heresy. Today, historians seek more to understand than to condemn, but they have to take seriously the intensity with which rival religious ideals were debated and defended. B. Martin Luther’s criticism of Johann Tetzel, the seller of papal indulgences, led to a broader controversy with the Vatican. 1. The heart of Luther’s teaching was embodied in the three principles sola scriptura (Christianity should be based on scripture alone, rather than scripture and tradition), sola fide (that man is saved by faith alone, not faith and works), and the priesthood of all believers, without the need for priestly intermediaries. 2. He was protected, after his 1521 excommunication, by Prince Frederick of Saxony. 3. Luther’s support for the German princes in suppressing the Peasant Revolt of the 1520s ensured that Lutheranism could become a state religion in much of north Germany and Scandinavia. C. The Swiss Reformation, especially the work of John Calvin in Geneva, created a rigorous Protestant way of life. 1. Calvin emphasized God’s power and man’s sinfulness in the theology of predestination. 2. Calvinism was iconoclastic, seeking to annihilate all Catholic vestiges. 3. Calvin organized a theocratic government for Geneva, which many later Protestants regarded as a model. . The English Reformation sprang from Henry VIII’s eagerness to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn, in the hope of siring a male heir. 1. Henry had criticized Luther in a 1521 pamphlet and won papal thanks. 2. The Pope’s Spanish connections forestalled Henry’s divorce project. 3. He declared himself head of the English church and seized its extensive properties, making himself much richer and more powerful than before. 4. He did not want to adopt Protestantism wholesale inside English Christianity.
  • I. Columbus’s discovery of the Americas narrowly preceded the Reformation. Religious hatreds were added to intense national rivalries in the ensuing 200 years, which poisoned relations among the powers that colonized America. Attitudes about the Reformation also affected patterns of migration to the New World. II. The Reformation. A. For several centuries, Protestants looked back to the Reformation as a dawn of truth, while Catholics looked on it as a massive outbreak of heresy. Today, historians seek more to understand than to condemn, but they have to take seriously the intensity with which rival religious ideals were debated and defended. B. Martin Luther’s criticism of Johann Tetzel, the seller of papal indulgences, led to a broader controversy with the Vatican. 1. The heart of Luther’s teaching was embodied in the three principles sola scriptura (Christianity should be based on scripture alone, rather than scripture and tradition), sola fide (that man is saved by faith alone, not faith and works), and the priesthood of all believers, without the need for priestly intermediaries. 2. He was protected, after his 1521 excommunication, by Prince Frederick of Saxony. 3. Luther’s support for the German princes in suppressing the Peasant Revolt of the 1520s ensured that Lutheranism could become a state religion in much of north Germany and Scandinavia. C. The Swiss Reformation, especially the work of John Calvin in Geneva, created a rigorous Protestant way of life. 1. Calvin emphasized God’s power and man’s sinfulness in the theology of predestination. 2. Calvinism was iconoclastic, seeking to annihilate all Catholic vestiges. 3. Calvin organized a theocratic government for Geneva, which many later Protestants regarded as a model. . The English Reformation sprang from Henry VIII’s eagerness to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn, in the hope of siring a male heir. 1. Henry had criticized Luther in a 1521 pamphlet and won papal thanks. 2. The Pope’s Spanish connections forestalled Henry’s divorce project. 3. He declared himself head of the English church and seized its extensive properties, making himself much richer and more powerful than before. 4. He did not want to adopt Protestantism wholesale inside English Christianity.
  • III. The coincidence of the Reformation with the rise of printing and literacy enabled more people than ever before to study and interpret the Bible. A. Books were rare, expensive, and labor intensive before 1500, because they were written by hand on vellum. B. The invention of printing by Gutenberg and others began to reduce the cost of books. C. Reformers insisted on giving Christians access to the Bible in their vernacular languages. Bibles quickly became common in reformed areas. D. The complexity of the Bible ensured that different readers would interpret it in different ways, which contributed to the centrifugal character of Protestantism.
  • III. The coincidence of the Reformation with the rise of printing and literacy enabled more people than ever before to study and interpret the Bible. A. Books were rare, expensive, and labor intensive before 1500, because they were written by hand on vellum. B. The invention of printing by Gutenberg and others began to reduce the cost of books. C. Reformers insisted on giving Christians access to the Bible in their vernacular languages. Bibles quickly became common in reformed areas. D. The complexity of the Bible ensured that different readers would interpret it in different ways, which contributed to the centrifugal character of Protestantism.
  • Religious controversy continued in England at the dawn of the seventeenth century. A. England’s Catholics were disappointed to discover that King James I (1603–1625) did not plan to re-Catholicize England. 1. His mother, Mary Queen of Scots, a Catholic, had been beheaded by Elizabeth, but he had assured his succession to the throne by accepting the Reformation. 2. A Catholic conspiracy to blow up the king and Parliament in 1605 (the Guy Fawkes plot) was discovered. Commemoration of the day became an annual event for Protestants, intensifying in their minds the connection between Catholicism and disloyalty. B. Idealistic Protestants in England, especially those who had sheltered in Geneva during the reign of Mary, wanted to complete the Reformation inside England and purge, or purify, the Church of England of what seemed to them “popish” remnants. We remember these idealists as “Puritans.” 1. They contributed to the writing of the “King James” version of the Bible, the most popular and widespread translation in American history. 2. Some of them believed that the imperfections of the English church justified them in withdrawing from it altogether. They were “separatists,” and a group of them moved first to Holland, then to America on the Mayflower. 3. Other Puritans, believing they had a duty to serve and reform a corrupt church and kingdom, remained in England at first. However, many of them emigrated to the Massachusetts Bay Colony when King James’s son, Charles I, took a Catholic queen (Henrietta Maria, a French princess) and showed favor to Catholics.
  • Religious controversy continued in England at the dawn of the seventeenth century. A. England’s Catholics were disappointed to discover that King James I (1603–1625) did not plan to re-Catholicize England. 1. His mother, Mary Queen of Scots, a Catholic, had been beheaded by Elizabeth, but he had assured his succession to the throne by accepting the Reformation. 2. A Catholic conspiracy to blow up the king and Parliament in 1605 (the Guy Fawkes plot) was discovered. Commemoration of the day became an annual event for Protestants, intensifying in their minds the connection between Catholicism and disloyalty. B. Idealistic Protestants in England, especially those who had sheltered in Geneva during the reign of Mary, wanted to complete the Reformation inside England and purge, or purify, the Church of England of what seemed to them “popish” remnants. We remember these idealists as “Puritans.” 1. They contributed to the writing of the “King James” version of the Bible, the most popular and widespread translation in American history. 2. Some of them believed that the imperfections of the English church justified them in withdrawing from it altogether. They were “separatists,” and a group of them moved first to Holland, then to America on the Mayflower. 3. Other Puritans, believing they had a duty to serve and reform a corrupt church and kingdom, remained in England at first. However, many of them emigrated to the Massachusetts Bay Colony when King James’s son, Charles I, took a Catholic queen (Henrietta Maria, a French princess) and showed favor to Catholics.
  • capitalism in northern Europe evolved when the Protestant (particularly Calvinist) ethic influenced large numbers of people to engage in work in the secular world, developing their own enterprises and engaging in trade and the accumulation of wealth for investment. In other words, the Protestant work ethic was an important force behind the unplanned and uncoordinated mass action that influenced the development of capitalism. This idea is also known as the "Protestant Ethic thesis."[2] The Reformation profoundly affected the view of work, dignifying even the most mundane professions as adding to the common good and thus blessed by God, as much as any "sacred" calling. A common illustration is that of a cobbler, hunched over his work, who devotes his entire effort to the praise of God.To emphasize the work ethic in Protestantism relative to Catholics, he notes a common problem that industrialists face when employing precapitalist laborers: Agricultural entrepreneurs will try to encourage time spent harvesting by offering a higher wage, with the expectation that laborers will see time spent working as more valuable and so engage it longer. However, in precapitalist societies this often results in laborers spending less time harvesting. Laborers judge that they can earn the same, while spending less time working and having more leisure. He also notes that societies having more Protestants are those that have a more developed capitalist economy.[3] :15-16
  • Eliade suggests that at the heart of religious experience is human awareness of the sacred. He argued that the sacred is made known through heirophanies (manifestations of the sacred) and theophanies (manifestations of God). When people perceive a manifestation of the sacred, everything changes—objects, people, places, and even time. A theophany is a manifestation of God. 1. Moses encountered God and received the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai. 2. When Jesus was baptized in the Jordan River, the sky opened, a dove descended, and God’s resounding voice declared, “You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased!” 3. At a pivotal moment in the Bhagavad Gita, a dialogue takes place between Arjuna (a warrior about to go into battle, who is the focus of the Bhagavad Gita) and his chariot driver. The chariot driver reveals himself as Krishna, the incarnation of the Lord Vishnu. 4. From the Islamic tradition comes the time when, during an interlude of prayer and meditation, Muhammad was first called to be a prophet. A hierophany is a broader category indicating a manifestation of the sacred. For example, according to Buddhist tradition, Siddhartha Gautama was conceived during a miraculous vision by his mother and was born through her side as flowers bloomed out of season. Sages appeared to visit the newborn and make prophecies about his auspicious career. Sacred time is a universal category in the religions. 1. Easter Sunday is the most sacred day in the Christian calendar. Sunday, then, became the sacred day of the week—a shift from the Jewish Sabbath that starts Friday evening and lasts until sundown Saturday. 2. Muslims are required to fast and refrain from all pleasurable activities from sunrise until sunset throughout the sacred lunar month of Ramadan each year. 3. For Jews, the most holy day of the year is Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement. Traditionally, Yom Kippur is understood as the date on which Moses received the Ten Commandments for the second time. 4. The Hindu festival of Holi is celebrated each spring; devotees imitate Krishna’s frivolous play with the gopis (cowherds’ wives).
  • According to the new Protestant religions, an individual was religiously compelled to follow a secular vocation with as much zeal as possible. A person living according to this world view was more likely to accumulate money. The new religions (in particular, Calvinism and other more austere Protestant sects) effectively forbade wastefully using hard earned money and identified the purchase of luxuries assin. Donations to an individual's church or congregation was limited due to the rejection by certain Protestant sects of icons. Finally, donation of money to the poor or to charity was generally frowned on as it was seen as furthering beggary. This social condition was perceived as laziness, burdening their fellow man, and an affront to God; by not working, one failed to glorify God.The manner in which this paradox was resolved, Weber argued, was the investment of this money, which gave an extreme boost to nascent capitalism.
  • However, the Calvinist and Lutheran theologians taught that only those who were predestined to be saved would be saved, by grace alone through faith in Jesus alone. Since it was impossible to know if one was predestined (since one might not receive the "grace of perseverance," and one's conversion might be only lip-service), the notion developed that it might be possible to discern that a person was elect (predestined) by observing their way of life. Hard work and frugality were thought to be two important consequences of being one of the elect; thus, Protestants were attracted to these qualities, seeking to be obedient to God to whom they owed their salvation.
  • The Protestant tradition began in the 16th century as an attempt to reform what was regarded as the corrupt Catholicism of the late-medieval period. Although symbolically connected to the figure of Martin Luther and John Calvin, the Reformation took many forms from the beginning and has developed in distinct ways. The overall feature that most distinguishes Protestantism from Catholicism and Orthodoxy is its emphasis on verbal revelation, preaching, and Scripture. A. The Lutheran tradition emphasized a return to Scripture as the norm for Christian life and a concentration on faith as the means of being in right relationship with God. It is found especially among Germanic and Nordic populations. B. The Anglican tradition began as a schismatic break with Rome by King Henry VIII but, under Thomas Cranmer, developed a distinctive reform of the Catholic tradition, reflected above all, in the forms of piety found in the Book of Common Prayer. Anglicans (or Anglo-Catholics, or Episcopalians) are primarily English speaking. This tradition uses both ancient tradition and reason in its reading of Scripture and is, therefore, characterized by a highly intellectual character. C. In the 18th century, Methodism began as a lay reform reform movement within Anglicanism that emphasized fervent piety in imitation of the ancient monks. Methodists, in addition to Scripture, tradition, and reason as norms for their lives, add, revealingly, experience. The Methodist (or Wesleyan) tradition places a high premium on experience and the transformation of the heart. D. The Reformed tradition began in France and Switzerland with John Calvin but achieved great success among English-speaking populations under John Knox. Strict and intellectually rigorous, the Presbyterian tradition embraces the doctrine of predestination and elicits an enthusiastic commitment to good works. E. The Anabaptist (meaning, “to be baptized again”) movement in 16thcentury Germany emphasized free and intentional commitment reflected in the practice of adult baptism. It broke away from the centralized, hierarchical tradition of other sects and is centered in the local congregation, each local congregation being freestanding. The Baptists represent the largest (and most “evangelical”) form of Protestantism worldwide; most Baptists reject any form of creed or hierarchy and put tremendous emphasis on liberty. F. There are literally thousands of other versions of Protestantism, including Holiness and Pentecostal traditions, and a spectrum of local or national amalgamations of the dominant traditions. V. The biggest scandal to non-Christians in this constant proliferation of Christian denominations is the intense rivalry and hostility that has so often existed among them, deriving from each one’s claim to be the exclusive representative of authentic Christianity.
  • The Protestant tradition began in the 16th century as an attempt to reform what was regarded as the corrupt Catholicism of the late-medieval period. Although symbolically connected to the figure of Martin Luther and John Calvin, the Reformation took many forms from the beginning and has developed in distinct ways. The overall feature that most distinguishes Protestantism from Catholicism and Orthodoxy is its emphasis on verbal revelation, preaching, and Scripture. A. The Lutheran tradition emphasized a return to Scripture as the norm for Christian life and a concentration on faith as the means of being in right relationship with God. It is found especially among Germanic and Nordic populations. B. The Anglican tradition began as a schismatic break with Rome by King Henry VIII but, under Thomas Cranmer, developed a distinctive reform of the Catholic tradition, reflected above all, in the forms of piety found in the Book of Common Prayer. Anglicans (or Anglo-Catholics, or Episcopalians) are primarily English speaking. This tradition uses both ancient tradition and reason in its reading of Scripture and is, therefore, characterized by a highly intellectual character. C. In the 18th century, Methodism began as a lay reform reform movement within Anglicanism that emphasized fervent piety in imitation of the ancient monks. Methodists, in addition to Scripture, tradition, and reason as norms for their lives, add, revealingly, experience. The Methodist (or Wesleyan) tradition places a high premium on experience and the transformation of the heart. D. The Reformed tradition began in France and Switzerland with John Calvin but achieved great success among English-speaking populations under John Knox. Strict and intellectually rigorous, the Presbyterian tradition embraces the doctrine of predestination and elicits an enthusiastic commitment to good works. E. The Anabaptist (meaning, “to be baptized again”) movement in 16thcentury Germany emphasized free and intentional commitment reflected in the practice of adult baptism. It broke away from the centralized, hierarchical tradition of other sects and is centered in the local congregation, each local congregation being freestanding. The Baptists represent the largest (and most “evangelical”) form of Protestantism worldwide; most Baptists reject any form of creed or hierarchy and put tremendous emphasis on liberty. F. There are literally thousands of other versions of Protestantism, including Holiness and Pentecostal traditions, and a spectrum of local or national amalgamations of the dominant traditions. V. The biggest scandal to non-Christians in this constant proliferation of Christian denominations is the intense rivalry and hostility that has so often existed among them, deriving from each one’s claim to be the exclusive representative of authentic Christianity.
  • The Protestant tradition began in the 16th century as an attempt to reform what was regarded as the corrupt Catholicism of the late-medieval period. Although symbolically connected to the figure of Martin Luther and John Calvin, the Reformation took many forms from the beginning and has developed in distinct ways. The overall feature that most distinguishes Protestantism from Catholicism and Orthodoxy is its emphasis on verbal revelation, preaching, and Scripture. A. The Lutheran tradition emphasized a return to Scripture as the norm for Christian life and a concentration on faith as the means of being in right relationship with God. It is found especially among Germanic and Nordic populations. B. The Anglican tradition began as a schismatic break with Rome by King Henry VIII but, under Thomas Cranmer, developed a distinctive reform of the Catholic tradition, reflected above all, in the forms of piety found in the Book of Common Prayer. Anglicans (or Anglo-Catholics, or Episcopalians) are primarily English speaking. This tradition uses both ancient tradition and reason in its reading of Scripture and is, therefore, characterized by a highly intellectual character. C. In the 18th century, Methodism began as a lay reform reform movement within Anglicanism that emphasized fervent piety in imitation of the ancient monks. Methodists, in addition to Scripture, tradition, and reason as norms for their lives, add, revealingly, experience. The Methodist (or Wesleyan) tradition places a high premium on experience and the transformation of the heart. D. The Reformed tradition began in France and Switzerland with John Calvin but achieved great success among English-speaking populations under John Knox. Strict and intellectually rigorous, the Presbyterian tradition embraces the doctrine of predestination and elicits an enthusiastic commitment to good works. E. The Anabaptist (meaning, “to be baptized again”) movement in 16thcentury Germany emphasized free and intentional commitment reflected in the practice of adult baptism. It broke away from the centralized, hierarchical tradition of other sects and is centered in the local congregation, each local congregation being freestanding. The Baptists represent the largest (and most “evangelical”) form of Protestantism worldwide; most Baptists reject any form of creed or hierarchy and put tremendous emphasis on liberty. F. There are literally thousands of other versions of Protestantism, including Holiness and Pentecostal traditions, and a spectrum of local or national amalgamations of the dominant traditions. V. The biggest scandal to non-Christians in this constant proliferation of Christian denominations is the intense rivalry and hostility that has so often existed among them, deriving from each one’s claim to be the exclusive representative of authentic Christianity.
  • The Protestant tradition began in the 16th century as an attempt to reform what was regarded as the corrupt Catholicism of the late-medieval period. Although symbolically connected to the figure of Martin Luther and John Calvin, the Reformation took many forms from the beginning and has developed in distinct ways. The overall feature that most distinguishes Protestantism from Catholicism and Orthodoxy is its emphasis on verbal revelation, preaching, and Scripture. A. The Lutheran tradition emphasized a return to Scripture as the norm for Christian life and a concentration on faith as the means of being in right relationship with God. It is found especially among Germanic and Nordic populations. B. The Anglican tradition began as a schismatic break with Rome by King Henry VIII but, under Thomas Cranmer, developed a distinctive reform of the Catholic tradition, reflected above all, in the forms of piety found in the Book of Common Prayer. Anglicans (or Anglo-Catholics, or Episcopalians) are primarily English speaking. This tradition uses both ancient tradition and reason in its reading of Scripture and is, therefore, characterized by a highly intellectual character. C. In the 18th century, Methodism began as a lay reform reform movement within Anglicanism that emphasized fervent piety in imitation of the ancient monks. Methodists, in addition to Scripture, tradition, and reason as norms for their lives, add, revealingly, experience. The Methodist (or Wesleyan) tradition places a high premium on experience and the transformation of the heart. D. The Reformed tradition began in France and Switzerland with John Calvin but achieved great success among English-speaking populations under John Knox. Strict and intellectually rigorous, the Presbyterian tradition embraces the doctrine of predestination and elicits an enthusiastic commitment to good works. E. The Anabaptist (meaning, “to be baptized again”) movement in 16thcentury Germany emphasized free and intentional commitment reflected in the practice of adult baptism. It broke away from the centralized, hierarchical tradition of other sects and is centered in the local congregation, each local congregation being freestanding. The Baptists represent the largest (and most “evangelical”) form of Protestantism worldwide; most Baptists reject any form of creed or hierarchy and put tremendous emphasis on liberty. F. There are literally thousands of other versions of Protestantism, including Holiness and Pentecostal traditions, and a spectrum of local or national amalgamations of the dominant traditions. V. The biggest scandal to non-Christians in this constant proliferation of Christian denominations is the intense rivalry and hostility that has so often existed among them, deriving from each one’s claim to be the exclusive representative of authentic Christianity.
  • I. Christianity is a religion that has unity as an ideal but has experienced conflict and division throughout its history. A. The ideal of unity is expressed in the New Testament and is stated by the creed as one of the four “marks of the church.” B. The early centuries were marked by a variety of severe conflicts concerning belief and practice: 1. The New Testament shows sharp disagreements between Christian groups (see Galatians, 2 and 3 John). 2. The 2nd century struggle for self-definition involved sharp ideological and political divisions. 3. The battles involving Trinitarian and Christological doctrine in the 4th and 5th centuries likewise had ecclesiastical and political overtones. C. The three great families in Christianity arose from specific contentious circumstances between the 11th and 16th centuries and led to three distinct and usually competing versions of the religion. Each of them claims to best represent the essence of Christianity. 2. Each of them claims a particular kind of continuity with Christian origins. 3. All of them share the same basic story, creed, and moral teaching but differ most on questions of organization, theological emphasis, and worship.

Hum40 christianity-f11-p2 Hum40 christianity-f11-p2 Presentation Transcript

    • Chronology
    First Century C.E. Paul 160-220 Tertullian 272-337 Constantine 354-430 Augustine 1225-1274 Thomas 1483-1546 Luther 1509-1564 Calvin
    • Organization
    Clergy Laity church state Nobility Commoner
  • SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. The Resurrection is the basis for Christianity becoming a worldwide religion rather than a sect within Judaism. RECALL
  • SOURCE : Rodney Stark. The Rise of Christianity: How the Obscure, Marginal, Jesus Movement Became the Dominant Religious Force. (HarperOne, 1997). The Rise of Christianity
    • People with attempt to escape or resolve a marginal position.
  • SOURCE : Rodney Stark. The Rise of Christianity: How the Obscure, Marginal, Jesus Movement Became the Dominant Religious Force. (HarperOne, 1997). The Rise of Christianity 2. People are willing to adopt a new religion to the extent that it retains cultural continuity with conventional religion.
  • SOURCE : Rodney Stark. The Rise of Christianity: How the Obscure, Marginal, Jesus Movement Became the Dominant Religious Force. (HarperOne, 1997). The Rise of Christianity 3. Social movements grow much faster when they spread through preexisting social networks.
  • SOURCE : Rodney Stark. The Rise of Christianity: How the Obscure, Marginal, Jesus Movement Became the Dominant Religious Force. (HarperOne, 1997). The Rise of Christianity Religions supplies “compensators” or rewards that are scarce or unavailable.
  • The Rise of Christianity Religions provide a symbolic form of attachment that stands in for both conscience and community.
  • Why was Christian monotheism so powerful as a belief system? Omniscience and omnipresence of God represents a private and public form of sacred inclusion.
  • Historical Context Paul (originally Saul) of Tarsus (modern Turkey) converted to Christianity.
  • Historical Context Paul was a salesman and community-organizer.
  • Historical Context Paul establishes stable urban religious communities.
  • Paul and the Spread of Christianity He went on numerous missionary expeditions, setting up Christian churches in major urban areas in Cilicia, Asia Minor, Macedonia, and Achaia (modern Turkey and Greece).
  • Paul and the Spread of Christianity He help convert former pagans to belief in the one God of the Jews and Jesus, his Son, whose death brought salvation.
  • Historical Context Tertullian: the church holds itself as the great counter-kingdom.
  • Historical Context Augustine: from negative toleration to positive acceptance.
  • The Church-Sect Continuum
  • The Problem of Categorizing Religions church : a tradition which has been significantly integrated in society through the process of institutionalization (organizations, politics, etc.)
  • Seven Features of Churches
    • Claim universality, include all members of the society within their ranks, and have a strong tendency to equate “citizenship” with “membership”
    • Exercise religious monopoly and try to eliminate religious competition
    • Are very closely allied with the state and secular powers –frequently there is overlapping of responsibilities and much mutual reinforcement
    • Are extensively organized as a hierarchical bureaucratic institution with a complex division of labor
    • Employ professional, full-time clergy who possess the appropriate credentials of education and formal ordination
    • Primarily gain new members through natural reproduction and the socialization of children into the ranks
    • Allow for diversity by creating different groups within the church (e.g., orders of nuns or monks) rather than through the formation of new religions
    SOURCE: Ronald L. Johnston. Religion In Society: A Sociology Of Religion. (Prentice-Hall, 2009).
  • The Problem of Categorizing Religions sect : a group that has separated from an established church or religious tradition in protest in order to maintain a distinct sense of “purity” or “truth”
  • The Problem of Categorizing Religions cult : a derogatory term often used to categorize extreme religious groups; these groups tend to have a powerful leader that bounds or restricts choice among its members
  • The Problem of Categorizing Religions All of these categories are ideal types that attempt to characterize how religious groups maintain their sense of community over time.
  • The Problem of Categorizing Religions At the same time, these are scholarly attempts to describe the ever-changing dynamics of new religious groups and practices.
  • Beware! These categories are often used to portray religious groups in certain (positive or negative) light.
  • Christian Traditions Catholic Orthodox Protestant
  • Roman Catholicism The organization of the church is universal and hierarchical.
  • Roman Catholicism Bishops, local clergy, and laity
  • Roman Catholicism All male, celibate clergy
  • Roman Catholicism Piety extends to communion of “saints” such as Mary, the Mother of Jesus.
  • Orthodox Christianity This tradition claims continuity with the earliest church.
  • Orthodox Christianity It is a schism created through a political rivalry between the old Rome and the “New Rome” of Constantinople.
  • Orthodox Christianity It is centered on worship or liturgy.
  • Protestant Christianity The Protestant tradition began in the 16th century as an attempt to reform what was regarded as the corrupt Catholicism of the late-medieval period.
  • Protestant Christianity Martin Luther
  • Religious Diversity in America The Reformation
  • Religious Diversity in America sola scriptura (religion should be based on scripture alone)
  • Religious Diversity in America sola fida (man is saved by faith alone)
  • Religious Diversity in America priesthood of all believers (not intermediaries)
  • Religious Diversity in America John Calvin
  • Religious Diversity in America Gutenberg and the invention of printing press
  • Religious Diversity in America translating the Bible in vernacular languages
  • Religious Diversity in America Puritans (Idealistic Protestants)
  • Religious Diversity in America wanted to purify the Church of England of its “popish” qualities (hierarchies)
  • MAX WEBER The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (originally composed in 1904-5)
  • MAX WEBER Protestant ethic Spirit of capitalism capitalism
  • MAX WEBER The rational pursuit of economic gain and the profit motive (“spirit of capitalism”) emerged from a Protestant (Calvinist) ethic .
  • MAX WEBER The Protestant (Calvinist) ethic emphasizes worldly success through hard work, frugality, hard work, and being obedient to God.
  • MAX WEBER A person can be considered one of the “elect” or “chosen” by observing their way of life.
  • Protestant Christianity The Anglican Tradition
  • Protestant Christianity Methodist Tradition
  • Protestant Christianity Reform Tradition
  • Protestant Christianity Anabaptists (“to be baptized again”)
  • Questions What religious movements around the world would you classify as a sect or cult? Why?