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  • Early Buddhism: denial that God exists or that the Self exists, regardless of wealth or power, caster, anyone can achieve enlightenment, Principal radical egalitariansm
  • To be Christian means to share a story about the world from beginning to end. A. The “story character” of Christianity is one of the consequences of the conflict with Gnosticism, because story bears implications concerning the significance of physical bodies and time. B. Part of that story is found in texts shared with Judaism (the Old Testament); part is found in the distinctive Christian scriptures (the New Testament); and part, in the developments of the religion over a 2,000-year existence. C. The Christian story combines in complex ways three distinct aspects of temporality: the historical, the mythical, and the eschatological. 1. Christians claim the historical character of much of the story told in the Bible, especially the part concerning Jesus. 2. Yet the designation of myth is appropriate for other parts of the story (see the primordial origins) and for all of the story in part (see the transcendental claim made for empirical events). 3. Christians also struggle with the notion of eschatology (literally, “last things”), both with respect to the future and the present.
  • Early Buddhism: denial that God exists or that the Self exists, regardless of wealth or power, caster, anyone can achieve enlightenment, Principal radical egalitariansm
  • Early Buddhism: denial that God exists or that the Self exists, regardless of wealth or power, caster, anyone can achieve enlightenment, Principal radical egalitariansm Legit. Is built into archaic systems of religion
  • Early Buddhism: denial that God exists or that the Self exists, regardless of wealth or power, caster, anyone can achieve enlightenment, Principal radical egalitariansm Legit. Is built into archaic systems of religion
  • Mixing dust with dirt and healing with his own spit Other miracle workers, performing miracles not unique, Vespatian, Why would God work through a Jewish peasant? Limited his circulation to an agrarian populations Metaphors understood by these groups Feeding of the multitude: 5 loaves and 3 fishes, endearing to poor people, dinner and a show Parable of mustard seed Message of the Kingdom of God, Mustard seed, grows to great bush Enigmatic message, trap, provocative and weird images Basileia Theou
  • Jesus of Nazareth both is and is not the founder of Christianity. A. He is not the founder of the religion in the sense that Muhammad is the founder of Islam or even in the sense that Prince Siddharta is the founder of Buddhism: Christianity begins after Jesus’s death. B. Yet Jesus is more than a purely symbolic figure. He is the “founder” of Christianity in the sense that his resurrection from the dead gives birth to a religious movement and in the sense that his human story remains central to Christian identity. II. The historical activity of Jesus is difficult to reconstruct with precision but is best understood as a form of prophetic activity within Judaism that is marked by particular urgency and authority and whose proclamation of God’s rule issues in a nascent community. The difficulties of historical reconstruction are attributable to the fact that, apart from a few outsider reports, we are dependent on insider Christian writings, above all, the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, whose narratives depend on an earlier oral tradition and are told from the perspective of faith in Jesus as the Son of God. Despite these difficulties, we can state definite things about the historical Jesus. 1. His characteristic speech and action identify him as a prophetic figure in the symbolic world of Torah. 2. His proclamation of the rule of God and call to repentance has a special sense of urgency and a special appeal to the outcast. 3. Although the designations Son of man and Christ are problematic for his lifetime, he speaks and acts with a distinctive sense of authority.
  • Jesus of Nazareth both is and is not the founder of Christianity. A. He is not the founder of the religion in the sense that Muhammad is the founder of Islam or even in the sense that Prince Siddharta is the founder of Buddhism: Christianity begins after Jesus’s death. B. Yet Jesus is more than a purely symbolic figure. He is the “founder” of Christianity in the sense that his resurrection from the dead gives birth to a religious movement and in the sense that his human story remains central to Christian identity. II. The historical activity of Jesus is difficult to reconstruct with precision but is best understood as a form of prophetic activity within Judaism that is marked by particular urgency and authority and whose proclamation of God’s rule issues in a nascent community. The difficulties of historical reconstruction are attributable to the fact that, apart from a few outsider reports, we are dependent on insider Christian writings, above all, the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, whose narratives depend on an earlier oral tradition and are told from the perspective of faith in Jesus as the Son of God. Despite these difficulties, we can state definite things about the historical Jesus. 1. His characteristic speech and action identify him as a prophetic figure in the symbolic world of Torah. 2. His proclamation of the rule of God and call to repentance has a special sense of urgency and a special appeal to the outcast. 3. Although the designations Son of man and Christ are problematic for his lifetime, he speaks and acts with a distinctive sense of authority.
  • Jesus of Nazareth both is and is not the founder of Christianity. A. He is not the founder of the religion in the sense that Muhammad is the founder of Islam or even in the sense that Prince Siddharta is the founder of Buddhism: Christianity begins after Jesus’s death. B. Yet Jesus is more than a purely symbolic figure. He is the “founder” of Christianity in the sense that his resurrection from the dead gives birth to a religious movement and in the sense that his human story remains central to Christian identity. II. The historical activity of Jesus is difficult to reconstruct with precision but is best understood as a form of prophetic activity within Judaism that is marked by particular urgency and authority and whose proclamation of God’s rule issues in a nascent community. The difficulties of historical reconstruction are attributable to the fact that, apart from a few outsider reports, we are dependent on insider Christian writings, above all, the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, whose narratives depend on an earlier oral tradition and are told from the perspective of faith in Jesus as the Son of God. Despite these difficulties, we can state definite things about the historical Jesus. 1. His characteristic speech and action identify him as a prophetic figure in the symbolic world of Torah. 2. His proclamation of the rule of God and call to repentance has a special sense of urgency and a special appeal to the outcast. 3. Although the designations Son of man and Christ are problematic for his lifetime, he speaks and acts with a distinctive sense of authority.
  • Jesus of Nazareth both is and is not the founder of Christianity. A. He is not the founder of the religion in the sense that Muhammad is the founder of Islam or even in the sense that Prince Siddharta is the founder of Buddhism: Christianity begins after Jesus’s death. B. Yet Jesus is more than a purely symbolic figure. He is the “founder” of Christianity in the sense that his resurrection from the dead gives birth to a religious movement and in the sense that his human story remains central to Christian identity. II. The historical activity of Jesus is difficult to reconstruct with precision but is best understood as a form of prophetic activity within Judaism that is marked by particular urgency and authority and whose proclamation of God’s rule issues in a nascent community. The difficulties of historical reconstruction are attributable to the fact that, apart from a few outsider reports, we are dependent on insider Christian writings, above all, the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, whose narratives depend on an earlier oral tradition and are told from the perspective of faith in Jesus as the Son of God. Despite these difficulties, we can state definite things about the historical Jesus. 1. His characteristic speech and action identify him as a prophetic figure in the symbolic world of Torah. 2. His proclamation of the rule of God and call to repentance has a special sense of urgency and a special appeal to the outcast. 3. Although the designations Son of man and Christ are problematic for his lifetime, he speaks and acts with a distinctive sense of authority.
  • Jesus of Nazareth both is and is not the founder of Christianity. A. He is not the founder of the religion in the sense that Muhammad is the founder of Islam or even in the sense that Prince Siddharta is the founder of Buddhism: Christianity begins after Jesus’s death. B. Yet Jesus is more than a purely symbolic figure. He is the “founder” of Christianity in the sense that his resurrection from the dead gives birth to a religious movement and in the sense that his human story remains central to Christian identity. II. The historical activity of Jesus is difficult to reconstruct with precision but is best understood as a form of prophetic activity within Judaism that is marked by particular urgency and authority and whose proclamation of God’s rule issues in a nascent community. The difficulties of historical reconstruction are attributable to the fact that, apart from a few outsider reports, we are dependent on insider Christian writings, above all, the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, whose narratives depend on an earlier oral tradition and are told from the perspective of faith in Jesus as the Son of God. Despite these difficulties, we can state definite things about the historical Jesus. 1. His characteristic speech and action identify him as a prophetic figure in the symbolic world of Torah. 2. His proclamation of the rule of God and call to repentance has a special sense of urgency and a special appeal to the outcast. 3. Although the designations Son of man and Christ are problematic for his lifetime, he speaks and acts with a distinctive sense of authority.
  • Jesus of Nazareth both is and is not the founder of Christianity. A. He is not the founder of the religion in the sense that Muhammad is the founder of Islam or even in the sense that Prince Siddharta is the founder of Buddhism: Christianity begins after Jesus’s death. B. Yet Jesus is more than a purely symbolic figure. He is the “founder” of Christianity in the sense that his resurrection from the dead gives birth to a religious movement and in the sense that his human story remains central to Christian identity. II. The historical activity of Jesus is difficult to reconstruct with precision but is best understood as a form of prophetic activity within Judaism that is marked by particular urgency and authority and whose proclamation of God’s rule issues in a nascent community. The difficulties of historical reconstruction are attributable to the fact that, apart from a few outsider reports, we are dependent on insider Christian writings, above all, the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, whose narratives depend on an earlier oral tradition and are told from the perspective of faith in Jesus as the Son of God. Despite these difficulties, we can state definite things about the historical Jesus. 1. His characteristic speech and action identify him as a prophetic figure in the symbolic world of Torah. 2. His proclamation of the rule of God and call to repentance has a special sense of urgency and a special appeal to the outcast. 3. Although the designations Son of man and Christ are problematic for his lifetime, he speaks and acts with a distinctive sense of authority.
  • Jesus of Nazareth both is and is not the founder of Christianity. A. He is not the founder of the religion in the sense that Muhammad is the founder of Islam or even in the sense that Prince Siddharta is the founder of Buddhism: Christianity begins after Jesus’s death. B. Yet Jesus is more than a purely symbolic figure. He is the “founder” of Christianity in the sense that his resurrection from the dead gives birth to a religious movement and in the sense that his human story remains central to Christian identity. II. The historical activity of Jesus is difficult to reconstruct with precision but is best understood as a form of prophetic activity within Judaism that is marked by particular urgency and authority and whose proclamation of God’s rule issues in a nascent community. The difficulties of historical reconstruction are attributable to the fact that, apart from a few outsider reports, we are dependent on insider Christian writings, above all, the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, whose narratives depend on an earlier oral tradition and are told from the perspective of faith in Jesus as the Son of God. Despite these difficulties, we can state definite things about the historical Jesus. 1. His characteristic speech and action identify him as a prophetic figure in the symbolic world of Torah. 2. His proclamation of the rule of God and call to repentance has a special sense of urgency and a special appeal to the outcast. 3. Although the designations Son of man and Christ are problematic for his lifetime, he speaks and acts with a distinctive sense of authority.
  • Jesus of Nazareth both is and is not the founder of Christianity. A. He is not the founder of the religion in the sense that Muhammad is the founder of Islam or even in the sense that Prince Siddharta is the founder of Buddhism: Christianity begins after Jesus’s death. B. Yet Jesus is more than a purely symbolic figure. He is the “founder” of Christianity in the sense that his resurrection from the dead gives birth to a religious movement and in the sense that his human story remains central to Christian identity. II. The historical activity of Jesus is difficult to reconstruct with precision but is best understood as a form of prophetic activity within Judaism that is marked by particular urgency and authority and whose proclamation of God’s rule issues in a nascent community. The difficulties of historical reconstruction are attributable to the fact that, apart from a few outsider reports, we are dependent on insider Christian writings, above all, the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, whose narratives depend on an earlier oral tradition and are told from the perspective of faith in Jesus as the Son of God. Despite these difficulties, we can state definite things about the historical Jesus. 1. His characteristic speech and action identify him as a prophetic figure in the symbolic world of Torah. 2. His proclamation of the rule of God and call to repentance has a special sense of urgency and a special appeal to the outcast. 3. Although the designations Son of man and Christ are problematic for his lifetime, he speaks and acts with a distinctive sense of authority.
  • Jesus of Nazareth both is and is not the founder of Christianity. A. He is not the founder of the religion in the sense that Muhammad is the founder of Islam or even in the sense that Prince Siddharta is the founder of Buddhism: Christianity begins after Jesus’s death. B. Yet Jesus is more than a purely symbolic figure. He is the “founder” of Christianity in the sense that his resurrection from the dead gives birth to a religious movement and in the sense that his human story remains central to Christian identity. II. The historical activity of Jesus is difficult to reconstruct with precision but is best understood as a form of prophetic activity within Judaism that is marked by particular urgency and authority and whose proclamation of God’s rule issues in a nascent community. The difficulties of historical reconstruction are attributable to the fact that, apart from a few outsider reports, we are dependent on insider Christian writings, above all, the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, whose narratives depend on an earlier oral tradition and are told from the perspective of faith in Jesus as the Son of God. Despite these difficulties, we can state definite things about the historical Jesus. 1. His characteristic speech and action identify him as a prophetic figure in the symbolic world of Torah. 2. His proclamation of the rule of God and call to repentance has a special sense of urgency and a special appeal to the outcast. 3. Although the designations Son of man and Christ are problematic for his lifetime, he speaks and acts with a distinctive sense of authority.
  • Jesus of Nazareth both is and is not the founder of Christianity. A. He is not the founder of the religion in the sense that Muhammad is the founder of Islam or even in the sense that Prince Siddharta is the founder of Buddhism: Christianity begins after Jesus’s death. B. Yet Jesus is more than a purely symbolic figure. He is the “founder” of Christianity in the sense that his resurrection from the dead gives birth to a religious movement and in the sense that his human story remains central to Christian identity. II. The historical activity of Jesus is difficult to reconstruct with precision but is best understood as a form of prophetic activity within Judaism that is marked by particular urgency and authority and whose proclamation of God’s rule issues in a nascent community. The difficulties of historical reconstruction are attributable to the fact that, apart from a few outsider reports, we are dependent on insider Christian writings, above all, the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, whose narratives depend on an earlier oral tradition and are told from the perspective of faith in Jesus as the Son of God. Despite these difficulties, we can state definite things about the historical Jesus. 1. His characteristic speech and action identify him as a prophetic figure in the symbolic world of Torah. 2. His proclamation of the rule of God and call to repentance has a special sense of urgency and a special appeal to the outcast. 3. Although the designations Son of man and Christ are problematic for his lifetime, he speaks and acts with a distinctive sense of authority.
  • C. In the context of a deeply divided 1st-century Judaism, Jesus met conflict with Jewish leaders and was executed by crucifixion under Roman authority. III. Christianity is born as a religion centered on the revelation of God in Jesus Christ through the resurrection experience. A. The proper understanding of the Resurrection is critical to grasping Christianity’s claims. 1. The claim is not that Jesus was resuscitated and continued his mortal existence but that he transcended mortality by entering into a share in God’s life and power. 2. The essential designation of Jesus as “Lord” signifies that Jesus has been exalted to the status of God and has become “Life-Giving Spirit” (1 Cor 15:45). 3. The Resurrection is not historical but eschatological, a “new creation” that transforms humans through a new power of life. B. The Resurrection is the basis for other fundamental convictions concerning Jesus. 1. The Resurrection reveals what Jesus was already in his mortal life, namely, God’s unique Son. 2. The Resurrection is the premise for the expectation that Jesus will come again as judge of the world. 3. The Resurrection makes Jesus not simply a Jewish messiah (in fact, he fails at that) but establishes him as “a new Adam,” the start of a new humanity. 4. The Resurrection is the basis for Christianity becoming a worldwide religion rather than a sect within Judaism.
  • C. In the context of a deeply divided 1st-century Judaism, Jesus met conflict with Jewish leaders and was executed by crucifixion under Roman authority. III. Christianity is born as a religion centered on the revelation of God in Jesus Christ through the resurrection experience. The proper understanding of the Resurrection is critical to grasping Christianity’s claims. 1. The claim is not that Jesus was resuscitated and continued his mortal existence but that he transcended mortality by entering into a share in God’s life and power. 2. The essential designation of Jesus as “Lord” signifies that Jesus has been exalted to the status of God and has become “Life-Giving Spirit” (1 Cor 15:45). 3. The Resurrection is not historical but eschatological, a “new creation” that transforms humans through a new power of life. B. The Resurrection is the basis for other fundamental convictions concerning Jesus. 1. The Resurrection reveals what Jesus was already in his mortal life, namely, God’s unique Son. 2. The Resurrection is the premise for the expectation that Jesus will come again as judge of the world. 3. The Resurrection makes Jesus not simply a Jewish messiah (in fact, he fails at that) but establishes him as “a new Adam,” the start of a new humanity. 4. The Resurrection is the basis for Christianity becoming a worldwide religion rather than a sect within Judaism.
  • C. In the context of a deeply divided 1st-century Judaism, Jesus met conflict with Jewish leaders and was executed by crucifixion under Roman authority. III. Christianity is born as a religion centered on the revelation of God in Jesus Christ through the resurrection experience. The proper understanding of the Resurrection is critical to grasping Christianity’s claims. 1. The claim is not that Jesus was resuscitated and continued his mortal existence but that he transcended mortality by entering into a share in God’s life and power. 2. The essential designation of Jesus as “Lord” signifies that Jesus has been exalted to the status of God and has become “Life-Giving Spirit” (1 Cor 15:45). 3. The Resurrection is not historical but eschatological, a “new creation” that transforms humans through a new power of life. B. The Resurrection is the basis for other fundamental convictions concerning Jesus. 1. The Resurrection reveals what Jesus was already in his mortal life, namely, God’s unique Son. 2. The Resurrection is the premise for the expectation that Jesus will come again as judge of the world. 3. The Resurrection makes Jesus not simply a Jewish messiah (in fact, he fails at that) but establishes him as “a new Adam,” the start of a new humanity. 4. The Resurrection is the basis for Christianity becoming a worldwide religion rather than a sect within Judaism.
  • C. In the context of a deeply divided 1st-century Judaism, Jesus met conflict with Jewish leaders and was executed by crucifixion under Roman authority. III. Christianity is born as a religion centered on the revelation of God in Jesus Christ through the resurrection experience. The proper understanding of the Resurrection is critical to grasping Christianity’s claims. 1. The claim is not that Jesus was resuscitated and continued his mortal existence but that he transcended mortality by entering into a share in God’s life and power. 2. The essential designation of Jesus as “Lord” signifies that Jesus has been exalted to the status of God and has become “Life-Giving Spirit” (1 Cor 15:45). 3. The Resurrection is not historical but eschatological, a “new creation” that transforms humans through a new power of life. B. The Resurrection is the basis for other fundamental convictions concerning Jesus. 1. The Resurrection reveals what Jesus was already in his mortal life, namely, God’s unique Son. 2. The Resurrection is the premise for the expectation that Jesus will come again as judge of the world. 3. The Resurrection makes Jesus not simply a Jewish messiah (in fact, he fails at that) but establishes him as “a new Adam,” the start of a new humanity. 4. The Resurrection is the basis for Christianity becoming a worldwide religion rather than a sect within Judaism.
  • C. In the context of a deeply divided 1st-century Judaism, Jesus met conflict with Jewish leaders and was executed by crucifixion under Roman authority. III. Christianity is born as a religion centered on the revelation of God in Jesus Christ through the resurrection experience. The proper understanding of the Resurrection is critical to grasping Christianity’s claims. 1. The claim is not that Jesus was resuscitated and continued his mortal existence but that he transcended mortality by entering into a share in God’s life and power. 2. The essential designation of Jesus as “Lord” signifies that Jesus has been exalted to the status of God and has become “Life-Giving Spirit” (1 Cor 15:45). 3. The Resurrection is not historical but eschatological, a “new creation” that transforms humans through a new power of life. B. The Resurrection is the basis for other fundamental convictions concerning Jesus. 1. The Resurrection reveals what Jesus was already in his mortal life, namely, God’s unique Son. 2. The Resurrection is the premise for the expectation that Jesus will come again as judge of the world. 3. The Resurrection makes Jesus not simply a Jewish messiah (in fact, he fails at that) but establishes him as “a new Adam,” the start of a new humanity. 4. The Resurrection is the basis for Christianity becoming a worldwide religion rather than a sect within Judaism.
  • C. In the context of a deeply divided 1st-century Judaism, Jesus met conflict with Jewish leaders and was executed by crucifixion under Roman authority. III. Christianity is born as a religion centered on the revelation of God in Jesus Christ through the resurrection experience. The proper understanding of the Resurrection is critical to grasping Christianity’s claims. 1. The claim is not that Jesus was resuscitated and continued his mortal existence but that he transcended mortality by entering into a share in God’s life and power. 2. The essential designation of Jesus as “Lord” signifies that Jesus has been exalted to the status of God and has become “Life-Giving Spirit” (1 Cor 15:45). 3. The Resurrection is not historical but eschatological, a “new creation” that transforms humans through a new power of life. B. The Resurrection is the basis for other fundamental convictions concerning Jesus. 1. The Resurrection reveals what Jesus was already in his mortal life, namely, God’s unique Son. 2. The Resurrection is the premise for the expectation that Jesus will come again as judge of the world. 3. The Resurrection makes Jesus not simply a Jewish messiah (in fact, he fails at that) but establishes him as “a new Adam,” the start of a new humanity. 4. The Resurrection is the basis for Christianity becoming a worldwide religion rather than a sect within Judaism.
  • C. In the context of a deeply divided 1st-century Judaism, Jesus met conflict with Jewish leaders and was executed by crucifixion under Roman authority. III. Christianity is born as a religion centered on the revelation of God in Jesus Christ through the resurrection experience. The proper understanding of the Resurrection is critical to grasping Christianity’s claims. 1. The claim is not that Jesus was resuscitated and continued his mortal existence but that he transcended mortality by entering into a share in God’s life and power. 2. The essential designation of Jesus as “Lord” signifies that Jesus has been exalted to the status of God and has become “Life-Giving Spirit” (1 Cor 15:45). 3. The Resurrection is not historical but eschatological, a “new creation” that transforms humans through a new power of life. B. The Resurrection is the basis for other fundamental convictions concerning Jesus. 1. The Resurrection reveals what Jesus was already in his mortal life, namely, God’s unique Son. 2. The Resurrection is the premise for the expectation that Jesus will come again as judge of the world. 3. The Resurrection makes Jesus not simply a Jewish messiah (in fact, he fails at that) but establishes him as “a new Adam,” the start of a new humanity. 4. The Resurrection is the basis for Christianity becoming a worldwide religion rather than a sect within Judaism.
  • The Christian movement established communities across the Roman Empire with unparalleled rapidity, and the conditions of its expansion meant that it was diverse from the beginning. A. In the span of 25 years, churches (ekklesiai) had been founded from Jerusalem to Rome. The expansion testifies to the power of religious experience, because it was accompanied by persecution and lacked central controls. 2. From the beginning, Christians managed five critical transitions: geographical, sociological, linguistic, cultural, and demographic. The movement was powerful but diverse. 3. By far the most significant transition was the inclusion of Gentile believers without any requirement of observing Jewish customs. B. Our earliest Christian letters testify to the liveliness of the religious spirit in these communities and to their problems as well. 1. Paul’s letters (for example, 1 Cor) reveal communities meeting in households, manifesting a variety of “spiritual gifts,” and practicing common rituals. 2. They also show the presence of severe disagreements concerning the proper way to translate the powerful experience of the Resurrection into consistent patterns of behavior.
  • The Christian movement established communities across the Roman Empire with unparalleled rapidity, and the conditions of its expansion meant that it was diverse from the beginning. A. In the span of 25 years, churches (ekklesiai) had been founded from Jerusalem to Rome. The expansion testifies to the power of religious experience, because it was accompanied by persecution and lacked central controls. 2. From the beginning, Christians managed five critical transitions: geographical, sociological, linguistic, cultural, and demographic. The movement was powerful but diverse. 3. By far the most significant transition was the inclusion of Gentile believers without any requirement of observing Jewish customs. B. Our earliest Christian letters testify to the liveliness of the religious spirit in these communities and to their problems as well. 1. Paul’s letters (for example, 1 Cor) reveal communities meeting in households, manifesting a variety of “spiritual gifts,” and practicing common rituals. 2. They also show the presence of severe disagreements concerning the proper way to translate the powerful experience of the Resurrection into consistent patterns of behavior.
  • V. The New Testament is a collection of 27 compositions in Greek that were written before the end of the 1st century in response to the needs of early communities. For the first believers, Scripture was the Jewish Bible, and each writing in the New Testament represents a reinterpretation of the Jewish Scripture in light of the experience of a crucified and raised messiah. B. The New Testament contains 13 letters attributed to Paul (the Apostle to the Gentiles), 2 to Peter, 3 to John, 1 each to James and Jude, and an anonymous sermon addressed “to the Hebrews,” as well as a historical narrative concerning the first generation (the Acts of the Apostles) and a visionary composition called the Book of Revelation. 1. These writings concentrate on the life and practice of the church and reveal the complexity and energy of the movement. 2. In them, Jesus appears mainly as the present and powerful Lord, but his human example also plays a role. C. The New Testament also contains 4 narratives called Gospels that are attributed (in probably chronological sequence) to Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John. 1. These narratives provide a rich collection of Jesus’s sayings and deeds as remembered by a community that now believed in him as Lord of creation. 2. The evangelists tell and retell the story of Jesus in a manner that instructs the church in discipleship. 3. Although they use shared traditions and although Matthew, Mark, and Luke (the synoptic Gospels) are literarily interdependent, the Gospels are remarkable for their diverse portrayals of Jesus. 4. Equally remarkable, although written from the perspective of faith, they render the human Jesus as a 1st-century Jew with remarkable accuracy.
  • V. The New Testament is a collection of 27 compositions in Greek that were written before the end of the 1st century in response to the needs of early communities. For the first believers, Scripture was the Jewish Bible, and each writing in the New Testament represents a reinterpretation of the Jewish Scripture in light of the experience of a crucified and raised messiah. B. The New Testament contains 13 letters attributed to Paul (the Apostle to the Gentiles), 2 to Peter, 3 to John, 1 each to James and Jude, and an anonymous sermon addressed “to the Hebrews,” as well as a historical narrative concerning the first generation (the Acts of the Apostles) and a visionary composition called the Book of Revelation. 1. These writings concentrate on the life and practice of the church and reveal the complexity and energy of the movement. 2. In them, Jesus appears mainly as the present and powerful Lord, but his human example also plays a role. C. The New Testament also contains 4 narratives called Gospels that are attributed (in probably chronological sequence) to Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John. 1. These narratives provide a rich collection of Jesus’s sayings and deeds as remembered by a community that now believed in him as Lord of creation. 2. The evangelists tell and retell the story of Jesus in a manner that instructs the church in discipleship. 3. Although they use shared traditions and although Matthew, Mark, and Luke (the synoptic Gospels) are literarily interdependent, the Gospels are remarkable for their diverse portrayals of Jesus. 4. Equally remarkable, although written from the perspective of faith, they render the human Jesus as a 1st-century Jew with remarkable accuracy.
  • V. The New Testament is a collection of 27 compositions in Greek that were written before the end of the 1st century in response to the needs of early communities. For the first believers, Scripture was the Jewish Bible, and each writing in the New Testament represents a reinterpretation of the Jewish Scripture in light of the experience of a crucified and raised messiah. B. The New Testament contains 13 letters attributed to Paul (the Apostle to the Gentiles), 2 to Peter, 3 to John, 1 each to James and Jude, and an anonymous sermon addressed “to the Hebrews,” as well as a historical narrative concerning the first generation (the Acts of the Apostles) and a visionary composition called the Book of Revelation. 1. These writings concentrate on the life and practice of the church and reveal the complexity and energy of the movement. 2. In them, Jesus appears mainly as the present and powerful Lord, but his human example also plays a role. C. The New Testament also contains 4 narratives called Gospels that are attributed (in probably chronological sequence) to Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John. 1. These narratives provide a rich collection of Jesus’s sayings and deeds as remembered by a community that now believed in him as Lord of creation. 2. The evangelists tell and retell the story of Jesus in a manner that instructs the church in discipleship. 3. Although they use shared traditions and although Matthew, Mark, and Luke (the synoptic Gospels) are literarily interdependent, the Gospels are remarkable for their diverse portrayals of Jesus. 4. Equally remarkable, although written from the perspective of faith, they render the human Jesus as a 1st-century Jew with remarkable accuracy.
  • V. The New Testament is a collection of 27 compositions in Greek that were written before the end of the 1st century in response to the needs of early communities. For the first believers, Scripture was the Jewish Bible, and each writing in the New Testament represents a reinterpretation of the Jewish Scripture in light of the experience of a crucified and raised messiah. B. The New Testament contains 13 letters attributed to Paul (the Apostle to the Gentiles), 2 to Peter, 3 to John, 1 each to James and Jude, and an anonymous sermon addressed “to the Hebrews,” as well as a historical narrative concerning the first generation (the Acts of the Apostles) and a visionary composition called the Book of Revelation. 1. These writings concentrate on the life and practice of the church and reveal the complexity and energy of the movement. 2. In them, Jesus appears mainly as the present and powerful Lord, but his human example also plays a role. C. The New Testament also contains 4 narratives called Gospels that are attributed (in probably chronological sequence) to Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John. 1. These narratives provide a rich collection of Jesus’s sayings and deeds as remembered by a community that now believed in him as Lord of creation. 2. The evangelists tell and retell the story of Jesus in a manner that instructs the church in discipleship. 3. Although they use shared traditions and although Matthew, Mark, and Luke (the synoptic Gospels) are literarily interdependent, the Gospels are remarkable for their diverse portrayals of Jesus. 4. Equally remarkable, although written from the perspective of faith, they render the human Jesus as a 1st-century Jew with remarkable accuracy.
  • V. The New Testament is a collection of 27 compositions in Greek that were written before the end of the 1st century in response to the needs of early communities. For the first believers, Scripture was the Jewish Bible, and each writing in the New Testament represents a reinterpretation of the Jewish Scripture in light of the experience of a crucified and raised messiah. B. The New Testament contains 13 letters attributed to Paul (the Apostle to the Gentiles), 2 to Peter, 3 to John, 1 each to James and Jude, and an anonymous sermon addressed “to the Hebrews,” as well as a historical narrative concerning the first generation (the Acts of the Apostles) and a visionary composition called the Book of Revelation. 1. These writings concentrate on the life and practice of the church and reveal the complexity and energy of the movement. 2. In them, Jesus appears mainly as the present and powerful Lord, but his human example also plays a role. C. The New Testament also contains 4 narratives called Gospels that are attributed (in probably chronological sequence) to Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John. 1. These narratives provide a rich collection of Jesus’s sayings and deeds as remembered by a community that now believed in him as Lord of creation. 2. The evangelists tell and retell the story of Jesus in a manner that instructs the church in discipleship. 3. Although they use shared traditions and although Matthew, Mark, and Luke (the synoptic Gospels) are literarily interdependent, the Gospels are remarkable for their diverse portrayals of Jesus. 4. Equally remarkable, although written from the perspective of faith, they render the human Jesus as a 1st-century Jew with remarkable accuracy.
  • V. The New Testament is a collection of 27 compositions in Greek that were written before the end of the 1st century in response to the needs of early communities. For the first believers, Scripture was the Jewish Bible, and each writing in the New Testament represents a reinterpretation of the Jewish Scripture in light of the experience of a crucified and raised messiah. B. The New Testament contains 13 letters attributed to Paul (the Apostle to the Gentiles), 2 to Peter, 3 to John, 1 each to James and Jude, and an anonymous sermon addressed “to the Hebrews,” as well as a historical narrative concerning the first generation (the Acts of the Apostles) and a visionary composition called the Book of Revelation. 1. These writings concentrate on the life and practice of the church and reveal the complexity and energy of the movement. 2. In them, Jesus appears mainly as the present and powerful Lord, but his human example also plays a role. C. The New Testament also contains 4 narratives called Gospels that are attributed (in probably chronological sequence) to Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John. 1. These narratives provide a rich collection of Jesus’s sayings and deeds as remembered by a community that now believed in him as Lord of creation. 2. The evangelists tell and retell the story of Jesus in a manner that instructs the church in discipleship. 3. Although they use shared traditions and although Matthew, Mark, and Luke (the synoptic Gospels) are literarily interdependent, the Gospels are remarkable for their diverse portrayals of Jesus. 4. Equally remarkable, although written from the perspective of faith, they render the human Jesus as a 1st-century Jew with remarkable accuracy.
  • V. The New Testament is a collection of 27 compositions in Greek that were written before the end of the 1st century in response to the needs of early communities. For the first believers, Scripture was the Jewish Bible, and each writing in the New Testament represents a reinterpretation of the Jewish Scripture in light of the experience of a crucified and raised messiah. B. The New Testament contains 13 letters attributed to Paul (the Apostle to the Gentiles), 2 to Peter, 3 to John, 1 each to James and Jude, and an anonymous sermon addressed “to the Hebrews,” as well as a historical narrative concerning the first generation (the Acts of the Apostles) and a visionary composition called the Book of Revelation. 1. These writings concentrate on the life and practice of the church and reveal the complexity and energy of the movement. 2. In them, Jesus appears mainly as the present and powerful Lord, but his human example also plays a role. C. The New Testament also contains 4 narratives called Gospels that are attributed (in probably chronological sequence) to Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John. 1. These narratives provide a rich collection of Jesus’s sayings and deeds as remembered by a community that now believed in him as Lord of creation. 2. The evangelists tell and retell the story of Jesus in a manner that instructs the church in discipleship. 3. Although they use shared traditions and although Matthew, Mark, and Luke (the synoptic Gospels) are literarily interdependent, the Gospels are remarkable for their diverse portrayals of Jesus. 4. Equally remarkable, although written from the perspective of faith, they render the human Jesus as a 1st-century Jew with remarkable accuracy.
  • Early Buddhism: denial that God exists or that the Self exists, regardless of wealth or power, caster, anyone can achieve enlightenment, Principal radical egalitariansm
  • Early Buddhism: denial that God exists or that the Self exists, regardless of wealth or power, caster, anyone can achieve enlightenment, Principal radical egalitariansm
  • Early Buddhism: denial that God exists or that the Self exists, regardless of wealth or power, caster, anyone can achieve enlightenment, Principal radical egalitariansm
  • The Kingdom of God is present in Jesus. Quite shocking in John. “
  • The Kingdom of God is present in Jesus. Quite shocking in John. “
  • The Kingdom of God is present in Jesus. Quite shocking in John. “
  • The Kingdom of God is present in Jesus. Quite shocking in John. “
  • The Kingdom of God is present in Jesus. Quite shocking in John. “
  • The Kingdom of God is present in Jesus. Quite shocking in John.
  • Must step back and then forward in world religions.
  • The Kingdom of God is present in Jesus. Quite shocking in John.
  • Must step back and then forward in world religions.
  • Jesus is not a mythical figure. ; god-king crucified on the cross;
  • Holy communion very center of community; the power of the church to include everyone gives it leverage; “We are a body knit together.”
  • Holy communion very center of community; the power of the church to include everyone gives it leverage; “We are a body knit together.”
  • Holy communion very center of community; the power of the church to include everyone gives it leverage; “We are a body knit together.”
  • Holy communion very center of community; the power of the church to include everyone gives it leverage; “We are a body knit together.”
  • Holy communion very center of community; the power of the church to include everyone gives it leverage; “We are a body knit together.”
  • Holy communion very center of community; the power of the church to include everyone gives it leverage; “We are a body knit together.”
  • Holy communion very center of community; the power of the church to include everyone gives it leverage; “We are a body knit together.” We have the emergence of a religious community that has a kind of radical authority that transcends society. The notion of the church is one of the most radical conceptions. Difference from Buddhist notions of a sangha; monks “leaving the world.” One of rules of Jewish ritual involves food, eating with others of the same faith, together; In this case, everyone is breaking bread together;
  • Holy communion very center of community; the power of the church to include everyone gives it leverage; “We are a body knit together.” We have the emergence of a religious community that has a kind of radical authority that transcends society. The notion of the church is one of the most radical conceptions. Difference from Buddhist notions of a sangha; monks “leaving the world.” One of rules of Jewish ritual involves food, eating with others of the same faith, together; In this case, everyone is breaking bread together;
  • Shattering the divisions of society; ritual of Eucharist
  • Shattering the divisions of society; ritual of Eucharist
  • Shattering the divisions of society; ritual of Eucharist
  • Shattering the divisions of society; ritual of Eucharist
  • Shattering the divisions of society; ritual of Eucharist
  • In the beginning of the 2nd century of the common era, Christianity was an identifiable presence across the Roman Empire whose development was natural and organic but also bore the marks of its first creative expansion. A. The most obvious feature was the dominance of Gentile Christianity and of Greco-Roman culture. Christianity was more successful in attracting Gentiles than Jews, and after the Jewish War of 67–70, Jewish Christians were less visible. 2. Sociologically and symbolically, Christian churches resembled Greco-Roman schools more than Jewish synagogues. 3. As communities began to exchange and collect their writings, the question of how Christianity did or did not connect to Judaism was inevitable. 4. The Christian martyr Justin’s dialogue with the Jew Trypho, written around 135 A.D., marks the last face-to-face encounter of Christianity and Judaism for a long time. B. The sparse literature of the early 2nd century reveals a movement that was diverse and sometimes divided, concerned for moral teaching and practice, and eager to offer a defense against attackers. 1. Bishops (such as Ignatius and Polycarp) emerge as intellectual and moral leaders of communities, but the voice of prophecy was still alive (Hermas). 2. Letters written between communities show less concern for doctrine or theology than for moral behavior and unity (see 1 Clement).
  • . The danger of being Christian is revealed by martyrdom (see Ignatius and Polycarp) and apologetic literature (Diognetus, Justin). II. The second half of the 2nd century generated forms of diversity that challenged the Christian movement in fundamental ways and demanded a more explicit form of self-definition. A. A strong tendency toward cosmic dualism and religious asceticism appeared in the 2nd century in a variety of forms. 1. It is not entirely an internal Christian phenomenon, although its effects on Christianity are impressive. 2 . It is not entirely “heterodox” in character, being found as well in popular Christian writings that do not challenge common convictions (see Infancy Gospel of James, Acts of Paul). 3. The blanket term Gnosticism covers a wide range of Christian ascetical and dualistic tendencies that powerfully challenge the nature of the religious movement. B. One form of the challenge moved in the direction of contracting traditional texts and tenets. The Assyrian apologist Tatian advocated a complete rejection of the world through an ascetic lifestyle. He proposed the Diatesseron as a single witness, instead of the four Gospels. 2. Marcion of Sinope proposed a radical dualism that identified the God of the Old Testament with evil and, in his Antitheses, called for the rejection of the Old Testament and all of the New Testament except 10 letters of Paul and a shortened version of Luke’s Gospel. C. Another strongly ascetical tendency moved in the direction of expanding the courses of authority. 1. Our knowledge of this tendency derives both from the descriptions of ancient opponents and from the Nag-Hammadi library,
  • Another strongly ascetical tendency moved in the direction of expanding the courses of authority. 1. Our knowledge of this tendency derives both from the descriptions of ancient opponents and from the Nag-Hammadi library, discovered in 1947. 2. Both Sethian and Valentinian forms of Gnostic teaching challenged traditional teaching in favor of continuing revelation and produced a plethora of “inspired” literature that contained an ascetic ideology. 3. The challenge of new teachers, new teaching, and new scripture was both frontal and massive. It proposed a version of Christianity that was individualistic and opposed to the order of creation. III. The response of orthodox teachers to this complex challenge had profound consequences for the shape of Christianity through the centuries. A. The production of “anti-heretical” literature by such leaders as Irenaeus of Lyons, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria emphasized the importance of “right thinking” (orthodoxy) within this religious tradition.
  • Another strongly ascetical tendency moved in the direction of expanding the courses of authority. 1. Our knowledge of this tendency derives both from the descriptions of ancient opponents and from the Nag-Hammadi library, discovered in 1947. 2. Both Sethian and Valentinian forms of Gnostic teaching challenged traditional teaching in favor of continuing revelation and produced a plethora of “inspired” literature that contained an ascetic ideology. 3. The challenge of new teachers, new teaching, and new scripture was both frontal and massive. It proposed a version of Christianity that was individualistic and opposed to the order of creation. III. The response of orthodox teachers to this complex challenge had profound consequences for the shape of Christianity through the centuries. A. The production of “anti-heretical” literature by such leaders as Irenaeus of Lyons, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria emphasized the importance of “right thinking” (orthodoxy) within this religious tradition.
  • 12B. Irenaeus, in particular, developed (in his Against Heresies) a well-balanced response to the Gnostic challenge: 1. Rather than a truncated or expanded collection of writings, the orthodox party took its stand on a canon of scripture that consisted of the Old Testament and 27 writings of the New Testament. 2. Rather than a widely diverse set of myths, the orthodox party insisted on a rule of faith that defined traditional beliefs. 3. Rather than many inspired teachers, the orthodox party claimed an apostolic succession of public leaders, called the bishops, who maintained tradition. C. The strategy of self-definition used in the battle with Gnosticism became standard for later internal conflicts: Bishops gathered in council to study Scripture and elaborate the creed. IV. At the beginning of the 3rd century, Christianity was internally prepared for its long period of political and cultural influence that began with Constantine in 313 C.E. A. The process of self-definition was not only conceptual: The church that emerged was embodied, public, institutional, and ritual, in character. B. The communion among the orthodox bishops made them visible leaders in the empire, while protest forms of Christianity sought refuge outside the empire.
  • 12B. Irenaeus, in particular, developed (in his Against Heresies) a well-balanced response to the Gnostic challenge: 1. Rather than a truncated or expanded collection of writings, the orthodox party took its stand on a canon of scripture that consisted of the Old Testament and 27 writings of the New Testament. 2. Rather than a widely diverse set of myths, the orthodox party insisted on a rule of faith that defined traditional beliefs. 3. Rather than many inspired teachers, the orthodox party claimed an apostolic succession of public leaders, called the bishops, who maintained tradition. C. The strategy of self-definition used in the battle with Gnosticism became standard for later internal conflicts: Bishops gathered in council to study Scripture and elaborate the creed. IV. At the beginning of the 3rd century, Christianity was internally prepared for its long period of political and cultural influence that began with Constantine in 313 C.E. A. The process of self-definition was not only conceptual: The church that emerged was embodied, public, institutional, and ritual, in character. B. The communion among the orthodox bishops made them visible leaders in the empire, while protest forms of Christianity sought refuge outside the empire.
  • 12B. Irenaeus, in particular, developed (in his Against Heresies) a well-balanced response to the Gnostic challenge: 1. Rather than a truncated or expanded collection of writings, the orthodox party took its stand on a canon of scripture that consisted of the Old Testament and 27 writings of the New Testament. 2. Rather than a widely diverse set of myths, the orthodox party insisted on a rule of faith that defined traditional beliefs. 3. Rather than many inspired teachers, the orthodox party claimed an apostolic succession of public leaders, called the bishops, who maintained tradition. C. The strategy of self-definition used in the battle with Gnosticism became standard for later internal conflicts: Bishops gathered in council to study Scripture and elaborate the creed. IV. At the beginning of the 3rd century, Christianity was internally prepared for its long period of political and cultural influence that began with Constantine in 313 C.E. A. The process of self-definition was not only conceptual: The church that emerged was embodied, public, institutional, and ritual, in character. B. The communion among the orthodox bishops made them visible leaders in the empire, while protest forms of Christianity sought refuge outside the empire.
  • 12B. Irenaeus, in particular, developed (in his Against Heresies) a well-balanced response to the Gnostic challenge: 1. Rather than a truncated or expanded collection of writings, the orthodox party took its stand on a canon of scripture that consisted of the Old Testament and 27 writings of the New Testament. 2. Rather than a widely diverse set of myths, the orthodox party insisted on a rule of faith that defined traditional beliefs. 3. Rather than many inspired teachers, the orthodox party claimed an apostolic succession of public leaders, called the bishops, who maintained tradition. C. The strategy of self-definition used in the battle with Gnosticism became standard for later internal conflicts: Bishops gathered in council to study Scripture and elaborate the creed. IV. At the beginning of the 3rd century, Christianity was internally prepared for its long period of political and cultural influence that began with Constantine in 313 C.E. A. The process of self-definition was not only conceptual: The church that emerged was embodied, public, institutional, and ritual, in character. B. The communion among the orthodox bishops made them visible leaders in the empire, while protest forms of Christianity sought refuge outside the empire.
  • 1. For Jews, the center of Scripture is the revelation of God’s Law at Sinai, while for Christians, it is the revelation of God through human and social events. 2. Christians see the ancient story as providing the basic framework for a relationship between God and humans (the covenant) and as a promise that leads to a historical climax in the coming of the Messiah. B. In particular, Christians read the prophetic literature, not only in terms of the ancient social and religious criticism leveled by the Jewish prophets, but also in terms of the prediction of Jesus as Messiah. 1. Christians, like Jews, read Amos and Jeremiah and Isaiah as powerful voices of reform, calling Israel to faithfulness to the covenant. . Unlike Jews, they see many passages in Jeremiah, Isaiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel as having their fuller meaning in the future. III. Christians see Jesus both as the fulfillment of prophecy and as the inauguration of God’s rule. A. In his human ministry, Jesus announces the “rule of God” and symbolizes its power through his works of healing and exorcism. B. By his Resurrection, Jesus shares God’s rule as “Lord” over the church and even the cosmos. C. The earliest Christian writings conceive of the story in terms of an “already and not yet.” 1. The Resurrection of Jesus is the “first fruits” of a cosmic victory that has still not been fully realized. 2. The parousia (Second Coming) of Jesus will represent God’s final triumph over sin and death.
  • V. Christians approach the 2,000-year-long story of the church from multiple perspectives. A. Christians agree on dividing Christian history into discrete stages that combine religious and secular dimensions: apostolic, patristic, medieval, Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment, modern, contemporary. B. The religious or theological assessment of the discrete periods is, however, controverted among Christians. V. Christians share the conviction that their story has a goal, but they have less agreement concerning what that goal is. A. The notion of the “age to come” or the “world to come” has fluctuated in its importance at different periods of Christianity’s history. B. Even Christians with a strong sense of eschatology have a variety of versions of what the future holds
  • I. Although Christianity is correctly called a monotheistic religion, its understanding of a triune God is complex. A. As in Judaism and Islam, “God” is considered first as the all-powerful creator of all things “visible and invisible” and, as the source of all reality, is termed “Father.” B. But Christians also confess as God “the Son,” who shares fully in the divine life and power. This son entered human history as Jesus Christ, the savior. C. Finally, the “Holy Spirit” is equally God, “worshipped and glorified with the Father and the Son.” D. Christians consider that the way God is revealed through creation, salvation, and sanctification truly discloses the inner life of God as “three persons in one nature.” III. After centuries of debate concerning the work and nature of Jesus, Christians came to an equally complex understanding of Christology. A. The New Testament ascribes both divine and human attributes to Jesus, and both have been considered essential to the full appreciation of the savior. 1. A heresy called Monophysitism so emphasized the divinity of Jesus that it virtually suppressed his humanity. 2. Another heresy called Nestorianism emphasized Jesus’s humanity to the extent that his divine nature seemed neglected. B. The Council of Chalcedon (451) declared that the orthodox understanding of Jesus must recognize that he is “two natures in one person”; that is, he is “true God and true man.” C. Because the orthodox position is also profoundly paradoxical, Christian practice and piety have tended to focus either on the humanity or on the divinity of Jesus.
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • Belief, or doctrine, occupies an unusually central place in Christianity, compared to other religious traditions. A. Some religions, including Judaism and Islam, place more emphasis on orthopraxy (“right practice”) than on orthodoxy (“right opinion”). B. The Christian emphasis on belief is connected to its origins and early development. 1. Its beginnings as a Jewish sect required making a choice for Jesus as Messiah and Lord. 2. The experience of Jesus among followers gave rise to diverse understandings, requiring ever more elaborate statements of belief as a means of self-definition. C. Christian belief is expressed formally by creeds and doctrines that have developed over time in response to internal conflict. 1. The rudimentary statements of belief in the New Testament developed into the Apostles’ Creed. 2. The standard expression of faith for most Christians is the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed (325–381). D. Although all Christians emphasize belief, no single creed commands the assent of all Christians. 1. Some groups have developed creedal statements that reflect their particular perspectives (see the Westminster Confession). 2. Other groups reject the classic creeds but nevertheless retain certain convictions as a lens for reading Scripture.
  • Belief, or doctrine, occupies an unusually central place in Christianity, compared to other religious traditions. A. Some religions, including Judaism and Islam, place more emphasis on orthopraxy (“right practice”) than on orthodoxy (“right opinion”). B. The Christian emphasis on belief is connected to its origins and early development. 1. Its beginnings as a Jewish sect required making a choice for Jesus as Messiah and Lord. 2. The experience of Jesus among followers gave rise to diverse understandings, requiring ever more elaborate statements of belief as a means of self-definition. C. Christian belief is expressed formally by creeds and doctrines that have developed over time in response to internal conflict. 1. The rudimentary statements of belief in the New Testament developed into the Apostles’ Creed. 2. The standard expression of faith for most Christians is the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed (325–381). D. Although all Christians emphasize belief, no single creed commands the assent of all Christians. 1. Some groups have developed creedal statements that reflect their particular perspectives (see the Westminster Confession). 2. Other groups reject the classic creeds but nevertheless retain certain convictions as a lens for reading Scripture.
  • Early Buddhism: denial that God exists or that the Self exists, regardless of wealth or power, caster, anyone can achieve enlightenment, Principal radical egalitariansm
  • Hum40 christianity-f11-p1

    1. 1. The Way of Salvation: The History of Christianity Christ the Saviour (Pantokrator), a 6th-century encaustic icon from Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai.
    2. 2. Historical Context
    3. 3. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. <ul><li>History (actual events) </li></ul><ul><li>Mythology (transcedental claims) </li></ul><ul><li>Eschatology (the study of “last things,” or how the future and present are related). </li></ul>Notions of Time in Christianity
    4. 4. SOURCE: Ernest Gellner. 1992. Plough, Sword, and Book: The Structure of Human History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Historical Context During the Axial Age, the basic structure of agrarian life is characterized by a society as a rule of “thugs,” rulers who take what they want (through violence and taxes, for example).
    5. 5. SOURCE: Ernest Gellner. 1992. Plough, Sword, and Book: The Structure of Human History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Historical Context Throughout much of history, the function of religion is to legitimate the powers that be.
    6. 6. SOURCE: Ernest Gellner. 1992. Plough, Sword, and Book: The Structure of Human History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Historical Context There is an element of doubt in historic religions (Judaism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism).
    7. 7. SOURCE: Ernest Gellner. 1992. Plough, Sword, and Book: The Structure of Human History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Historical Context a period of exploitation and turmoil
    8. 8. SOURCE: Ernest Gellner. 1992. Plough, Sword, and Book: The Structure of Human History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Historical Context There was deep antipathy among Jews, Greeks, and Romans.
    9. 9. SOURCE: Ernest Gellner. 1992. Plough, Sword, and Book: The Structure of Human History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Historical Context Christianity is essentially a Jewish religion.
    10. 10. SOURCE: Ernest Gellner. 1992. Plough, Sword, and Book: The Structure of Human History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Historical Context Various groups were divided: Pharisees, Zealots, Essenes.
    11. 11. SOURCE: Ernest Gellner. 1992. Plough, Sword, and Book: The Structure of Human History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Historical Context There was a series of apocalyptic prophets who proclaimed, amidst widespread suffering and confusion, that the end was coming.
    12. 12. SOURCE: Ernest Gellner. 1992. Plough, Sword, and Book: The Structure of Human History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Historical Context principal radical egalitarianism
    13. 13. SOURCE: Ernest Gellner. 1992. Plough, Sword, and Book: The Structure of Human History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Historical Context Jesus was perceived as both as social reformer and an apocalyptic prophet.
    14. 14. SOURCE: Ernest Gellner. 1992. Plough, Sword, and Book: The Structure of Human History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Historical Context Jesus was an itinerant charismatic and religious healer.
    15. 15. SOURCE: Ernest Gellner. 1992. Plough, Sword, and Book: The Structure of Human History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Historical Context Pontius Pilate
    16. 16. SOURCE: Ernest Gellner. 1992. Plough, Sword, and Book: The Structure of Human History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Historical Context Caiphus
    17. 17. SOURCES: 1. Luke T. Johnson, The Writings of the New Testament: An Interpretation, 2nd revised edition (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1998). 2. W. A. Meeks, The First Urban Christians: The Social World of the Apostle Paul (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983). Jesus of Nazareth both is and is not the “founder” of Christianity.
    18. 18. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. His resurrection from the dead gives birth to a religious movement.
    19. 19. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. The historical activity of Jesus is difficult to reconstruct with precision.
    20. 20. Why?
    21. 21. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. Apart from a few outsider reports, we are dependent on insider Christian writings.
    22. 22. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. Above all, we rely mainly on the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, whose narratives depend on an earlier oral tradition and are told from the perspective of faith in Jesus as the Son of God.
    23. 23. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. <ul><li>He was a prophetic figure in the symbolic world of the Torah. </li></ul>The Historical Jesus
    24. 24. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. 2. He speaks and acts with a distinctive sense of authority. The Historical Jesus
    25. 25. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. 3. His proclamation of the rule of God and call to repentance has a special sense of urgency and a special appeal to the outcast. The Historical Jesus
    26. 26. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. 4. His choice of 12 followers symbolizes the restoration of Israel as God’s people. The Historical Jesus
    27. 27. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. In the context of a deeply divided 1st-century Judaism, Jesus met conflict with Jewish leaders and was executed by crucifixion under Roman authority. The Historical Jesus
    28. 28. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. He transcended mortality. The Resurrection
    29. 29. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. “ Life-Giving Spirit” (1 Cor 15:45) The Resurrection
    30. 30. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. 1. The Resurrection reveals what Jesus was already in his mortal life, namely, God’s unique Son. The Resurrection: Meanings
    31. 31. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. 2. The Resurrection is the premise for the expectation that Jesus will come again as judge of the world . The Resurrection: Meanings
    32. 32. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. 3. The Resurrection makes Jesus not simply a Jewish messiah, but establishes him as “a new Adam,” the start of a new humanity . The Resurrection: Meanings
    33. 33. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. 4. The Resurrection is the basis for Christianity becoming a worldwide religion rather than a sect within Judaism. The Resurrection: Meanings
    34. 34. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. The Christian movement established communities across the Roman Empire with unparalleled rapidity and remarkable diversity. The Establishment of Churches
    35. 35. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. In the span of 25 years, churches (ekklesiai) had been founded from Jerusalem to Rome. The Establishment of Churches
    36. 36. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. The New Testament is a collection of 27 compositions in Greek that were written before the end of the 1st century in response to the needs of early communities. The New Testament
    37. 37. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. The New Testament represents a reinterpretation of the Jewish Scripture in light of the experience of a crucified and raised messiah. The New Testament
    38. 38. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. The New Testament contains 13 letters attributed to Paul (the Apostle to the Gentiles), The New Testament
    39. 39. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. 2 to Peter, 3 to John, 1 each to James and Jude, The New Testament
    40. 40. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. an anonymous sermon addressed “to the Hebrews” The New Testament
    41. 41. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. as well as a historical narrative concerning the first generation (the Acts of the Apostles) and a visionary composition called the Book of Revelation. The New Testament
    42. 42. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. The New Testament also contains 4 narratives called Gospels (“good news”) that are attributed to Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John. The New Testament
    43. 43. From Jesus to Christ: Stories of Cultural Change and Social Resistance
    44. 44. Questions: From Jesus to Christ <ul><li>When and where was Jesus born? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the historical context. </li></ul><ul><li>What was his possible family background or social class? </li></ul><ul><li>Was Jesus a Jew? Explain. </li></ul>FIRST HALF: ANSWER IN YOUR NOTES INDIVIDUALLY DURING CLIP.
    45. 45. Questions: From Jesus to Christ <ul><li>What does “apocalypse” mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was John the Baptist? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of metaphors and parables did Jesus use? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Create a new “open” question as a group. </li></ul>SECOND HALF: ANSWER AS A GROUP ON A SEPARATE SHEET OF PAPER.
    46. 46. The Crucifixion of Jesus Christ
    47. 47. Questions: From Jesus to Christ <ul><li>What are some of the meanings of the Resurrection of Christ? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think this story would flourish or become compelling as a religious idea across the world? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you personally “believe” this story might be true or have some symbolic significance in some manner? Why or why not? </li></ul>
    48. 48. Historical Context “ The birth of Christianity is the interaction between the historical Jesus and his first companions and the continuation of that relationship despite his execution.” John Dominic Crossan
    49. 49. Historical Context Experiencing visions or apparitions would not be out of the ordinary during the first century.
    50. 50. Historical Context The death of Jesus created a personal and social trauma not unlike the death of any important person or leader.
    51. 51. Historical Context “ Justice is always about bodies and lives, not just about words and ideas.” John Dominic Crossan
    52. 52. Historical Context Jesus as Son of God.
    53. 53. Historical Context “ I am the vine from which you are the fruit.”
    54. 54. Historical Context How can he have a “Son”?
    55. 55. Historical Context God is ultimately transcendent.
    56. 56. Historical Context The divine is killed and reborn.
    57. 57. Analogues? Dionysis (Greece), Shiva (India)
    58. 58. Difference Jesus is not partly human or divine, as with several Greek figures (Aeneas, for example).
    59. 59. Difference Nor is he simply an incarnation of the divine (as with “avatars” found in India: Shiva, Vishnu).
    60. 60. Difference Jesus is no mythical figure (according to its adherents).
    61. 61. Historical Context Jesus is fully God and man.
    62. 62. Historical Context Gnostics: Jesus is God and only God.
    63. 63. Historical Context This belief does not make sense psychologically, but perhaps sociologically or historically.
    64. 64. Historical Context In I Corinthians 12: “ We are all one body.”
    65. 65. Historical Context absolutely universal community
    66. 66. Historical Context Galatians 3: “ You are all sons of God.”
    67. 67. Historical Context Eucharist ritual
    68. 68. Historical Context Primordial symbolism
    69. 69. Historical Context Becoming one with the body of Christ, which is the church (ekklesia)
    70. 70. Historical Context the germ of democratic citizenship
    71. 71. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. During the beginning of the 2 nd century, the most obvious feature was the dominance of Gentile Christianity and of Greco-Roman culture. The Spread of Christianity
    72. 72. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. There was a strong tendency toward cosmic dualism and religious asceticism The Spread of Christianity
    73. 73. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. leaders such as Irenaeus of Lyons, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria The Spread of Christianity
    74. 74. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. the production of “ anti-heretical” literature The Spread of Christianity
    75. 75. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. canon of scripture The Spread of Christianity
    76. 76. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. Old Testament and 27 writings of the New Testament The Spread of Christianity
    77. 77. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. battle with Gnosticism The Spread of Christianity
    78. 78. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. Bishops maintained tradition. The Spread of Christianity
    79. 79. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. prophetic fulfillment Reinterpretations of the Sacred
    80. 80. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. linear worldview Reinterpretations of the Sacred
    81. 81. SOURCE: Luke Timothy Johnson. The Trinity, or Triune God Reinterpretations of the Sacred
    82. 82. Remember as many details as you can from the story, and recount the story again to the next person. Note which details remain consistent as each story is communicated. Oral Tradition Experiment
    83. 83. He also said, ‘With what can we compare the kingdom of God, or what parable will we use for it? 31 It is like a mustard seed, which, when sown upon the ground, is the smallest of all the seeds on earth ; 32 yet when it is sown it grows up and becomes the greatest of all shrubs, and puts forth large branches, so that the birds of the air can make nests in its shade.’ The Mustard Seed Parable (Mark 4: 30-32)
    84. 84. Now when Jesus heard this, he withdrew from there in a boat to a deserted place by himself. But when the crowds heard it, they followed him on foot from the towns. 14 When he went ashore, he saw a great crowd; and he had compassion for them and cured their sick. 15 When it was evening, the disciples came to him and said, ‘This is a deserted place, and the hour is now late; send the crowds away so that they may go into the villages and buy food for themselves.’ 16 Jesus said to them, ‘They need not go away; you give them something to eat.’ 17 They replied, ‘We have nothing here but five loaves and two fish.’ The Feeding of the Multitudes Parable (Matthew 14: 13-21)
    85. 85. ’ 18 And he said, ‘Bring them here to me.’ 19 Then he ordered the crowds to sit down on the grass. Taking the five loaves and the two fish, he looked up to heaven, and blessed and broke the loaves, and gave them to the disciples, and the disciples gave them to the crowds. 20 And all ate and were filled; and they took up what was left over of the broken pieces, twelve baskets full. 21 And those who ate were about five thousand men, besides women and children.’ The Feeding of the Multitudes Parable (Matthew 14: 13-21)
    86. 86. What is cultural memory ? <ul><li>a form of storytelling </li></ul><ul><li>a process of forgetting </li></ul><ul><li>multiple existence and variation </li></ul>
    87. 87. Experience or Event Memory, Representation, or Interpretation
    88. 88. We often select cultural memories that eclipse or overshadow the experiences of people considered too “ordinary” to be noticed. The Problem of Representation KEY POINT
    89. 89. What is cultural memory ? Cultural memories are also “created in tandem with forgetting - it is a narrative rather than a replica of an experience that can be retrieved and relived (Sturken 1997).”
    90. 90. History happens all at once, but specific cultural memories are chosen as representations of a particular time period or era based on their ability to support an idealized national or regional form of identity . Key Argument
    91. 91. History is therefore always interpreted through lens of its “experts”- and we must question who these authoritative “experts” are and whether or not their narratives of the past really represent the human experience in all of its variety and complexity. Key Argument (continued)
    92. 92. Belief, doctrine, and faith Reinterpretations of the Sacred
    93. 93. orthodoxy (“right opinion or belief”) Reinterpretations of the Sacred
    94. 94. Creeds <ul><li>Nicene (325) </li></ul><ul><li>Apostles (390) </li></ul>
    95. 95. The Nicene Creed We believe in one God, the Father almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only Son of God, begotten from the Father before all ages, God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God, begotten, not made; of the same essence as the Father. Through him all things were made. For us and for our salvation he came down from heaven; he became incarnate by the Holy Spirit and the virgin Mary, and was made human. He was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate; he suffered and was buried. The third day he rose again, according to the Scriptures. He ascended to heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come again with glory to judge the living and the dead. His kingdom will never end. And we believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life. He proceeds from the Father and the Son, and with the Father and the Son is worshiped and glorified. He spoke through the prophets. We believe in one holy catholic and apostolic church. We affirm one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. We look forward to the resurrection of the dead, and to life in the world to come. Amen.
    96. 96. Apostles Creed <ul><li>I believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth.  </li></ul><ul><li>And in Jesus Christ his only Son our Lord; who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried; he descended into hell; the third day he rose again from the dead; he ascended into heaven, and seated on the right hand of God the Father Almighty; from there he shall come to judge the living and the dead.  </li></ul><ul><li>I believe in the Holy Ghost; the holy catholic Church; the communion of saints; the forgiveness of sins; the resurrection of the body; and the life everlasting. AMEN. </li></ul>
    97. 97. CASE STUDY: The Performed Word <ul><li>What verbal or bodily techniques does the preacher use to capture her audience? In what ways is call-and-response used here? </li></ul><ul><li>How is Jesus (and his sacrifice) invoked in her sermon? </li></ul><ul><li>How does this religious performance represent a modern form of healing? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways does gender and ethnicity play a part in this performance? </li></ul>ANSWER IN GROUPS OF TWO.

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