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HUM1-Podcast-F11-W5-Semiotics
HUM1-Podcast-F11-W5-Semiotics
HUM1-Podcast-F11-W5-Semiotics
HUM1-Podcast-F11-W5-Semiotics
HUM1-Podcast-F11-W5-Semiotics
HUM1-Podcast-F11-W5-Semiotics
HUM1-Podcast-F11-W5-Semiotics
HUM1-Podcast-F11-W5-Semiotics
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HUM1-Podcast-F11-W5-Semiotics

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  • According to Hall, “representation” is not simply a form of reflection, but an act of reconstruction
  • We have seen in considering the speaking-circuit that both terms involved in the linguistic sign are psychological and are united in the brain by an associative bond. This point must be emphasized. The linguistic sign unites, not a thing and a name, but a concept and a sound-image. The latter is not the material sound, a purely physical thing, but the psychological imprint of the sound, the impression that it makes on our senses. The sound-image is sensory, and if I happen to call it "material," it is only in that sense, and by way of opposing it to the other term of the association, the concept, which is generally more abstract.
  • We have seen in considering the speaking-circuit that both terms involved in the linguistic sign are psychological and are united in the brain by an associative bond. This point must be emphasized. The linguistic sign unites, not a thing and a name, but a concept and a sound-image. The latter is not the material sound, a purely physical thing, but the psychological imprint of the sound, the impression that it makes on our senses. The sound-image is sensory, and if I happen to call it "material," it is only in that sense, and by way of opposing it to the other term of the association, the concept, which is generally more abstract.
  • Indexical sign
  • (recognizably looking, sounding, feeling, tasting or smelling like it, that is, being similar in possessing some of its qualities: e.g. a portrait, a cartoon, a scale-model, onomatopoeia, metaphors, 'realistic' sounds in 'programme music', sound effects in radio drama, a dubbed film soundtrack, imitative gestures;
  • e.g. 'natural signs' (smoke, thunder, footprints, echoes, non-synthetic odours and flavours), medical symptoms (pain, a rash, pulse-rate), measuring instruments (weathercock, thermometer, clock, spirit-level), 'signals' (a knock on a door, a phone ringing), pointers (a pointing 'index' finger, a directional signpost), recordings (a photograph, a film, video or television shot, an audio-recorded voice), personal 'trademarks' (handwriting, catchphrase) and indexical words ('that', 'this', 'here', 'there').)
  • e.g. language in general (plus specific languages, alphabetical letters, punctuation marks, words, phrases and sentences), numbers, morse code, traffic lights, national flags
  • e.g. language in general (plus specific languages, alphabetical letters, punctuation marks, words, phrases and sentences), numbers, morse code, traffic lights, national flags
  • The Evolution of Writing: Moving from Iconic signs (direct, concrete representations of objects) and symbolic signs (abstract representations that refer to one or more objects or ideas)
  • Symbolic (and iconic)
  • Indexical sign
  • Iconic and symbolic
  • Symbolic sign
  • Symbolic sign
  • Indexical sign
  • Iconic and symbolic
  • Iconic and symbolic
  • Iconic and symbolic signs
  • Indexical sign
  • Indexical sign
  • Indexical sign
  • e.g. 'natural signs' (smoke, thunder, footprints, echoes, non-synthetic odours and flavours), medical symptoms (pain, a rash, pulse-rate), measuring instruments (weathercock, thermometer, clock, spirit-level), 'signals' (a knock on a door, a phone ringing), pointers (a pointing 'index' finger, a directional signpost), recordings (a photograph, a film, video or television shot, an audio-recorded voice), personal 'trademarks' (handwriting, catchphrase) and indexical words ('that', 'this', 'here', 'there').)
  • e.g. language in general (plus specific languages, alphabetical letters, punctuation marks, words, phrases and sentences), numbers, morse code, traffic lights, national flags
  • I was inspired to paint The First Supper after Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper, by the narrative drama and magnificent composition of Leonardo's painting. I wanted to challenge the patriarchal concept of thirteen men on one side of a table that is accepted as a celebrated religious symbol. In place of the men, all with similar features, I painted an international group of women.The significance of the Australian bicentennial in 1988 influenced my painting. There were conflicting attitudes towards this 200th anniversary of the arrival of the first settlers in Australia. Although many celebrated the bicentennial, Aboriginal people and their supporters saw it as a commemoration of a white invasion.In place of the central Christ figure is an Aboriginal woman wearing a T-shirt bearing the Aboriginal flag. The other women represent people living in Australia today from different parts of the world. Foods originating from different regions of the world are positioned on the table, in relation to the women. The figure in the position of Leonardo's Judas, is a blonde holding an Aboriginal dilly-bag in place of the money-purse - she has a can of Coca-Cola and a hamburger, while the rest each have a glass of water and a bread roll.The large rock through the left window is an important sacred site for Aboriginal people, called Uluru; it was returned to them recently as freehold land by the Australian Government. (Susan D White)
  • e.g. language in general (plus specific languages, alphabetical letters, punctuation marks, words, phrases and sentences), numbers, morse code, traffic lights, national flags
  • e.g. language in general (plus specific languages, alphabetical letters, punctuation marks, words, phrases and sentences), numbers, morse code, traffic lights, national flags
  • 1. She selects signs from three paradigms (i.e. sets of possible signs - upper body garments, lower body garments, and footwear). Each paradigm contains a possible set of pieces from which she can choose only one. From the upper-body-garment paradigm (including blouses, tee-shirts, tunics, sweaters), she selects one. These items share a similar structure, function, and/or other attribute with others in the set: they are related to one another on the basis of similarity. She further selects items related by similarity from the lower-body-garment and footwear paradigms. A socially defined, shared classification system or code shapes her selections. 2. She combines the selected signs through rules (i.e., tee-shirts go with sandals, not high heels), sending a message through the ensemble - the syntagm. Selection requires her to perceive similarity and opposition among signs within the set (the paradigm), classifying them as items having the same function or structure, only one of which she needs. She can substitute, or select, a blouse for the tee-shirt - conveying a different message. The combination, tee-shirt–jeans–sandals, requires her to know the 'rules by which garments are acceptably combined... The combination... is, in short, a kind of sentence' (Lodge 1977, 74). The tee-shirt–jeans–sandals syntagm conveys a different meaning (sends a different message) at the beach than at a formal occasion. (Spiggle 1998, 159)
  • I am at the barber's, and a copy of Paris-Match is offered to me. On the cover, a young Negro* in a French uniform is saluting, with his eyes uplifted, probably fixed on a fold of the tricolour. All this is the meaning of the picture. But, whether naively or not, I see very well what it signifies to me: that France is a great Empire, that all her sons, without any colour discrimination, faithfully serve under her flag, and that there is no better answer to the detractors of an alleged colonialism than the zeal shown by this Negro* in serving his so-called oppressors. I am therefore again faced with a greater semiological system: there is a signifier, itself already formed with a previous system (a black soldier is giving the French salute); there is a signified (it is here a purposeful mixture of Frenchness and militariness); finally, there is a presence of the signified through the signifier... In myth (and this is the chief peculiarity of the latter), the signifier is already formed by the signs of the language... Myth has in fact a double function: it points out and it notifies, it makes us understand something and it imposes it on us...One must put the biography of the Negro* in parentheses if one wants to free the picture, and prepare it to receive its signified... The form does not suppress the meaning, it only impoverishes it, it puts it at a distance... It is this constant game of hide-and-seek between the meaning and the form which defines myth. The form of myth is not a symbol: the Negro* who salutes is not the symbol of the French Empire: he has too much presence, he appears as a rich, fully experienced, spontaneous, innocent, indisputable image. But at the same time this presence is tamed, put at a distance, made almost transparent; it recedes a little, it becomes the accomplice of a concept which comes to it fully armed, French imperiality...Myth is... defined by its intention... much more than by its literal sense... In spite of this, its intention is somehow frozen, purified, eternalized, made absent by this literal sense (The French Empire? It's just a fact: look at this good Negro* who salutes like one of our own boys). This constituent ambiguity... has two consequences for the signification, which henceforth appears both like a notification and like a statement of fact...French imperiality condemns the saluting Negro* to be nothing more than an instrumental signifier, the Negro* suddenly hails me in the name of French imperiality; but at the same moment the Negro's* salute thickens, becomes vitrified, freezes into an eternal reference meant to establish French imperiality...We reach here the very principle of myth: it transforms history into nature... In the case of the soldier-Negro*... what is got rid of is certainly not French imperiality (on the contrary, since what must be actualized is its presence); it is the contingent, historical, in one word: fabricated, quality of colonialism. Myth does not deny things, on the contrary, its function is to talk about them; simply, it purifies them, it makes them innocent, it gives them a natural and eternal justification, it gives them a clarity which is not that of an explanation but that of a statement of fact. If I state the fact of French imperiality without explaining it, I am very near to finding that it is natural and goes without saying: I am reassured. In passing from history to nature, myth acts economically: it abolishes the complexity of human acts, it gives them the simplicity of essences, it does away with all dialectics, with any going back beyond what is immediately visible, it organizes a world which is without contradictions... Things appear to mean something by themselves...*Translator's term - not the choice of this author [Barthes 1987)
  • Indexical sign
  • Transcript

    • 1. Signs of Change:
      Semiotics and the Making of Meaning
      in Social Protest Movements
      Scene from Style Wars (1983)
    • 2. AGENDA
      Introduction to Semiotics
      Interpreting Signs in Context
      Style Wars film clip
      Question exchange
      Graffiti debate
    • 3. “something that stands for something, to someone in some capacity” (Marcel Danesi).
      Sign
    • 4. the ways in which meaning is given to the things depicted; that which “stands in” for something else (Stuart Hall).
      Representation
    • 5. the study of signs or representations
      Semiotics
    • 6. “Fathers” of Semiotics
      Charles Sanders Peirce,
      American philosopher/logician
    • 7. “Fathers” of Semiotics
      Ferdinand de Saussure,
      Swiss linguist
    • 8. Interpretation: The Semiotic Process
    • 9. Interpretation: The Semiotic Process
    • 10.
    • 11. Interpretation: The Semiotic Process
    • 12.
    • 13.
    • 14.
    • 15. Protesters chant anti-government slogans in a square in Benghazi city in Libya. (AsmaaWaguih/Reuters, 2011)
    • 16. THE “V” SIGN: ORIGINS
      Winston Churchill waving the “V” sign in 1941
      during World War II.
    • 17.
    • 18.
    • 19.
    • 20.
    • 21.
    • 22.
    • 23. What are the different “signs”
      located in this picture?
    • 24. GROUP EXERCISE
      GATHER IN GROUPS OF TWO
      TO CREATE AND ANSWER CLOSED QUESTIONS.
    • 25. SIGNS OF CHANGE
      GATHER IN GROUPS OF THREE
      TO CREATE AND ANSWER OPEN QUESTIONS
    • 26. Gathering Evidence
      Watch the following film, Style Wars (1983):
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ETRa_tx9c2w
    • 27. Gathering Evidence
      While watching the following film clips:
      1. Describe the ways in which “graffiti” is represented or given meaning by its creators. What vernacular expressions or local signs (in particular, “signifiers” and “signifieds”) are used to describe the creative process?
      2. Describe the ways in which “graffiti” is represented or perceived by different audiences (adults, government officials, etc.). Why is graffiti perceived so differently?
    • 28. More Gathering of Evidence
      For 2-minutes, write down two arguments, one agreeing and the other disagreeing with the following proposition.
    • 29. Proposition
      Graffiti is a form of
      artistic expression.
    • 30. GATHER IN
      GROUPS OF FIVE BASED ON YOUR NUMBER.
    • 31. Debate
      ASSIGN ROLES
    • 32. Debate
      Now take on the following role:
      Proponent (1-2)
      Opponent (3-4)
      Referee (5)
    • 33. Debate
      Proponent: Agree with Proposition
      Opponent: Disagree with Proposition
      Referee: Direct Debate, Manage Time,
      and Facilitate Conversation
    • 34. Debate: Rules
      Proponents start debate by giving a 2-minute argument.
      Opponents continue debate by giving a 2-minute argument.
      Referee manages discussion by making sure groups take turns, keeping time, writing down persuasive arguments, and declaring a winner.
    • 35. TYPES OF SIGNS
    • 36. ICON
    • 37. ICON
      a mode in which the signifier is perceived as resembling or imitating the signified
    • 38. INDEX
    • 39. INDEX
      a mode in which the signifier is not arbitrary but is directly connected in some way (physically or causally) to the signified
    • 40. SYMBOL
    • 41. SYMBOL
      a mode in which the signifier does not resemble the signified but which is fundamentally arbitrary or purely conventional so that the relationship must be learned
    • 42. TYPE OF SIGNS
      ICON?
      INDEX?
      SYMBOL?
    • 43.
    • 44. TYPE OF SIGN?
    • 45. TYPE OF SIGN?
    • 46. TYPE OF SIGN?
    • 47. TYPE OF SIGN?
    • 48. TYPE OF SIGN?
      eiπ
    • 49. TYPE OF SIGN?
    • 50. TYPE OF SIGN?
    • 51. TYPE OF SIGN?
    • 52. TYPE OF SIGN?
    • 53. TYPE OF SIGN?
      “that”
    • 54. MORE EXAMPLES
    • 55.
    • 56.
    • 57.
    • 58.
    • 59.
    • 60.
    • 61.
    • 62.
    • 63.
    • 64.
    • 65.
    • 66.
    • 67.
    • 68.
    • 69.
    • 70.
    • 71. INTERPRETING IMAGES
    • 72. QUESTIONS
      What are the signifiers in the following paintings? Describe the different characters, and list their actions.
      What are the signifieds represented here?
      What does this painting refer to intertextually? Why?
    • 73. The Last Supper, Leonardo da Vinci, 1498
    • 74. Susan Dorothea White, The First Supper, 1988acrylic on panel, 130 x 250 cm
      (52" x 100"), Private collection (Germany)
    • 75.
    • 76.
    • 77. Mona Lisa (Leonardo da Vinci)
    • 78. Mona Lisa (Marcel Duchamp)
    • 79. Mona Lisa (Gary Larson)
    • 80.
    • 81.
    • 82.
    • 83.
    • 84.
    • 85.
    • 86. APPLE COMMERCIAL (1984)
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OYecfV3ubP8
    • 87.
    • 88. AD PARODIES
    • 89.
    • 90.
    • 91.
    • 92.
    • 93.
    • 94.
    • 95.
    • 96. Andy GoldsworthyWorking With Time
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YkHRZQU6bjI
    • 97. QUESTIONS: Rivers and Tides
      How does Andy Goldsworthy play or work with “time” and “space” in his forms of expression?
      How does he play with the idea of impermanence, or the changing qualities of nature?
    • 98. ART
      ephemeral
      permanent
      short-time
      long-time
    • 99. Andy Goldsworthy
      signifiers: water, leaves, branches, stone
      signifieds: change, movement, fragility, division, distinction
    • 100. Andy Goldsworthy
      form/content: water, leaves, branches, stone
      interpretations: change, movement, fragility, division, distinction

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