Are boundaries between certain spaces actually “real” How are they culturally constructed?
Figure 1.4b: This is an isarithmic map designed to show the approximate distribution of global population. By comparing 1.4a and 1.4b, you can see the different visual messages sent by different maps.
Coined by derivation from the Italian giudecca, borghetto or gietto (or from the German gitter or the Talmudic Hebrew get: the etymology is disputed), the word “ghetto” initially refers to the forced consignment of Jews to special districts by the city’s political and religious authorities. In medieval Europe, Jews were commonly allotted quarters wherein they resided, administered their own affairs, and followed their customs. Such quarters were granted or sold as a privilege to attract them into the towns and principalities for which they fulfilled key roles as money-lenders, tax collectors, and long-distance tradesmen. But, between the thirteenth and the sixteenth century, in the wake of the upheavals caused by the Crusades, favor gradually turned into compulsion (Stow 1982). In 1516 the Senate of Venice ordered all Jews rounded up into the ghetto nuovo, an abandoned foundry on an isolated island enclosed by two high walls whose outer windows and doors were sealed while watchmen stood guard on its two bridges and patrolled the adjacent canals by boat. Jews were henceforth allowed out to pursue their occupations by day but they had to wear a distinctive garb and return inside the gates before sunset on pain of serious punishment. These measures were designed as an alternative to expulsion to enable the city-state to reap the economic benefits brought by the presence of Jews (including rents, special taxes, and forced levies) while protecting their Christian residents from contaminating contact with bodies perceived as unclean and dangerously sensual, carriers of syphillis and vectors of heresy, in addition to bearing the taint of money-making through usury which the Catholic Church equated with prostitution (Sennett 1994: 224). As this Venetian model spread in cities throughout Europe and around the Mediterranean rim (Johnson 1997: 235-245), territorial fixation and seclusion led, on the one hand, to overcrowding, housing deterioration, and impoverishment as well as excess morbidity and mortality, and, on the other, to institutional flowering and cultural consolidation as urban Jews responded to multiplying civic and occupational restrictions by knitting a dense web of group-specific organizations that served as so many instruments of collective succor and solidarity, from markets and business associations, to charity and mutual aid societies, to places of religious worship and scholarship. The Judenstadt of Prague, Europe’s largest ghetto in the eighteenth century, even had its own city hall, the Rathaus, emblem of the relative autonomy and communal strength of its residents, and its synagogues were entrusted not only with the spiritual stewardship but also with the administrative and judicial oversight of its population. Social life in the Jewish ghetto was turned inward and verged “on overorganization” (Wirth 1928: 62), so that it reinforced both integration within and isolation from without.
Spaces, Places, and Contact Zones Where do you think this is?
Spaces and Places: Exploring Berkeley City College For this opening game, you will gather in teams of 3 students on different floors, and perform at least TWO of the following tasks (you must return back to class with your data in 15 minutes : 3:05-10): (1,2: Basement, 3-4, 1 st floor, 5-6, 2 nd floor, 7-8, 3 rd floor, 9-10, 4 th floor, 11-12, 5 th floor) 1. Politely ask at least one student, teacher, or staff member (and record their responses): What is difference between spaces and places? 2. While traveling on the elevator, one student faces backward during their trip, and other team members will record the reactions of other people. 3. Stake out at least one spot on your designated floor you find artistically or aesthetically interesting, and describe the reasons why you think this is the case. Also, describe those central forms of play and work do within this entire floor.
JOKE A man’s house stood right on the Russian-Polish border. When it was decided that his home was actually in Poland, he cried: “ Hooray! I don’t have to go through those Russian winters anymore!”
The Poetics of Spaces and Places the ways in which our cultural surroundings are arranged, shared, contested, and change over time
Sense of Place <ul><li>Imagine where you lived as a child. </li></ul><ul><li>Where is home ? </li></ul><ul><li>Why and how do places take on </li></ul><ul><li>meaning for human individuals? </li></ul>
Mapping Your Comfort Zones DRAW A MAP OF WHERE YOU LIVE. MARK AREAS IN YOUR NEIGHBORHOOD THAT YOU FIND ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT ( FORMAL , FUNCTIONAL , AND VERNACULAR ).
place: a familiar or formalized space with recognizable boundaries examples : homes, offices, buildings, malls, stadiums, museums, etc.
<ul><ul><li>THREE TYPES OF CULTURAL REGIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FORMAL : all members share a characteristic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FUNCTIONAL : defined by a node of </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>activity and distance decay from center </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VERNACULAR : perception of cultural identity </li></ul></ul></ul>
What kinds of cultural values are reflected in each of these American houses? Gated community?
Where are we? What values are reflected in each place?
Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey Timber House, Switzerland Yurt on Mongolian Steppe Suburban Home, Chicago
Quilting, Grace Earl Time: Morning Space: Private Home, San Francisco, CA; SMALL PRIVATE SPACES
Eating Dinner with Friends Time: Evening, 2005 Space: Plearn Restaurant, Berkeley, CA INTIMATE PUBLIC SPACES
Children’s Handclapping Games Time: 1967 Space: Los Angeles, CA playground VERNACULAR PUBLIC SPACES See entire video at: http://folkstreams.net
“ First, this seems to be primarily a female tradition; little girls begin to learn it during their 6 th or 7th year. By the time they reach puberty the tradition is abandoned, or perhaps simply transmuted into social dance. Boys of the same age-span seem invariably to know the games but do not perform them in public situations such as the school yard. In backyards or alleys, however, the games may be played by mixed groups. The primary game form is the ring. The clapping formation in which two children face each other and clap hands is actually itself a small ring to which others can be added like a string of beads. The other principal play form consists of parallel lines of players facing each other. All action takes place inside the ring or between the parallel lines; players do not go "outside". Characteristically, there is a central figure who initiates the action, and the "plot line" of each game then consists of a series of moves which constitute one run-through of the play; this is repeated until the group is satisfied, or until everyone has had a turn at the center role. This structure guarantees that there will be no more or less time for any child to have the central power position; competition, then, in the sense of winning-losing, is absent. Though individual players may try to outdo each other in improvisational detail, there is no reward expressed in terms of game action (another turn at the central role, for example). Stylistically the major feature is call and response; almost every phrase is echoed both in singing and movement patterns. Motor expressiveness is elaborated; musical expressiveness is not. Though the children clap, their clapping style seems to stress tactile rather than tonal values. Their hands are quite relaxed; they stroke instead of making an impact. This effect is emphasized by the degree of body empathy the children share; they move over, make room, spread out, close together, move in tandem and adjust to each other's physical presence in a thousand subtle ways. Physically speaking, they enjoy group blend to a degree that white society only seems to achieve under the strictest imposed discipline.” Pizza, pizza, Daddy-o: Children’s Musical Play Spaces http://folkstreams.net Bess Lomax Hawes (1967, Los Angeles)
Football (Cal vs. Oregon) Time: Afternoon Space: Stadium, Eugene, OR SPECTACULAR PUBLIC SPACES Marcus Ezeff (Cal) tackles Cameron Colvin (Oregon), knocking the football into the “Endzone,” and saving a victory for the Cal Bears.
Other notions: The nation is made up of people identified by language and religion rather than a specific piece of land. Land is considered a resource for all humans. Examples : American Indian tribes, nomadic groups, aborigines, Gypsies, Arab communities (prior to WWI, before Britain created the nations of “Iraq,” “Lebanon,” “Syria,” and “Palestine”), etc.
Other nationalist beliefs and assumptions used throughout history: 1.“Divine Right” (mystifying land) 2.“Manifest Destiny” (American colonization) 3. Increase Group “Purity” (“authentic” connection to land among exclusive groups) 4. Decrease Group “Danger” (or the influx of “illegal aliens” or “polluted peoples”) (Mary Douglas)
CITY SPACES In Europe, there are two major systems for patterning space. (Edward Hall)
1. Radiating star : France and Spain 2. Grid : Asia, England, the U.S. CITY SPACES
COMPARE AND CONTRAST ghettos and gated communities . Describe the buildings, patterns, activities, styles, etc. found within these settings.
Race and Space <ul><li>What is “redlining”? </li></ul><ul><li>How did this process affect the way space </li></ul><ul><li>was used and shared in the United States? </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mW764dXEI_8 </li></ul><ul><li>Film clip: Race: The Power of an Illusion </li></ul><ul><li>(The House We Live In) </li></ul>