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  • When an infant makes eye contact with her mother, each experiences a spontaneous surge of emotion (joy). The baby responds with a radiant smile, the mother with her own smile and rhythmic vocalizations (baby talk).  This is the grounding base of the state-of-play. It is known, through EEG and other imaging technologies, that the right cerebral cortex, which organizes emotional control is “attuned” in both infant and mother.
  • If you don’t understand human movement, you won’t really understand yourself or play. If you do, you will reap the benefits of play in your body, personal life and work situations.  Learning about self movement structures an individual’s knowledge of the world - it is a way of knowing, and we actually, through movement and play, think in motion. For example the play-driven movement of leaping upward is a lesson about gravity as well as one’s body. And it lights up the brain and fosters learning. Innovation, flexibility, adaptability, resilience, have their roots in movement. The play driven pleasures associated with exploratory body movements, rhythmic early speech (moving vocal cords), locomotor and rotational activity - are done for their own sake; pleasurable, and intrinsically playful. They sculpt the brain, and ready the player for the unexpected and unusual.
  • Along with other special patterns of play, the curiosity about and playing  with “objects” is a pervasive innately fun pattern of play, and creates its own “states” of playfulness.  Early on, toys take on highly personalized characteristics, and as skills in manipulating objects (i.e., banging on pans, skipping rocks, etc.) develop, the richer become the circuits in the brain. Hands playing with all types of objects help brains develop beyond strictly manipulative skills, with play as the driver of this development.The correlation of effective adult problem solving and earlier encouragement of and facility in manipulating objects has been established. The science of progressively more complex object play and its relation to overall competency has sparked research interest in corporate “work readiness”, in that a deficiency in fixing things by hand during one's youth may well mean deficiencies in complex problem solving in challenging work settings as an adult. To be a good research engineer, for example may mean that the times spent in high school fixing cars or building airplane models are as important as getting an advanced degree, particularly if the engineer is also expected to function as an innovative problem solver.
  • From the simplest romp and wrestling of young animals to the most jocular and complex banter of close friends, social play is a key aspect of play behavior.The science of social play is complex, but can be studied selectively. The NIFP has a particular interest in early parent infant play, better understanding of the signals that herald and maintain social play, ( Such as the play face, various play body languages, as, in domestic dogs,  the play-bow with wagging tail) The urge to play with others, in addition to being fun, is often driven by the desire to be accepted, to belong.Kids start this process by “parallel” play, i. e,without much consciousness of the feelings or status of the play partner, But as development proceeds, friendships happen,  empathy for another is felt, with mutual play as the crucible in which it becomes refined. Group loyalty and affection ensues, and with it the rudiments of a functioning community. And there is a fledgling science that the NIFP believes would find benefits by looking more deeply into this.  In animals, affiliative play appears to be kindled by the release of certain hormones and neurotransmitters, but it requires the experience of play to make “belonging” occur. This area of investigation may well have implications for violence prevention an other aspects of social well-being. he importance of R&T play in animals and humans, has been shown to be necessary for the development and maintenance of social awareness, cooperation, fairness and altruism. Its nature and importance are  generally unappreciated, particularly by early (preschool) teachers,  who often see normal rough and tumble play behavior such as hitting, diving, wrestling, (all done with a smile, between friends who stay friends), not as a state of play, but one of anarchy that must be controlled.  A natural extension of the form -  as it naturally diminishes with age - is lifelong involvement in games, sports and group activities that not only tolerate, but enjoy creative tension. Lack of experience with this pattern of play hampers the normal give and take necessary for social mastery, and has been linked to poor control of violent impulses in later life. Like other patterns of social play, this expression is as close as the nearest birthday party, theme park, sports stadium or rock concert. Its roots in animal play can be seen in the festive convention of Macaws on a South American mud bank, or a pack of play-frenzied wild dogs after a feast.  But few doubt its power if they have experienced it as part of a large gathering such as Red Sox fans at the moment the Sox won the world series, or  the 35,000 celebrants at the annual Burning Man festival in Black rock, Nevada. Even a shopping Mall can be a source of social celebratory play. (“I just love shopping at Christmas with the crowds.”) Ritual is often necessary to keep this social play pattern in check.
  • The ability of the young child to create their own sense of their mind, and that of others, takes place through pretend play, which continues to nourish the spirit throughout life, and remains key to innovation and creativity. Deprivation studies uphold the importance of this pattern of play, as understanding and trusting others and developing coping skills depends on its presence.The NIFP, in its curriculum development for preschools  will emphasize pretend-play techniques.
  • Storytelling, the way most kids love to learn, is, when under the play microscope, identified as the unit of human intelligibility.Making sense of the world, its parts and one’s particular place in it is a central aspect of early development. And as we grow, the constancy of stories that enliven and help us understand ourselves and others, from a parent’s telling how it was when they were young, to media-driven stories like Big Bird’s rants to Garrison Keillor’s Lake Wobegon yarns; all involve us in a never ending fun-giving experience.  They give us permission to expand our own inner stream of consciousness, enrich our personal narratives with pleasure and fun as our own life stories unfold. “What is the current movie of your life?” If it has comedic overtones, it is likely that your play quiver is more than half full.It is in their capacity to produce a sense of timelessness, pleasure and the altered state of vicarious involvement that identifies narrative and storytelling with states of play
  • We can access fantasy-play to transcend the reality of our ordinary lives, and in the process germinate new ideas, and shape and re-shape them. Given enriched circumstances, and access to novelty, our play drive takes us into these realms spontaneously. Whether like Einstein imaginatively riding pleasurably on a sunbeam at the speed of light, or a light-hearted group of IDEO corporation designers wildly imagining a new product, each is using their playfulness to innovate and create. With the advent of brain imaging technology, these natural tendencies, so important to adaptation in a changing world, may be better understood and fostered. Play + Science = Transformation.
  • In the form or context in which it is expressed; includes element, or is directed toward stimuli, that do not contribute to current survival, Spotaneous, intentional, pleasurable, rewarding, reinforcing, autotelic (for its own sake) Differs from the “serious” performance of ethotypic behavior; exaggerated, awkward, precocious; behavior patterns with modified form, sequencing, or targeting Not rigidly stereotyped behavior Healthy, well-fed, needs met
  • In the form or context in which it is expressed; includes element, or is directed toward stimuli, that do not contribute to current survival, Spotaneous, intentional, pleasurable, rewarding, reinforcing, autotelic (for its own sake) Differs from the “serious” performance of ethotypic behavior; exaggerated, awkward, precocious; behavior patterns with modified form, sequencing, or targeting Not rigidly stereotyped behavior Healthy, well-fed, needs met
  • In the form or context in which it is expressed; includes element, or is directed toward stimuli, that do not contribute to current survival, Spotaneous, intentional, pleasurable, rewarding, reinforcing, autotelic (for its own sake) Differs from the “serious” performance of ethotypic behavior; exaggerated, awkward, precocious; behavior patterns with modified form, sequencing, or targeting Not rigidly stereotyped behavior Healthy, well-fed, needs met
  • In the form or context in which it is expressed; includes element, or is directed toward stimuli, that do not contribute to current survival, Spotaneous, intentional, pleasurable, rewarding, reinforcing, autotelic (for its own sake) Differs from the “serious” performance of ethotypic behavior; exaggerated, awkward, precocious; behavior patterns with modified form, sequencing, or targeting Not rigidly stereotyped behavior Healthy, well-fed, needs met
  • Play is a way of turning children into adults. Play is valuable because it educates and develops the cognitive capacities of human or animal youth. (children) Human lives and play are controlled by fate in the form of destiny, gods, atoms, neurons, or luck, but not by free will. (gambling) Play is a form of conflict and a way to fortify the status of those who control the play or are its heroes. (sports) Traditional and community celebrations and festivals (confirming, enhancing community identity) The essence of play is imagination, flexi-bility, and creativity. Play is synonymous with innovation. (improvisation, art, literature, fiction) Play exists to evolve the self, by provid-ing intrinsic experiences of pleasure, relaxation, and escape, either through play itself or through the aesthetic satisfaction of play performances. (hobbies, rock-climbling) Play is oppositional, parodic and sometimes revolutionary; this rhetoric is opposed to a "work ethic” view of playas a useless activity. (idle, foolish, lazy)
  • Play is a way of turning children into adults. Play is valuable because it educates and develops the cognitive capacities of human or animal youth. (children) Human lives and play are controlled by fate in the form of destiny, gods, atoms, neurons, or luck, but not by free will. (gambling) Play is a form of conflict and a way to fortify the status of those who control the play or are its heroes. (sports) Traditional and community celebrations and festivals (confirming, enhancing community identity) The essence of play is imagination, flexi-bility, and creativity. Play is synonymous with innovation. (improvisation, art, literature, fiction) Play exists to evolve the self, by provid-ing intrinsic experiences of pleasure, relaxation, and escape, either through play itself or through the aesthetic satisfaction of play performances. (hobbies, rock-climbling) Play is oppositional, parodic and sometimes revolutionary; this rhetoric is opposed to a "work ethic” view of playas a useless activity. (idle, foolish, lazy)
  • Play is a way of turning children into adults. Play is valuable because it educates and develops the cognitive capacities of human or animal youth. (children) Human lives and play are controlled by fate in the form of destiny, gods, atoms, neurons, or luck, but not by free will. (gambling) Play is a form of conflict and a way to fortify the status of those who control the play or are its heroes. (sports) Traditional and community celebrations and festivals (confirming, enhancing community identity) The essence of play is imagination, flexi-bility, and creativity. Play is synonymous with innovation. (improvisation, art, literature, fiction) Play exists to evolve the self, by provid-ing intrinsic experiences of pleasure, relaxation, and escape, either through play itself or through the aesthetic satisfaction of play performances. (hobbies, rock-climbling) Play is oppositional, parodic and sometimes revolutionary; this rhetoric is opposed to a "work ethic” view of playas a useless activity. (idle, foolish, lazy)
  • Play is a way of turning children into adults. Play is valuable because it educates and develops the cognitive capacities of human or animal youth. (children) Human lives and play are controlled by fate in the form of destiny, gods, atoms, neurons, or luck, but not by free will. (gambling) Play is a form of conflict and a way to fortify the status of those who control the play or are its heroes. (sports) Traditional and community celebrations and festivals (confirming, enhancing community identity) The essence of play is imagination, flexi-bility, and creativity. Play is synonymous with innovation. (improvisation, art, literature, fiction) Play exists to evolve the self, by provid-ing intrinsic experiences of pleasure, relaxation, and escape, either through play itself or through the aesthetic satisfaction of play performances. (hobbies, rock-climbling) Play is oppositional, parodic and sometimes revolutionary; this rhetoric is opposed to a "work ethic” view of playas a useless activity. (idle, foolish, lazy)
  • Play is a way of turning children into adults. Play is valuable because it educates and develops the cognitive capacities of human or animal youth. (children) Human lives and play are controlled by fate in the form of destiny, gods, atoms, neurons, or luck, but not by free will. (gambling) Play is a form of conflict and a way to fortify the status of those who control the play or are its heroes. (sports) Traditional and community celebrations and festivals (confirming, enhancing community identity) The essence of play is imagination, flexi-bility, and creativity. Play is synonymous with innovation. (improvisation, art, literature, fiction) Play exists to evolve the self, by provid-ing intrinsic experiences of pleasure, relaxation, and escape, either through play itself or through the aesthetic satisfaction of play performances. (hobbies, rock-climbling) Play is oppositional, parodic and sometimes revolutionary; this rhetoric is opposed to a "work ethic” view of playas a useless activity. (idle, foolish, lazy)
  • Play is a way of turning children into adults. Play is valuable because it educates and develops the cognitive capacities of human or animal youth. (children) Human lives and play are controlled by fate in the form of destiny, gods, atoms, neurons, or luck, but not by free will. (gambling) Play is a form of conflict and a way to fortify the status of those who control the play or are its heroes. (sports) Traditional and community celebrations and festivals (confirming, enhancing community identity) The essence of play is imagination, flexi-bility, and creativity. Play is synonymous with innovation. (improvisation, art, literature, fiction) Play exists to evolve the self, by provid-ing intrinsic experiences of pleasure, relaxation, and escape, either through play itself or through the aesthetic satisfaction of play performances. (hobbies, rock-climbling) Play is oppositional, parodic and sometimes revolutionary; this rhetoric is opposed to a "work ethic” view of playas a useless activity. (idle, foolish, lazy)
  • So play is our evolved and natural capacity to test limits; suspend conditions of reality; imagine our way out of tight situations. (Pat Kane) http://hplusmagazine.com/2009/09/16/transhumanism-play/
  • Play is a way of turning children into adults. Play is valuable because it educates and develops the cognitive capacities of human or animal youth. (children) Human lives and play are controlled by fate in the form of destiny, gods, atoms, neurons, or luck, but not by free will. (gambling) Play is a form of conflict and a way to fortify the status of those who control the play or are its heroes. (sports) Traditional and community celebrations and festivals (confirming, enhancing community identity) The essence of play is imagination, flexi-bility, and creativity. Play is synonymous with innovation. (improvisation, art, literature, fiction) Play exists to evolve the self, by provid-ing intrinsic experiences of pleasure, relaxation, and escape, either through play itself or through the aesthetic satisfaction of play performances. (hobbies, rock-climbling) Play is oppositional, parodic and sometimes revolutionary; this rhetoric is opposed to a "work ethic” view of playas a useless activity. (idle, foolish, lazy)
  • Play is a way of turning children into adults. Play is valuable because it educates and develops the cognitive capacities of human or animal youth. (children) Human lives and play are controlled by fate in the form of destiny, gods, atoms, neurons, or luck, but not by free will. (gambling) Play is a form of conflict and a way to fortify the status of those who control the play or are its heroes. (sports) Traditional and community celebrations and festivals (confirming, enhancing community identity) The essence of play is imagination, flexi-bility, and creativity. Play is synonymous with innovation. (improvisation, art, literature, fiction) Play exists to evolve the self, by provid-ing intrinsic experiences of pleasure, relaxation, and escape, either through play itself or through the aesthetic satisfaction of play performances. (hobbies, rock-climbling) Play is oppositional, parodic and sometimes revolutionary; this rhetoric is opposed to a "work ethic” view of playas a useless activity. (idle, foolish, lazy)
  • Play is a way of turning children into adults. Play is valuable because it educates and develops the cognitive capacities of human or animal youth. (children) Human lives and play are controlled by fate in the form of destiny, gods, atoms, neurons, or luck, but not by free will. (gambling) Play is a form of conflict and a way to fortify the status of those who control the play or are its heroes. (sports) Traditional and community celebrations and festivals (confirming, enhancing community identity) The essence of play is imagination, flexi-bility, and creativity. Play is synonymous with innovation. (improvisation, art, literature, fiction) Play exists to evolve the self, by provid-ing intrinsic experiences of pleasure, relaxation, and escape, either through play itself or through the aesthetic satisfaction of play performances. (hobbies, rock-climbling) Play is oppositional, parodic and sometimes revolutionary; this rhetoric is opposed to a "work ethic” view of playas a useless activity. (idle, foolish, lazy)
  • Play is a way of turning children into adults. Play is valuable because it educates and develops the cognitive capacities of human or animal youth. (children) Human lives and play are controlled by fate in the form of destiny, gods, atoms, neurons, or luck, but not by free will. (gambling) Play is a form of conflict and a way to fortify the status of those who control the play or are its heroes. (sports) Traditional and community celebrations and festivals (confirming, enhancing community identity) The essence of play is imagination, flexi-bility, and creativity. Play is synonymous with innovation. (improvisation, art, literature, fiction) Play exists to evolve the self, by provid-ing intrinsic experiences of pleasure, relaxation, and escape, either through play itself or through the aesthetic satisfaction of play performances. (hobbies, rock-climbling) Play is oppositional, parodic and sometimes revolutionary; this rhetoric is opposed to a "work ethic” view of playas a useless activity. (idle, foolish, lazy)
  • Play is a way of turning children into adults. Play is valuable because it educates and develops the cognitive capacities of human or animal youth. (children) Human lives and play are controlled by fate in the form of destiny, gods, atoms, neurons, or luck, but not by free will. (gambling) Play is a form of conflict and a way to fortify the status of those who control the play or are its heroes. (sports) Traditional and community celebrations and festivals (confirming, enhancing community identity) The essence of play is imagination, flexi-bility, and creativity. Play is synonymous with innovation. (improvisation, art, literature, fiction) Play exists to evolve the self, by provid-ing intrinsic experiences of pleasure, relaxation, and escape, either through play itself or through the aesthetic satisfaction of play performances. (hobbies, rock-climbling) Play is oppositional, parodic and sometimes revolutionary; this rhetoric is opposed to a "work ethic” view of playas a useless activity. (idle, foolish, lazy)
  • Play is a way of turning children into adults. Play is valuable because it educates and develops the cognitive capacities of human or animal youth. (children) Human lives and play are controlled by fate in the form of destiny, gods, atoms, neurons, or luck, but not by free will. (gambling) Play is a form of conflict and a way to fortify the status of those who control the play or are its heroes. (sports) Traditional and community celebrations and festivals (confirming, enhancing community identity) The essence of play is imagination, flexi-bility, and creativity. Play is synonymous with innovation. (improvisation, art, literature, fiction) Play exists to evolve the self, by provid-ing intrinsic experiences of pleasure, relaxation, and escape, either through play itself or through the aesthetic satisfaction of play performances. (hobbies, rock-climbling) Play is oppositional, parodic and sometimes revolutionary; this rhetoric is opposed to a "work ethic” view of playas a useless activity. (idle, foolish, lazy)
  • Play is a way of turning children into adults. Play is valuable because it educates and develops the cognitive capacities of human or animal youth. (children) Human lives and play are controlled by fate in the form of destiny, gods, atoms, neurons, or luck, but not by free will. (gambling) Play is a form of conflict and a way to fortify the status of those who control the play or are its heroes. (sports) Traditional and community celebrations and festivals (confirming, enhancing community identity) The essence of play is imagination, flexi-bility, and creativity. Play is synonymous with innovation. (improvisation, art, literature, fiction) Play exists to evolve the self, by provid-ing intrinsic experiences of pleasure, relaxation, and escape, either through play itself or through the aesthetic satisfaction of play performances. (hobbies, rock-climbling) Play is oppositional, parodic and sometimes revolutionary; this rhetoric is opposed to a "work ethic” view of playas a useless activity. (idle, foolish, lazy)
  • Play is a way of turning children into adults. Play is valuable because it educates and develops the cognitive capacities of human or animal youth. (children) Human lives and play are controlled by fate in the form of destiny, gods, atoms, neurons, or luck, but not by free will. (gambling) Play is a form of conflict and a way to fortify the status of those who control the play or are its heroes. (sports) Traditional and community celebrations and festivals (confirming, enhancing community identity) The essence of play is imagination, flexi-bility, and creativity. Play is synonymous with innovation. (improvisation, art, literature, fiction) Play exists to evolve the self, by provid-ing intrinsic experiences of pleasure, relaxation, and escape, either through play itself or through the aesthetic satisfaction of play performances. (hobbies, rock-climbling) Play is oppositional, parodic and sometimes revolutionary; this rhetoric is opposed to a "work ethic” view of playas a useless activity. (idle, foolish, lazy)
  • Play is a way of turning children into adults. Play is valuable because it educates and develops the cognitive capacities of human or animal youth. (children) Human lives and play are controlled by fate in the form of destiny, gods, atoms, neurons, or luck, but not by free will. (gambling) Play is a form of conflict and a way to fortify the status of those who control the play or are its heroes. (sports) Traditional and community celebrations and festivals (confirming, enhancing community identity) The essence of play is imagination, flexi-bility, and creativity. Play is synonymous with innovation. (improvisation, art, literature, fiction) Play exists to evolve the self, by provid-ing intrinsic experiences of pleasure, relaxation, and escape, either through play itself or through the aesthetic satisfaction of play performances. (hobbies, rock-climbling) Play is oppositional, parodic and sometimes revolutionary; this rhetoric is opposed to a "work ethic” view of playas a useless activity. (idle, foolish, lazy)
  • Play is a way of turning children into adults. Play is valuable because it educates and develops the cognitive capacities of human or animal youth. (children) Human lives and play are controlled by fate in the form of destiny, gods, atoms, neurons, or luck, but not by free will. (gambling) Play is a form of conflict and a way to fortify the status of those who control the play or are its heroes. (sports) Traditional and community celebrations and festivals (confirming, enhancing community identity) The essence of play is imagination, flexi-bility, and creativity. Play is synonymous with innovation. (improvisation, art, literature, fiction) Play exists to evolve the self, by provid-ing intrinsic experiences of pleasure, relaxation, and escape, either through play itself or through the aesthetic satisfaction of play performances. (hobbies, rock-climbling) Play is oppositional, parodic and sometimes revolutionary; this rhetoric is opposed to a "work ethic” view of playas a useless activity. (idle, foolish, lazy)
  • Play is a way of turning children into adults. Play is valuable because it educates and develops the cognitive capacities of human or animal youth. (children) Human lives and play are controlled by fate in the form of destiny, gods, atoms, neurons, or luck, but not by free will. (gambling) Play is a form of conflict and a way to fortify the status of those who control the play or are its heroes. (sports) Traditional and community celebrations and festivals (confirming, enhancing community identity) The essence of play is imagination, flexi-bility, and creativity. Play is synonymous with innovation. (improvisation, art, literature, fiction) Play exists to evolve the self, by provid-ing intrinsic experiences of pleasure, relaxation, and escape, either through play itself or through the aesthetic satisfaction of play performances. (hobbies, rock-climbling) Play is oppositional, parodic and sometimes revolutionary; this rhetoric is opposed to a "work ethic"view of playas a useless activity. (idle, foolish, lazy)

Transcript

  • 1. Humanities 1: Week 2 The Creative Dynamics of Play: Types, Frames, and Theories Dr. Dylan Eret
  • 2.  
  • 3. What is “play”?
  • 4. not serious?
  • 5. enjoyable activity
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  • 14. Attunement Play
  • 15. Body Play & Movement
  • 16. Object Play
  • 17. Social Play
  • 18. Imaginative or Pretend Play (“Role Play”)
  • 19. Storytelling Play
  • 20. Transformative Play
  • 21. Identifying Play What are the central features of play?
  • 22. Identifying Play Why is play central to human creativity?
  • 23. Identifying Play What are some different types of play?
  • 24.
    • Identifying Play*
    • Not fully functional
    • Voluntary
    • Incomplete
    • Repeatedly performed
    • Initiated when in a “relaxed field”
    *Gordon M. Burghardt, The Genesis of Animal Play (2005)
  • 25. Play Processes: Gordon Burghardt (2005)
  • 26. Play Processes
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  • 73. Erving Goffman Academic Prankster (Sociologist)
  • 74. Erving Goffman Frame Analysis (1986)
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  • 81.
    • Theories of Play
    • Play as Progress
    • Play as Fate
    • Play as Power
    • Play as Identity
    • Play as Imaginary
    • Play as Self
    • Play as Frivolity
  • 82. Brian Sutton-Smith The Ambiguity of Play (2001)
  • 83. Brian Sutton-Smith (1978): “ Play is a form of adaptive potentiation .”
  • 84. Brian Sutton-Smith “ Seven Rhetorics of Play”
  • 85. Play as Progress a way of turning children into adults (cognitive/emotional development)
  • 86. Play as Fate Humans are “controlled” by fate, destiny, gods, atoms, neurons, or luck .
  • 87. Play as Power a form of conflict, a means of maintaining status and control (e.g., sports heroes)
  • 88. Play as Identity traditional and community celebrations (enhance, confirm group identity)
  • 89. Play as Imaginary world-making, fiction, creativity, innovation, improvisation, art, literature
  • 90. Play as Self Provides intrinsic experiences of pleasure, enjoyment, relaxation, and escape; the evolution and growth of the self
  • 91. Play as Frivolity Play is a “useless” activity with no “purpose.” (“Work ethic” view of play.) Moral judgments: Play is “idle,” “foolish,” or “lazy.”
  • 92. *Play as Resistance It is oppositional, empowering, and parodic. It reverses roles, resists authority, speaks “truth to power.”
  • 93. *Play as Resistance? Examples: jokes, satire, protest songs, improv shows, “ underground” movements, emerging art forms (viral videos, flash mobs, etc.)
  • 94.
    • Interpreting Play
    • Describe at least three forms of play
    • you use in your everyday life.
    • 2. Apply the theories of play to each.
  • 95. Pizza-Pizza Daddy-O (Bess Lomax Hawes ) http://www.folkstreams.net/film,73
  • 96.
    • What types of play did you notice? Describe.
    • What forms of metacommunication were used? Describe.
    Pizza-Pizza Daddy-O (Bess Lomax Hawes )