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  • Primal Man (Purusa): 3/4 of him is the gods, 1/4 all mortal creatures. Geography: 3/4 of the Man rose, creating the divine realm, 1/4 remains below, the mortal world. Viraj, the active, creative female principle was born from Primal Man, then he was reborn in her. The gods sacrificed Man: spring was the clarified butter, summer the fuel, autumn the oblation. The Creator made the ghee into beasts. From this sacrifice all hymns (vedas) were born. 1500-1000 BCE (Oral Transmission for over 2000 years) Sacred story, tells how the world or mankind came into existence
  • Primal Man (Purusa): 3/4 of him is the gods, 1/4 all mortal creatures. Geography: 3/4 of the Man rose, creating the divine realm, 1/4 remains below, the mortal world. Viraj, the active, creative female principle was born from Primal Man, then he was reborn in her. The gods sacrificed Man: spring was the clarified butter, summer the fuel, autumn the oblation. The Creator made the ghee into beasts. From this sacrifice all hymns (vedas) were born. 1500-1000 BCE (Oral Transmission for over 2000 years) Sacred story, tells how the world or mankind came into existence
  • Little Red Riding HoodCharles PerraultOnce upon a time there lived in a certain village a little country girl, the prettiest creature who was ever seen. Her mother was excessively fond of her; and her grandmother doted on her still more. This good woman had a little red riding hood made for her. It suited the girl so extremely well that everybody called her Little Red Riding Hood.One day her mother, having made some cakes, said to her, "Go, my dear, and see how your grandmother is doing, for I hear she has been very ill. Take her a cake, and this little pot of butter."Little Red Riding Hood set out immediately to go to her grandmother, who lived in another village.As she was going through the wood, she met with a wolf, who had a very great mind to eat her up, but he dared not, because of some woodcutters working nearby in the forest. He asked her where she was going. The poor child, who did not know that it was dangerous to stay and talk to a wolf, said to him, "I am going to see my grandmother and carry her a cake and a little pot of butter from my mother.""Does she live far off?" said the wolf"Oh I say," answered Little Red Riding Hood; "it is beyond that mill you see there, at the first house in the village.""Well," said the wolf, "and I'll go and see her too. I'll go this way and go you that, and we shall see who will be there first."The wolf ran as fast as he could, taking the shortest path, and the little girl took a roundabout way, entertaining herself by gathering nuts, running after butterflies, and gathering bouquets of little flowers. It was not long before the wolf arrived at the old woman's house. He knocked at the door: tap, tap."Who's there?""Your grandchild, Little Red Riding Hood," replied the wolf, counterfeiting her voice; "who has brought you a cake and a little pot of butter sent you by mother."The good grandmother, who was in bed, because she was somewhat ill, cried out, "Pull the bobbin, and the latch will go up."The wolf pulled the bobbin, and the door opened, and then he immediately fell upon the good woman and ate her up in a moment, for it been more than three days since he had eaten. He then shut the door and got into the grandmother's bed, expecting Little Red Riding Hood, who came some time afterwards and knocked at the door: tap, tap."Who's there?"Little Red Riding Hood, hearing the big voice of the wolf, was at first afraid; but believing her grandmother had a cold and was hoarse, answered, "It is your grandchild Little Red Riding Hood, who has brought you a cake and a little pot of butter mother sends you."The wolf cried out to her, softening his voice as much as he could, "Pull the bobbin, and the latch will go up."Little Red Riding Hood pulled the bobbin, and the door opened.The wolf, seeing her come in, said to her, hiding himself under the bedclothes, "Put the cake and the little pot of butter upon the stool, and come get into bed with me."Little Red Riding Hood took off her clothes and got into bed. She was greatly amazed to see how her grandmother looked in her nightclothes, and said to her, "Grandmother, what big arms you have!""All the better to hug you with, my dear.""Grandmother, what big legs you have!""All the better to run with, my child.""Grandmother, what big ears you have!""All the better to hear with, my child.""Grandmother, what big eyes you have!""All the better to see with, my child.""Grandmother, what big teeth you have got!""All the better to eat you up with."And, saying these words, this wicked wolf fell upon Little Red Riding Hood, and ate her all up.Moral: Children, especially attractive, well bred young ladies, should never talk to strangers, for if they should do so, they may well provide dinner for a wolf. I say "wolf," but there are various kinds of wolves. There are also those who are charming, quiet, polite, unassuming, complacent, and sweet, who pursue young women at home and in the streets. And unfortunately, it is these gentle wolves who are the most dangerous ones of all.
  • Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. God above, animals below: The Great Chain of Being; How We Perceive the Cosmos
  • MAGE: The Churning of the Ocean of Milk (from a Gita Govinda). Opaque watercolor and gold on paper, ca. 1785. Pahari school, Kangra. (18.02 cm x 26.67 cm) Edwin Binney 3rd Collection.
  • What “we” center our lives around, or aspire to: sex, beauty, money, fame, health
  • Jerusalem: Churches, Crosses, Synagogues, Mosques, Crescents, Walls, etc.
  • In the future, Jake, a paraplegic war veteran, is brought to another planet, Pandora, which is inhabited by the Na'vi, a humanoid race with their own language and culture. Those from Earth find themselves at odds with each other and the local culture. When his brother is killed in battle, paraplegic Marine Jake Sully decides to take his place in a mission on the distant world of Pandora. There he learns of greedy corporate figurehead Parker Selfridge's intentions of driving off the native humanoid "Na'vi" in order to mine for the precious material scattered throughout their rich woodland. In exchange for the spinal surgery that will fix his legs, Jake gathers intel for the cooperating military unit spearheaded by gung-ho Colonel Quaritch, while simultaneously attempting to infiltrate the Na'vi people with the use of an "avatar" identity. While Jake begins to bond with the native tribe and quickly falls in love with the beautiful alien Neytiri, the restless Colonel moves forward with his ruthless extermination tactics, forcing the soldier to take a stand - and fight back in an epic battle for the fate of Pandora.
  • THEMES: “ going native” Ecological utopias (Ewe, Everything Is Connected) Strong Women Benevolent vs. Profit-Driven Soldiers U.S. Calvary against American Indians (allegorical apology) Man vs. Machine
  • Hinduism, the third-largest religion in the world with about 1 billion adherents, began many centuries ago on the Indian subcontinent, and a majority of the world's Hindus reside in India.Those who practice Hinduism recognize three main deities. Lord Brahma is considered the creator of the universe; Lord Vishnu is considered the sustainer of the universe, to right things when needed; and Lord Shiva is the redeemer of the universe.It is believed that these deities sent avatars — incarnations of themselves in human form — to perform “dharma,” or righteous duty, to right wrongs or to restore peace and goodness.Hindu theology names 10 numbered avatars. Two of the most important from Hindu scripture are Lord Rama, the seventh avatar of Lord Vishnu and written about in the poem Ramayana; and Lord Krishna, written about in the mythological poem Mahabharata.The Mahabharata, the world's longest epic poem at more than 90,000 verses and one of the most important Hindu texts, tells of a battle between bad forces and the Pandava family. The avatar Lord Krishna appears to assist Arjuna, one of the five Pandava family brothers, reveals his divinity to him and encourages him that it is his duty to fight for right.Illustrations of these Hindu avatars, which are magnificently detailed and reflect an aura of divinity, are in stark contrast to Cameron's alien-meets-robot-warrior look in the film. Embodying other beings; transformations, manifestations
  • Albert CAMUS: All Sisyphus' silent joy is contained therein. His fate belongs to him. His rock is his thing. Likewise, the absurd man, when he contemplates his torment, silences all the idols. In the universe suddenly restored to silence, the myriad wondering little voices of the earth rise up. Unconscious, secret calls, invitations from all the faces, they are the necessary reverse and price of victory. there is no sun without shadow, and it is essential to know the night. The absurd man says yes and his effort will henceforth be unceasing. If there is a personal fate, there is no higher destiny, or at least there is but one which he concludes is inevitable and despicable. For the rest, he knows himself to be the master of his days. At that subtle moment when man glances backward over his life, Sisyphus returning toward his rock, in that silent pivoting he contemplates that series of unrelated actions which becomes his fate, created by him, combined under his memory's eye and soon sealed by his death. Thus, convinced of the wholly human origin of all that is human, a blind man eager to see who knows that the night has no end, he is still on the go. The rock is still rolling.I leave Sisyphus at the foot of the mountain! One always finds one's burden again. But Sisyphus teaches the higher fidelity that negates the gods and raises rocks. He too concludes that all is well. This universe henceforth without a master seems to him neither sterile nor futile. Each atom of that stone, each mineral flake of that night-filled mountain, in itself forms a world. The struggle itself toward the heights is enough to fill a man's heart. One must imagine Sisyphus happy.
  • Sinner condemned in Tartarus to an eternity of rolling a boulder uphill then watching it roll back down again. Sisyphus was founder and king of Corinth, or Ephyra as it was called in those days. He was notorious as the most cunning knave on earth. His greatest triumph came at the end of his life, when the god Hades came to claim him personally for the kingdom of the dead. Hades had brought along a pair of handcuffs, a comparative novelty, and Sisyphus expressed such an interest that Hades was persuaded to demonstrate their use - on himself.And so it came about that the high lord of the Underworld was kept locked up in a closet at Sisyphus's house for many a day, a circumstance which put the great chain of being seriously out of whack. Nobody could die. A soldier might be chopped to bits in battle and still show up at camp for dinner. Finally Hades was released and Sisyphus was ordered summarily to report to the Underworld for his eternal assignment. But the wily one had another trick up his sleeve.He simply told his wife not to bury him and then complained to Persephone, Queen of the Dead, that he had not been accorded the proper funeral honors. What's more, as an unburied corpse he had no business on the far side of the river Styx at all - his wife hadn't placed a coin under his tongue to secure passage with Charon the ferryman. Surely her highness could see that Sisyphus must be given leave to journey back topside and put things right.Kindly Persephone assented, and Sisyphus made his way back to the sunshine, where he promptly forgot all about funerals and such drab affairs and lived on in dissipation for another good stretch of time. But even this paramount trickster could only postpone the inevitable. Eventually he was hauled down to Hades, where his indiscretions caught up with him. For a crime against the gods - the specifics of which are variously reported - he was condemned to an eternity at hard labor. And frustrating labor at that. For his assignment was to roll a great boulder to the top of a hill. Only every time Sisyphus, by the greatest of exertion and toil, attained the summit, the darn thing rolled back down again.
  • Sinner condemned in Tartarus to an eternity of rolling a boulder uphill then watching it roll back down again. Sisyphus was founder and king of Corinth, or Ephyra as it was called in those days. He was notorious as the most cunning knave on earth. His greatest triumph came at the end of his life, when the god Hades came to claim him personally for the kingdom of the dead. Hades had brought along a pair of handcuffs, a comparative novelty, and Sisyphus expressed such an interest that Hades was persuaded to demonstrate their use - on himself.And so it came about that the high lord of the Underworld was kept locked up in a closet at Sisyphus's house for many a day, a circumstance which put the great chain of being seriously out of whack. Nobody could die. A soldier might be chopped to bits in battle and still show up at camp for dinner. Finally Hades was released and Sisyphus was ordered summarily to report to the Underworld for his eternal assignment. But the wily one had another trick up his sleeve.He simply told his wife not to bury him and then complained to Persephone, Queen of the Dead, that he had not been accorded the proper funeral honors. What's more, as an unburied corpse he had no business on the far side of the river Styx at all - his wife hadn't placed a coin under his tongue to secure passage with Charon the ferryman. Surely her highness could see that Sisyphus must be given leave to journey back topside and put things right.Kindly Persephone assented, and Sisyphus made his way back to the sunshine, where he promptly forgot all about funerals and such drab affairs and lived on in dissipation for another good stretch of time. But even this paramount trickster could only postpone the inevitable. Eventually he was hauled down to Hades, where his indiscretions caught up with him. For a crime against the gods - the specifics of which are variously reported - he was condemned to an eternity at hard labor. And frustrating labor at that. For his assignment was to roll a great boulder to the top of a hill. Only every time Sisyphus, by the greatest of exertion and toil, attained the summit, the darn thing rolled back down again.
  • Punch magazine
  • Published in The New Yorker 6/1/2009
by Zachary Kanin
  • Punch magazine
  • Punch magazine
  • Punch magazine
  • POSSIBLE QUESTIONS: 1. What is Cullen's attitude toward God in "Yet Do I Marvel"? Why should he marvel that God would make a poet black and bid him sing? Why does he imply a paradox between poetry and blackness? 2. Cullen grew up in a Methodist parsonage as the adopted son of a prominent Harlem pastor. Might the use of paradox about Christian religion and its practices in some of his poetry reflect his home experience? 3. In the poem "Yet Do I Marvel," Cullen makes an implicit comparison between black poets and the mythical figures of Tantalus and Sisyphus. Explain how this comparison functions within the world of the poem.
  • Punch magazine
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • Humanities 13A
  • "In his first short monograph, [Jens] Tismar set down the principles for a definition of the literary fairy tale (das Kunstmarchen) as genre: (1) it distinguishes itself from the oral folk tale (das Volksmarchen) in so far as it is written by a single identifiable author; (2) it is thus synthetic, artificial, and elaborate in comparison to the indigenous formation of the folk tale that emanates from communities and tends to be simple and anonymous; (the differences between the literary fairy tale and the oral folk tale do not imply that one genre is better than the other; (in fact, the literary fairy tale is not an independent genre but can only be understood and defined by its relationship to the oral tales as well as to the legend, novella, novel, and other literary fairy tales that it uses, adapts, and remodels during the narrative conception of the author."Zipes, Jack, ed. "Introduction: Towards the Definition of the Literary Fairy Tale." The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales. Oxford: Oxford University, 2000.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • Although the term "chapbook" was not coined until the early nineteenth century, the term designates works of popular literature sold for a few pence, often by itinerant pedlars or "chapmen," which were in circulation from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries.  They often contained short versions of romance, ballads, and popular tales such as Jack the Giant Killer and Tom Thumb usually illustrated with a few crude woodcuts. Books such as Robinson Crusoe and Don Quixote, The Fables of Aesop, and The Pilgrim's Progress were also abridged into chapbook form. Few chapbooks before the late eighteenth century were written with children in mind, but by 1800 chapbooks for children were being produced in some quantity.  These often contained nursery rhymes and narrated the "tale" or history of such figures as Mother Hubbard and Cock Robin. Many chapbooks were badly written, and they were often badly printed, but nonetheless they display a raw kind of energy and excitement.  They were the comic books of their day, and preserved, albeit often in a debased form, the imaginative literature of England at time when the ideological climate was hostile to the fantastic.
  • Although the term "chapbook" was not coined until the early nineteenth century, the term designates works of popular literature sold for a few pence, often by itinerant pedlars or "chapmen," which were in circulation from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries.  They often contained short versions of romance, ballads, and popular tales such as Jack the Giant Killer and Tom Thumb usually illustrated with a few crude woodcuts. Books such as Robinson Crusoe and Don Quixote, The Fables of Aesop, and The Pilgrim's Progress were also abridged into chapbook form. Few chapbooks before the late eighteenth century were written with children in mind, but by 1800 chapbooks for children were being produced in some quantity.  These often contained nursery rhymes and narrated the "tale" or history of such figures as Mother Hubbard and Cock Robin. Many chapbooks were badly written, and they were often badly printed, but nonetheless they display a raw kind of energy and excitement.  They were the comic books of their day, and preserved, albeit often in a debased form, the imaginative literature of England at time when the ideological climate was hostile to the fantastic.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • he myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius and included in his Metamorphoses (also known as The Golden Ass). Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales.850-860
ChinaThe first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.Circa 1300Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen.Circa 1500One Thousand and One Arabian Nights is first recorded.1550 & 1553
ItalyGianfrancesco Straparola publishes in two volumes, Le Piacevoli Notti or The Pleasant Nights, also known as The Facetious Nights and The Delightful Nights. The first volume appeared in France as early as 1560 and the second in 1573.1634-6
ItalyGiambattista Basile writes Il Pentamerone, also known as Lo cunto de le cunti (The Tale of Tales). It is written in the hard-to-translate Neapolitan dialect. Volumes 1-3 appear in 1634, followed by volume 4 in 1635 and volume 5 in 1636. They were published posthumously since Basile died in 1632. Due to the obscure dialect, they were not translated into Italian until 1747, German in 1846, and English in 1848, essentially removing them from influence upon the oral tradition until then.1690-1710
FranceThe French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.1696-1698
FranceMarie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699.1697
FranceCharles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots.1729
Great BritainRobert Samber translates into English and publishes Perrault's Histories, or Tales of Times Past. They are a hit and become some of the most popular fairy tales of all time.1740
FranceMadame Gabrielle de Villeneuve writes a 362 page version of Beauty and the Beast which appears in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins. This version is not intended for children with its many storylines, length, and subject matter.1756
FranceMadame Le Prince de Beaumont publishes her own considerably shorter version of Beauty and the Beast. This version is the best well-known and most used as the basis for later interpretations of the tale. It is written for a young audience, with didactic messages and a simpler storyline. This is the first example of a literary fairy tale being written specifically for children.1812 & 1815
GermanyJacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two (1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.1823
Great BritainEditor Edgar Taylor publishes the first English translation by his brother Edward Taylor of the Grimms' tales in German Popular Stories. The book is illustrated by George Cruikshank.1835
DenmarkHans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children is published. Many of the tales are original stories, but a few are based on traditional folklore, including The Wild Swans and The Princess on the Pea.1845
NorwayNorwegian Folk Tales, collected by Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe is published in 1845. The collection becomes exceptionally popular after the second edition appears in 1852. The first illustrated edition, featuring the work of Erik Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen, appears in 1879. Two of the most famous tales from this collection are East of the Sun and West of the Moon and The Three Billy Goats Gruff.1848
Great BritainThe first English translation by Edward Taylor of Giambattista Basile's Il Pentamerone is published. The illustrations are by George Cruikshank.1866
RussiaAleksandr Afanasyev collects and publishes his first volume of Russian fairy tales.1867
FranceGustave Dore's illustrations for Perrault's fairy tales are first published in Les Contes de Perrault, dessins par Gustave Dore.1867-76
EnglandWalter Crane publishes his color illustrations of many fairy tales in his Toybook series, including Beauty and the Beast, Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella.1882
EnglandWalter Crane illustrates his sister Lucy Crane's translation of Grimms' fairy tales. The book is intended to highlight Crane's illustrative work more than to present a new translation of the tales into English.1889
EnglandAndrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The twelfth and final book, The Lilac Fairy Book, will be published in 1910. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later.1890
RussiaPeter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.1890
Great BritainJoseph Jacobs publishes English Fairy Tales, later followed by More English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, and European Folk and Fairy Tales. All of the books are illustrated by John Batten.1893
Great BritainMarian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world.1893
GermanyEngelbert Humperdinck's opera, Hansel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), premieres. Richard Strauss directs it in Weimar on December 23, 1893. The libretto is by Adelheid Wette, after the fairy story by the Grimm brothers in Kinder- und Hausmärchen. It remains one of the most popular operas enduring from this time period.1909
Great BritainArthur Rackham's black and white illustrations for Grimm's Fairy Tales from 1900 are enlarged and recolored, printed in a deluxe edition which solidifies his standing as one of the most successful illustrators during the Golden Age of children's books illustration. He will continue to illustrate fairy tales throughout his career.1910
GermanyFinnish scholar Antti Aarne publishes The Types of the Folktale. A revised edition is published in 1928. Later, Stith Thompson translates and expands it into English in 1961.1910
Great BritainEdmund Dulac's illustrations for Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Sleeping Beauty, and Other Fairy Tales is published as a gift book. The illustrations are luminous watercolors and show why Dulac was second only to Arthur Rackham in popularity as an illustrator. The book is followed the next year by his illustrations for Stories from Hans Andersen.1911
HungaryBela Bartok's opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, premieres. It is based on the libretti of Bela Bela Balázs, a Hungarian poet.1911
Great BritainWarwick Goble illustrates Stories from the Pentamerone, one of the few English translations of Basile's work. Goble produces some of the best illustrations of the Italian tales. He later illustrates The Fairy Book (1923) which contains many well-known fairy tales.1937
United StatesWalt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.1945
RussiaThe premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov.1946
FranceJean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bête (Beauty and the Beast) is released.1950
United StatesWalt Disney's Cinderella is released.1954
United StatesMarcia Brown's picture book, Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, wins the Caldecott Medal (1955). She has previously been honored with several Caldecott Honor Medals for her picture book illustrations of other fairy tales, including Puss in Boots and The Wild Swans.1959
United StatesWalt Disney's Sleeping Beauty is released.1959-1964
United StatesJay Ward's "Rocky and His Friends" premieres on November 19, 1959 at 6:30 PM on ABC. One of its popular "shows within a show" is the Fractured Fairy Tales segment. The fairy tale segments are replaced the second year but return later after viewers write to the network and request that Fractured Fairy Tales return. In 1961, the show moves to NBC and is renamed "The Bullwinkle Show." A total of 91 four and a half minute fairy tales are produced. Later syndicated, the show has remained a cult classic.1961
United StatesStith Thompson expands and translates Antti Aarne's The Types of the Folktale into English in 1961. The Aarne-Thompson Classification System becomes the most widely used for classifying Indo-European folktales, cataloging some 2,500 basic plots.1971
United StatesAnne Sexton, a Pulitzer Prize winning poet, publishes her poetry anthology, Transformations. The poems present dark interpretations of well-known fairy tales not intended for children.1975
United StatesBruno Bettelheim, originally from Vienna, publishes The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, a psychological analysis of the relationship between children and fairy tales. With its Freudian bias, the book becomes a staple in fairy tale studies while remaining very controversial in its views and methodology. In 1977, the book wins the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award.1978
United StatesRobin McKinley's Beauty: A Retelling of the Story of Beauty and the Beast is published. McKinley becomes a well-respected author of fairy tale retellings with this book followed by several short stories and novels, including Deerskin.1979
United StatesJack Zipes' Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales is published. It is one of the first of many books written and/or edited by Jack Zipes dealing with fairy tale studies. It also marks the start of the significant emphasis on the socio-political study of folklore that Zipes has espoused in his career.1979
Great BritainAngela Carter's The Bloody Chamber is published in Great Britain. It appears in the U.S. in 1980. Like Sexton's Transformations, this short story anthology is firmly aimed at an adult audience with its dark, sensual themes.1982-87
United StatesShelley Duvall produces Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre for the Showtime cable network. A total of 27 episodes are produced for the network, featuring well-known actors and actresses from the time period.1985
United StatesWolfgang Mieder edits Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry. The anthology offers poetry, primarily from the past century, that relates specifically to nine well-known fairy tales. Sleeping Beauty appears to be the most common fairy tale to inspire poets according to Mieder's research and the number of poems related to it.1987-90
United StatesA prime time television series, "Beauty and the Beast," starring Linda Hamilton and Ron Perlman, reinterprets the fairy tale for three seasons on CBS. The show premieres on September 25, 1987 and ends on August 4, 1990.1987-Present
United StatesFor four books, Ace Books publishes the Fairy Tale Series, created and edited by Terri Windling. The series consists of novel length interpretations of fairy tales for older audiences. The series is later picked up by Tor Books, beginning with Pamela Dean's Tam Lin in 1991.1989
United StatesDisney's The Little Mermaid is released. Although Walt Disney is no longer alive, the Disney version of the Hans Christian Andersen tale follows the Disney formula, rewriting the ending and adding cute animal helpers. The movie's success causes Disney to return to its most successful movie formula--the classic musical adapted from well-known literature--in its feature length films several times over the coming decade.1989
United StatesEd Young's picture book, Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China, is published and later wins the Caldecott Medal (1990).1991
United StatesDisney's Beauty and the Beast is released. It is the first feature length animated film to be nominated for an Academy Award.1997
United StatesGail Carson Levine's Ella Enchanted, a retelling of Cinderella, is published. It wins a Newbery Honor Medal (1998). Also appearing this year is Paul Zelinsky's picture book, 
Rapunzel, which wins the Caldecott Medal (1998).2001
United StatesDavid Wiesner wins the Caldecott Medal (2002) for his fractured fairy tale picture book, The Three Pigs.2004
United StatesThe film Shrek 2, the sequel to Shrek, is one of the highest grossing movies of the year. It revisits fairy tale themes while parodying popular culture.2008
United StatesTender Morsels by Margo Lanagan is released to high acclaim and garners many nominations and awards. It is a rare retelling of Snow White and Rose Red and deals with tough themes. The novel is also controversial and part of the debate over what is suitable for young adult audiences.2009
United StatesDisney releases its first feature length fairy tale film in over a decade, The Princess and the Frog. The film features the first black Disney princess and is set in Louisiana. The plot borrows from The Frog Prince as well as the novel, The Frog Princess by E. D. Baker.2010
United StatesDisney's Rapunzel follows up the previous year's release of The Princess and the Frog.
  • FRENCH ORAL NARRATIVE   A woman had finished her baking, so she asked her daughter to take a fresh galette and a pot of cream to her grandmother who lived in a forest cottage. The girl set off, and on her way she met a bzou [a werewolf]. The bzou stopped the girl and asked, "Where are you going? What do you carry?"
"I’m going my grandmother’s house," said the girl, "and I’m bringing her bread and cream."
"Which path will you take?" the bzou asked. "The Path of Needles or the Path of Pins?"
"I’ll take the Path of Pins," said the girl.
"Why then, I’ll take the Path of Needles, and we’ll see who gets there first." The girl set off, the bzou set off, and the bzou reached Grandmother’s cottage first. He quickly killed the old woman and gobbled her up, flesh, blood, and bone – except for a bit of flesh that he put in a little dish on the pantry shelf, and except for a bit of blood that he drained into a little bottle. Then the bzou dressed in Grandmother’s cap and shawl and climbed into bed. When the girl arrived, the bzou called out, "Pull the peg and come in, my child."
"Grandmother," said the girl, "Mother sent me here with a galette and a cream."
"Put them in the pantry, child. Are you hungry?
"Yes, I am, Grandmother."
"Then cook the meat that you’ll find on the shelf. Are you thirsty?"
"Yes, I am, Grandmother."
"Then drink the bottle of wine you’ll find on the shelf beside it, child."
As the young girl cooked and ate the meat, a little cat piped up and cried, "You are eating the flesh are your grandmother!"
"Throw your shoe at that noisy cat," said the bzou, and so she did.
As she drank the wine, a small bird cried, "You are drinking the blood of your grandmother!"
"Throw your other shoe at that noisy bird," said the bzou, and so she did.
When she finished her meal, the bzou said, "Are you tired from your journey, child? Then take off your clothes, come to bed, and I shall warm you up."
"Where shall I put my apron, Grandmother?"
"Throw it on the fire, child, for you won’t need it anymore."
"Where shall I put my bodice, Grandmother?"
"Throw it on the fire, for you won’t need it anymore."
The girl repeats this question for her skirt, her petticoat, and her stockings. The bzou gives the same answer, and she throws each item on the fire. As she comes to bed, she says to him, "Grandmother, how hairy you are!"   Illustration by Charles Robinson "The better to keep you warm, my child,"
"Grandmother, what big arms you have!"
"The better to hold you close, my child."
"Grandmother, what big ears you have!"
"The better to hear you with, my child."
"Grandmother, what sharp teeth you have!"
"The better to eat you with, my child. Now come and lie beside me."
"But first I must go and relieve myself."
"Do it in the bed, my child."
"I cannot. I must go outside," the girl says cleverly, for now she knows that it’s the bzou who is lying in Grandmother’s bed. "Then go outside," the bzou agrees, "but mind that you come back again quick. I’ll tie your ankle with a woolen thread so I’ll know just where you are." He ties her ankle with a sturdy thread, but as soon as the girl has gone outside she cuts the thread with her sewing scissors and ties it to a plum tree. The bzou, growing impatient, calls out, "What, have you finished yet, my child?" When no one answers, he calls again. "Are you watering the grass or feeding the trees?" No answer. He leaps from bed, follows the thread, and finds her gone. The bzou gives chase, and soon the girl can hear him on the path just behind her. She runs and runs until she reaches a river that’s swift and deep. Some laundresses work on the river bank. "Please help me cross," she says to them. They spread a sheet over the water, holding tightly to its ends. She crosses the bridge of cloth and soon she’s safe on the other side. Now the bzou reaches the river, and he bids the women help him cross. They spread a sheet over the water — but as soon as he is halfway across, the laundresses let go. The bzou falls into the water and drowns.
  • Little Red Riding HoodCharles Perrault Once upon a time there lived in a certain village a little country girl, the prettiest creature who was ever seen. Her mother was excessively fond of her; and her grandmother doted on her still more. This good woman had a little red riding hood made for her. It suited the girl so extremely well that everybody called her Little Red Riding Hood.One day her mother, having made some cakes, said to her, "Go, my dear, and see how your grandmother is doing, for I hear she has been very ill. Take her a cake, and this little pot of butter."Little Red Riding Hood set out immediately to go to her grandmother, who lived in another village.As she was going through the wood, she met with a wolf, who had a very great mind to eat her up, but he dared not, because of some woodcutters working nearby in the forest. He asked her where she was going. The poor child, who did not know that it was dangerous to stay and talk to a wolf, said to him, "I am going to see my grandmother and carry her a cake and a little pot of butter from my mother.""Does she live far off?" said the wolf"Oh I say," answered Little Red Riding Hood; "it is beyond that mill you see there, at the first house in the village.""Well," said the wolf, "and I'll go and see her too. I'll go this way and go you that, and we shall see who will be there first."The wolf ran as fast as he could, taking the shortest path, and the little girl took a roundabout way, entertaining herself by gathering nuts, running after butterflies, and gathering bouquets of little flowers. It was not long before the wolf arrived at the old woman's house. He knocked at the door: tap, tap."Who's there?""Your grandchild, Little Red Riding Hood," replied the wolf, counterfeiting her voice; "who has brought you a cake and a little pot of butter sent you by mother."The good grandmother, who was in bed, because she was somewhat ill, cried out, "Pull the bobbin, and the latch will go up."The wolf pulled the bobbin, and the door opened, and then he immediately fell upon the good woman and ate her up in a moment, for it been more than three days since he had eaten. He then shut the door and got into the grandmother's bed, expecting Little Red Riding Hood, who came some time afterwards and knocked at the door: tap, tap."Who's there?"Little Red Riding Hood, hearing the big voice of the wolf, was at first afraid; but believing her grandmother had a cold and was hoarse, answered, "It is your grandchild Little Red Riding Hood, who has brought you a cake and a little pot of butter mother sends you."The wolf cried out to her, softening his voice as much as he could, "Pull the bobbin, and the latch will go up."Little Red Riding Hood pulled the bobbin, and the door opened.The wolf, seeing her come in, said to her, hiding himself under the bedclothes, "Put the cake and the little pot of butter upon the stool, and come get into bed with me."Little Red Riding Hood took off her clothes and got into bed. She was greatly amazed to see how her grandmother looked in her nightclothes, and said to her, "Grandmother, what big arms you have!""All the better to hug you with, my dear.""Grandmother, what big legs you have!""All the better to run with, my child.""Grandmother, what big ears you have!""All the better to hear with, my child.""Grandmother, what big eyes you have!""All the better to see with, my child.""Grandmother, what big teeth you have got!""All the better to eat you up with."And, saying these words, this wicked wolf fell upon Little Red Riding Hood, and ate her all up.Moral: Children, especially attractive, well bred young ladies, should never talk to strangers, for if they should do so, they may well provide dinner for a wolf. I say "wolf," but there are various kinds of wolves. There are also those who are charming, quiet, polite, unassuming, complacent, and sweet, who pursue young women at home and in the streets. And unfortunately, it is these gentle wolves who are the most dangerous ones of all.
  • Once upon a time there was a sweet little girl. Everyone who saw her liked her, but most of all her grandmother, who did not know what to give the child next. Once she gave her a little cap made of red velvet. Because it suited her so well, and she wanted to wear it all the time, she came to be known as Little Red Cap.One day her mother said to her, "Come Little Red Cap. Here is a piece of cake and a bottle of wine. Take them to your grandmother. She is sick and weak, and they will do her well. Mind your manners and give her my greetings. Behave yourself on the way, and do not leave the path, or you might fall down and break the glass, and then there will be nothing for your sick grandmother."Little Red Cap promised to obey her mother. The grandmother lived out in the woods, a half hour from the village. When Little Red Cap entered the woods a wolf came up to her. She did not know what a wicked animal he was, and was not afraid of him."Good day to you, Little Red Cap.""Thank you, wolf.""Where are you going so early, Little Red Cap?""To grandmother's.""And what are you carrying under your apron?""Grandmother is sick and weak, and I am taking her some cake and wine. We baked yesterday, and they should give her strength.""Little Red Cap, just where does your grandmother live?""Her house is a good quarter hour from here in the woods, under the three large oak trees. There's a hedge of hazel bushes there. You must know the place," said Little Red Cap.The wolf thought to himself, "Now there is a tasty bite for me. Just how are you going to catch her?" Then he said, "Listen, Little Red Cap, haven't you seen the beautiful flowers that are blossoming in the woods? Why don't you go and take a look? And I don't believe you can hear how beautifully the birds are singing. You are walking along as though you were on your way to school in the village. It is very beautiful in the woods."Little Red Cap opened her eyes and saw the sunlight breaking through the trees and how the ground was covered with beautiful flowers. She thought, "If a take a bouquet to grandmother, she will be very pleased. Anyway, it is still early, and I'll be home on time." And she ran off into the woods looking for flowers. Each time she picked one she thought that she could see an even more beautiful one a little way off, and she ran after it, going further and further into the woods. But the wolf ran straight to the grandmother's house and knocked on the door."Who's there?""Little Red Cap. I'm bringing you some cake and wine. Open the door for me.""Just press the latch," called out the grandmother. "I'm too weak to get up."The wolf pressed the latch, and the door opened. He stepped inside, went straight to the grandmother's bed, and ate her up. Then he took her clothes, put them on, and put her cap on his head. He got into her bed and pulled the curtains shut.Little Red Cap had run after flowers, and did not continue on her way to grandmother's until she had gathered all that she could carry. When she arrived, she found, to her surprise, that the door was open. She walked into the parlor, and everything looked so strange that she thought, "Oh, my God, why am I so afraid? I usually like it at grandmother's." Then she went to the bed and pulled back the curtains. Grandmother was lying there with her cap pulled down over her face and looking very strange."Oh, grandmother, what big ears you have!""All the better to hear you with.""Oh, grandmother, what big eyes you have!""All the better to see you with.""Oh, grandmother, what big hands you have!""All the better to grab you with!""Oh, grandmother, what a horribly big mouth you have!""All the better to eat you with!" And with that he jumped out of bed, jumped on top of poor Little Red Cap, and ate her up. As soon as the wolf had finished this tasty bite, he climbed back into bed, fell asleep, and began to snore very loudly.A huntsman was just passing by. He thought it strange that the old woman was snoring so loudly, so he decided to take a look. He stepped inside, and in the bed there lay the wolf that he had been hunting for such a long time. "He has eaten the grandmother, but perhaps she still can be saved. I won't shoot him," thought the huntsman. So he took a pair of scissors and cut open his belly.He had cut only a few strokes when he saw the red cap shining through. He cut a little more, and the girl jumped out and cried, "Oh, I was so frightened! It was so dark inside the wolf's body!"And then the grandmother came out alive as well. Then Little Red Cap fetched some large heavy stones. They filled the wolf's body with them, and when he woke up and tried to run away, the stones were so heavy that he fell down dead.The three of them were happy. The huntsman took the wolf's pelt. The grandmother ate the cake and drank the wine that Little Red Cap had brought. And Little Red Cap thought to herself, "As long as I live, I will never leave the path and run off into the woods by myself if mother tells me not to."They also tell how Little Red Cap was taking some baked things to her grandmother another time, when another wolf spoke to her and wanted her to leave the path. But Little Red Cap took care and went straight to grandmother's. She told her that she had seen the wolf, and that he had wished her a good day, but had stared at her in a wicked manner. "If we hadn't been on a public road, he would have eaten me up," she said."Come," said the grandmother. "Let's lock the door, so he can't get in."Soon afterward the wolf knocked on the door and called out, "Open up, grandmother. It's Little Red Cap, and I'm bringing you some baked things."They remained silent, and did not open the door. The wicked one walked around the house several times, and finally jumped onto the roof. He wanted to wait until Little Red Cap went home that evening, then follow her and eat her up in the darkness. But the grandmother saw what he was up to. There was a large stone trough in front of the house."Fetch a bucket, Little Red Cap," she said. "Yesterday I cooked some sausage. Carry the water that I boiled them with to the trough." Little Red Cap carried water until the large, large trough was clear full. The smell of sausage arose into the wolf's nose. He sniffed and looked down, stretching his neck so long that he could no longer hold himself, and he began to slide. He slid off the roof, fell into the trough, and drowned. And Little Red Cap returned home happily and safely.
  • Once upon a time there was a sweet little girl. Everyone who saw her liked her, but most of all her grandmother, who did not know what to give the child next. Once she gave her a little cap made of red velvet. Because it suited her so well, and she wanted to wear it all the time, she came to be known as Little Red Cap.One day her mother said to her, "Come Little Red Cap. Here is a piece of cake and a bottle of wine. Take them to your grandmother. She is sick and weak, and they will do her well. Mind your manners and give her my greetings. Behave yourself on the way, and do not leave the path, or you might fall down and break the glass, and then there will be nothing for your sick grandmother."Little Red Cap promised to obey her mother. The grandmother lived out in the woods, a half hour from the village. When Little Red Cap entered the woods a wolf came up to her. She did not know what a wicked animal he was, and was not afraid of him."Good day to you, Little Red Cap.""Thank you, wolf.""Where are you going so early, Little Red Cap?""To grandmother's.""And what are you carrying under your apron?""Grandmother is sick and weak, and I am taking her some cake and wine. We baked yesterday, and they should give her strength.""Little Red Cap, just where does your grandmother live?""Her house is a good quarter hour from here in the woods, under the three large oak trees. There's a hedge of hazel bushes there. You must know the place," said Little Red Cap.The wolf thought to himself, "Now there is a tasty bite for me. Just how are you going to catch her?" Then he said, "Listen, Little Red Cap, haven't you seen the beautiful flowers that are blossoming in the woods? Why don't you go and take a look? And I don't believe you can hear how beautifully the birds are singing. You are walking along as though you were on your way to school in the village. It is very beautiful in the woods."Little Red Cap opened her eyes and saw the sunlight breaking through the trees and how the ground was covered with beautiful flowers. She thought, "If a take a bouquet to grandmother, she will be very pleased. Anyway, it is still early, and I'll be home on time." And she ran off into the woods looking for flowers. Each time she picked one she thought that she could see an even more beautiful one a little way off, and she ran after it, going further and further into the woods. But the wolf ran straight to the grandmother's house and knocked on the door."Who's there?""Little Red Cap. I'm bringing you some cake and wine. Open the door for me.""Just press the latch," called out the grandmother. "I'm too weak to get up."The wolf pressed the latch, and the door opened. He stepped inside, went straight to the grandmother's bed, and ate her up. Then he took her clothes, put them on, and put her cap on his head. He got into her bed and pulled the curtains shut.Little Red Cap had run after flowers, and did not continue on her way to grandmother's until she had gathered all that she could carry. When she arrived, she found, to her surprise, that the door was open. She walked into the parlor, and everything looked so strange that she thought, "Oh, my God, why am I so afraid? I usually like it at grandmother's." Then she went to the bed and pulled back the curtains. Grandmother was lying there with her cap pulled down over her face and looking very strange."Oh, grandmother, what big ears you have!""All the better to hear you with.""Oh, grandmother, what big eyes you have!""All the better to see you with.""Oh, grandmother, what big hands you have!""All the better to grab you with!""Oh, grandmother, what a horribly big mouth you have!""All the better to eat you with!" And with that he jumped out of bed, jumped on top of poor Little Red Cap, and ate her up. As soon as the wolf had finished this tasty bite, he climbed back into bed, fell asleep, and began to snore very loudly.A huntsman was just passing by. He thought it strange that the old woman was snoring so loudly, so he decided to take a look. He stepped inside, and in the bed there lay the wolf that he had been hunting for such a long time. "He has eaten the grandmother, but perhaps she still can be saved. I won't shoot him," thought the huntsman. So he took a pair of scissors and cut open his belly.He had cut only a few strokes when he saw the red cap shining through. He cut a little more, and the girl jumped out and cried, "Oh, I was so frightened! It was so dark inside the wolf's body!"And then the grandmother came out alive as well. Then Little Red Cap fetched some large heavy stones. They filled the wolf's body with them, and when he woke up and tried to run away, the stones were so heavy that he fell down dead.The three of them were happy. The huntsman took the wolf's pelt. The grandmother ate the cake and drank the wine that Little Red Cap had brought. And Little Red Cap thought to herself, "As long as I live, I will never leave the path and run off into the woods by myself if mother tells me not to."They also tell how Little Red Cap was taking some baked things to her grandmother another time, when another wolf spoke to her and wanted her to leave the path. But Little Red Cap took care and went straight to grandmother's. She told her that she had seen the wolf, and that he had wished her a good day, but had stared at her in a wicked manner. "If we hadn't been on a public road, he would have eaten me up," she said."Come," said the grandmother. "Let's lock the door, so he can't get in."Soon afterward the wolf knocked on the door and called out, "Open up, grandmother. It's Little Red Cap, and I'm bringing you some baked things."They remained silent, and did not open the door. The wicked one walked around the house several times, and finally jumped onto the roof. He wanted to wait until Little Red Cap went home that evening, then follow her and eat her up in the darkness. But the grandmother saw what he was up to. There was a large stone trough in front of the house."Fetch a bucket, Little Red Cap," she said. "Yesterday I cooked some sausage. Carry the water that I boiled them with to the trough." Little Red Cap carried water until the large, large trough was clear full. The smell of sausage arose into the wolf's nose. He sniffed and looked down, stretching his neck so long that he could no longer hold himself, and he began to slide. He slid off the roof, fell into the trough, and drowned. And Little Red Cap returned home happily and safely.
  • Little Red Riding Hood was walking through the woods when suddenly the Big Bad Wolf jumped out from behind a tree and, holding a machete to her throat, said, "Red, I'm going to screw your brains out!" To that, Little Red Riding Hood calmly reached into her picnic basket and pulled out a magnum gun and pointed it at him and said, "No you're not! You're going to eat me, just like it says in the book!"
  • Transcript

    • 1. sequenced and interrelated events *Michael Toolan, 2001. Narrative. New York: Routledge . foregrounded individuals crisis to resolution progression
    • 2. What are the key features or elements of a story? Storytelling
    • 3. When it is your turn, create one line of the story. Storytelling Game
    • 4. “ A narrative is a perceived sequence of non-randomly connected events, typically involving, and the experiencing agonist, humans, quasi-humans, or sentient beings, from whose experience we humans can ‘learn’.” stories (definition)* *Michael Toolan, 2001. Narrative. New York: Routledge.
    • 5. a connected sequence of events , with at least one central character, who moves towards some goal or purpose stories (revision?)
    • 6. I turned off my alarm, and got out of bed. Minimal Story EVENT 1 EVENT 2 MAIN CHARACTER
    • 7. stories conceal as much as they reveal KEY POINT
    • 8. William Bascom
    • 9. William Bascom myth legend folktale belief/story
    • 10. MYTHOLOGY: Puranas (From the Rg Veda)
    • 11. LEGEND: HIV Needle-Prick-in-Theater
    • 12. FOLKTALE: Little Red Riding Hood
    • 13.  
    • 14. William Bascom
    • 15. The Hourglass Metaphor: How do stories shape time? legends myths folktales legend recent past remote past eternal present
    • 16. Down the Rabbit Hole: How are ALL stories “mythic” or “legendary” ? belief, storyrealm* transformation taleworld* (enter into the “ world” of the tale) beginning end middle *Katherine Young, “ The Phenomenology of Narrative” world of conversation, present discourse
    • 17. 1. these are idealized categories; 2. that means that they cannot describe all types of stories; 3. there are different “names” for stories around the world
    • 18. Solution the key is understanding the context in which a story occurs (background, setting, attitude, tellers, audiences, etc.)
    • 19. Which of the following would be a myth, legend, or folktale ?
      • Heroes (TV Show)
      • The Jessica Lynch Story
      • The Kentucky-Fried Rat
      • Batman: The Dark Knight
      • Oedipus the King (Sophocles)
      • Genesis 1 (The Bible)
    • 20. When tradition must be stored in the brain and transmitted orally, people reserve the formal oral tradition for transmitting information they consider most important, often for survival. Myth Principles MEMORY CRUNCH
    • 21. What is “myth”? “ deep stories”
    • 22. What is “myth”? considered most meaningful
    • 23. to a particular group
    • 24. passed down through generations (repetition and variation)
    • 25. definitions of “myth”
    • 26. Mythology: Definitions
    • 27. Mythology: Definitions
      • Greater or more
      • relevant reality
    • 28. Mythology: Definitions
    • 29. Mythology: Definitions 2. Traditional fictions or stories
    • 30. Mythology: Definitions
    • 31. Mythology: Definitions
      • Misconceived belief/
      • untruth/lie
    • 32. Mythology: Definitions
    • 33. Mythology: Definitions 4. Personal organizing principle
    • 34. Mythology: Definitions
    • 35. Mythology: Definitions 5. Collective organizing principle
    • 36. Mythology: Definitions
    • 37. Mythology: Definitions 6. Metaphor/symbol
    • 38. Mythology: Definitions
    • 39. Avatar: James Cameron (2009)
    • 40. Avatar: Popular American Films
    • 41. Avatar: Hindu mythology
    • 42. Sisyphus: A Greek Tale
    • 43. Titian, “Sisyphus” (1549)
    • 44. Albert Camus, “The Myth of Sisyphus”
    • 45. The Modern Sisyphus (1844)
    • 46. Zachary Kanin, The New Yorker, 2009
    • 47. Countee Cullen (1925) "Yet Do I Marvel” I doubt not God is good, well-meaning, kind,
And did He stoop to quibble could tell why
The little buried mole continues blind,
Why flesh that mirrors Him must some day die, 
 … From Color by Countee Cullen. Copyright © 1925 Harper & Bros., renewed 1963 by Ida. M Cullen.
    • 48. Countee Cullen (1925) Make plain the reason tortured Tantalus 
Is baited by the fickle fruit, declare
If merely brute caprice dooms Sisyphus 
To struggle up a never-ending stair. …

    • 49. Countee Cullen (1925) Inscrutable His ways are, and immune
To catechism by a mind too strewn
With petty cares to slightly understand
What awful brain compels His awful hand.
 …

    • 50. Countee Cullen (1925) Yet do I marvel at this curious thing:
To make a poet black, and bid him sing!

    • 51. The Modern Sisyphus (1844)
    • 52. not necessarily a single, “ original” author or teller
    • 53. often set in the remote past
    • 54. often considered sacred by tellers and audiences
    • 55. often concern gods and the supernatural
    • 56. often explain, justify, instruct, warn
    • 57. I Heard It Through the Grapevine: The Transmission of Rumor and Legends
    • 58. The Telephone Game
    • 59. 1. The first person makes up a phrase. 2. He or she then whispers that phrase to the next person. 3. The next person quickly whispers this phrase to the next person , and so on, until everyone has “passed on” the phrase in question. THE TELEPHONE GAME: A REPLAY
    • 60. WHAT STICKS?: A Rumor Experiment* *Inspired by Allport and Postman’s 1945 Study of Rumors
    • 61. 1. The first person tries to remember as many details as possible about a particular event. 2. He or she then tells a story about the event to the next person waiting outside. 3. The next person tells what they believe happened based on the story of the previous person. 4. The audience listens for similarities and differences in the story along the way. WHAT STICKS?
    • 62.  
    • 63. WHAT STICKS?
      • LEVELING
      • SHARPENING
      • ASSIMILATION
      Allport and Postman (1945, 1947)
    • 64. 1. “brief, unsubstantiated bits of information” (Fine and Turner) 2. “improvised news” (Shibutani) What is a rumor?
    • 65. 1. Describe at least one rumor (urban legends or myths). 2. Explain its symbolism and meanings. What is a rumor?
    • 66. I. Rumors are “brief, unsubstantiated bits of information” between people that offer a “truth claim.” Rumor may be spread through face-to-face, news, or other forms of mediated communication (Fine and Turner) What is a rumor?
    • 67. II. Rumors are “improvised news” or forms of “problem-solving for ambiguous situations” : What is a rumor?
    • 68. In other words, they are a “form of communication through which men [an women are] caught together in an ambiguous situation attempt to construct a meaningful interpretation of it by pooling their intellectual resources.” (Shibutani) What is a rumor?
    • 69. Sample Folktales and Political Stories: Extra-Credit
    • 70. “ Fairy” tales folktales with fictional characters that undergo a status change
    • 71. “ Fairy” tales Some of these tales contain “fairies,” or magical creatures that help the main characters on there adventures.
    • 72. “ Fairy” tales ??? Oddly enough, this genre has referred to stories that do not involve “fairies” of any kind.
    • 73. “ Fairy” tales Better term: “ Magic or Wonder Tale”
    • 74. *Ruth B. Bottigheimer. 2009. Fairy Tales: A New History . Albany: State University Press of New York, pp.10-13. Based in the world of human beings, these tales begin with a royal figure who is driven away from home, goes on an adventure, and returns “restored” to their social position. Restoration Fairy Tales*
    • 75. *Ruth B. Bottigheimer. 2009. Fairy Tales: A New History . Albany: State University Press of New York, pp.10-13. Restoration Fairy Tales* Royal Origins Royal Restoration Tasks, Tests, Trials
    • 76. Rise Fairy Tales* These tales begin with a poor boy or girl who suffers the effects of poverty and undergoes a series of challenges until he or she, through various forms of magical help, becomes married to royalty or acquires wealth. *Ruth B. Bottigheimer. 2009. Fairy Tales: A New History . Albany: State University Press of New York, pp.10-13.
    • 77. *Ruth B. Bottigheimer. 2009. Fairy Tales: A New History . Albany: State University Press of New York, pp.10-13. Rise Fairy Tales* Poor Origins Royal Marriage or Wealth Tasks, Tests, Trials Magic
    • 78. History of Fairytales
    • 79. Apuleius (100-200 A.D.)
    • 80. Panchatantra (300 A.D.)
    • 81. One Thousand and One Arabian Nights (circa 1300)
    • 82. One Thousand and One Arabian Nights (circa 1500)
    • 83. Gianfrancesco Straparola (1550)
    • 84. Giambattista Basile (1634)
    • 85. Madame d’Aulnoy (1696)
    • 86. Charles Perrault (1697)
    • 87. Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm (1812)
    • 88. Kinder und Hausmärchen (1812)
    • 89. Edgar Taylor (1823)
    • 90. German Popular Stories (English Translation) Rumpelstilskin
    • 91. Hans Christian Andersen (1835)
    • 92. Peter Christen Asbjornsen and Jorgen Moe (1845)
    • 93. Aleksandr Afanasyev (1866)
    • 94. Aleksandr Afanasyev (1866) VLADIMIR PROPP based his Morphology of the Folktale on this collection of Russian fairytales (Thirty-One Functions).
    • 95. Chapbooks
    • 96. Chapbooks
    • 97. Lewis Carroll
    • 98.  
    • 99. Walt Disney
    • 100. Snow White (1937)
    • 101. Cinderella (1950)
    • 102. The Princess and the Frog (2009)
    • 103. Alice in Wonderland (1951)
    • 104. Alice in Wonderland: 3D (2010)
    • 105. Alice: Central Park, NY (Sculpture)
    • 106. Folktale Transformations: The Cultural Evolution of Little Red Riding Hood
    • 107. The False Grandmother (Little Red Riding Hood) Oral Versions (Italy, France, late 1600s)
    • 108. Le petite chaperon rouge (Little Red Riding Hood) Charles Perrault (1697)
    • 109. Röttkappchen (Little Red Cap) The Brothers Grimm (1812)
    • 110. Little Rural Riding Hood Tex Avery (1943)
    • 111. Sam and the Pharaohs (1963) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_FA85RO89HA
    • 112. QUESTIONS
      • Who are the central characters in most versions of Little Red Riding Hood?
      • Why do you think this story appears in so many cultural and historical forms?
      • What motifs or themes persist over time?
      • What motifs or themes change over time?
      • Compare and contrast the early text versions of the tale, the Tex Avery cartoon, the version by Sam and the Pharaohs, and the bawdy joke.
      • Which of these texts grabbed your interest the most ? Why?
    • 113.
      • The Triumphant Individual
      • The Benevolent Community
      • The Mob at the Gates
      • The Rot at the Top
      Dominant American Political Stories Robert Reich. “The Lost Art Of Democratic Narrative,” The New Republic , March 21, 2005
    • 114. The Triumphant Individual. [TI] This is the familiar tale of the little guy who works hard, takes risks, believes in himself, and eventually gains wealth, fame, and honor. It's the story of the self-made man (or, more recently, woman) who bucks the odds, spurns the naysayers, and shows what can be done with enough gumption and guts. He's instantly recognizable: plainspoken, self-reliant, and uncompromising in his ideals--the underdog who makes it through hard work and faith in himself. Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography is the first in a long line of U.S. self-help manuals about how to make it through self-sacrifice and diligence. The story is epitomized in the life of Abe Lincoln, born in a log cabin, who believed that "the value of life is to improve one's condition." The theme was captured in Horatio Alger's hundred or so novellas, whose heroes all rise promptly and predictably from rags to riches. It's celebrated in the tales of immigrant peddlers who become millionaire tycoons. And it's found in the manifold stories of downtrodden fighters who undertake dangerous quests and find money and glory. Think Rocky Balboa, Norma Rae, and Erin Brockovich. The moral: With enough effort and courage, anyone can make it in the United States. Robert Reich. “The Lost Art Of Democratic Narrative,” The New Republic , March 21, 2005
    • 115. The Benevolent Community. [BC] This is the story of neighbors and friends who roll up their sleeves and pitch in for the common good. Its earliest formulation was John Winthrop's "A Model of Christian Charity," delivered on board a ship in Salem Harbor just before the Puritans landed in 1630--a version of Matthew's Sermon on the Mount, in which the new settlers would be "as a City upon a Hill," "delight in each other," and be "of the same body." Similar communitarian and religious images were found among the abolitionists, suffragettes, and civil rights activists of the 1950s and 1960s. "I have a dream that every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low," said Martin Luther King Jr., extolling the ideal of the national community. The story is captured in the iconic New England town meeting, in frontier settlers erecting one another's barns, in neighbors volunteering as firefighters and librarians, and in small towns sending their high school achievers to college and their boys off to fight foreign wars. It suffuses Norman Rockwell's paintings and Frank Capra's movies. Consider the last scene in It's a Wonderful Life, when George learns he can count on his neighbors' generosity and goodness, just as they had always counted on him. Robert Reich. “The Lost Art Of Democratic Narrative,” The New Republic , March 21, 2005
    • 116. The Mob at the Gates. [MG] In this story, the United States is a beacon light of virtue in a world of darkness, uniquely blessed but continuously endangered by foreign menaces. Hence our endless efforts to contain the barbarism and tyranny beyond our borders. Daniel Boone fought Indians—white America's first evil empire. Davy Crockett battled Mexicans. The story is found in the Whig's anti-English and pro-tariff histories of the United States, in the anti-immigration harangues of the late nineteenth century, and in World War II accounts of Nazi and Japanese barbarism. It animates modern epics about space explorers (often sporting the stars and stripes) battling alien creatures bent on destroying the world. The narrative gave special force to cold war tales during the 1950s of an international communist plot to undermine U.S. democracy and subsequently of "evil" empires and axes. The underlying lesson: We must maintain vigilance, lest diabolical forces overwhelm us. Robert Reich. “The Lost Art Of Democratic Narrative,” The New Republic , March 21, 2005
    • 117. The Rot at the Top. [RT] The last story concerns the malevolence of powerful elites. It's a tale of corruption, decadence, and irresponsibility in high places--of conspiracy against the common citizen. It started with King George III, and, to this day, it shapes the way we view government--mostly with distrust. The great bullies of American fiction have often symbolized Rot at the Top: William Faulkner's Flem Snopes, Willie Stark as the Huey Long-like character in All the King's Men, Lionel Barrymore's demonic Mr. Potter in It's a Wonderful Life, and the antagonists that hound the Joad family in The Grapes of Wrath. Suspicions about Rot at the Top have inspired what historian Richard Hofstadter called the paranoid style in U.S. politics--from the pre-Civil War Know-Nothings and Anti-Masonic movements through the Ku Klux Klan and Senator Joseph McCarthy's witch hunts. The myth has also given force to the great populist movements of U.S. history, from Andrew Jackson's attack on the Bank of the United States in the 1830s through William Jennings Bryan's prairie populism of the 1890s. Robert Reich. “The Lost Art Of Democratic Narrative,” The New Republic , March 21, 2005