Ecology Notes
What is ECOLOGY?               Ecology is a study of                connections in nature.                   How organis...
Levels of Organization
Organisms   The different forms of life on earthSpecies   Organisms that can breed & produce fertile offspring
Population    A group of individual organisms     that belong to the same species     and live in the same area.
Community   Different populations that live &    interact in an area.
Ecosystem   The community plus their non-living    environment.
Biotic & Abiotic Factors of Ecosystems      Biotic (living)          Ex. – bacteria, animals, plants      Abiotic (non-...
Biome   A group of ecosystems that have the same    climate       Ex. – Tundra, Taiga, Desert, Tropical Rainforest
Biosphere   All of the    combined portions    of the planet    where life exists,    including land,    water, and    at...
Universe      Galaxies    Solar systems          Biosphere       Planets        Earth      Biosphere     Ecosystems       ...
Energy Flow  Producers   Autotrophs - use solar energy or    chemical energy to make their own food                     ...
Energy Flow Consumers Heterotrophs - get energy from the food they eat     Herbivores – eats plants     Carnivores – e...
Break it Down   Auto – self             -vore – eat                            Herb – plant   Troph – feeding         ...
Energy Flow    Food Chains & Food Webs   Show how    energy &    nutrients move    from one    organism to    another th...
Energy Pyramid    Shows the amount of energy available at     each trophic level                              0.1%       ...
Energy Flow Losing Energy in Food Chains and Webs                        90%   of the                         energy at ...
Energy Flow  Other PyramidsBiomass pyramid – total amount of living tissue - Amount of potential food for each trophic le...
Interactions in an Ecosystem   Habitat – The area where an    organism or a population lives
Interactions in an Ecosystem   Niche - the total role of a species in    an ecosystem       All the physical and biologi...
Interactions in an Ecosystem Relationships   Predation – one organism captures and    feeds on another
Predator – Prey Cycle     SOURCE: Isle Royale Wolf/Moose Study | GRAPHIC: By Patterson Clark, The Washington Post - July 2...
Interactions in an Ecosystem Relationships    Competition – organisms of the same or     different species attempt to us...
Interactions in an Ecosystem Relationships   Symbiosis – any relationship in which 2    species live closely together   ...
Mutualism: Win-Win Relationship    Both of them benefit Pollination of flowers by          insects            Oxpeckers a...
Commensalism: Using without harming     One is helped and has little or no effect on      the other                      ...
Parasitism: Sponging Off of Others   One benefits and the other is harmed           Mosquitos                            ...
Carrying Capacity   The maximum # of individuals    that a given habitat can support
What is the carrying capacity?
Lower limit of                                                  Upper limit of       tolerance                            ...
4 Factors Determine Growth Rate  1. Birth rate  2. Immigration  3. Death rate  4. Emigration Which increase and which ...
Limiting Factors  Bioticor abiotic resource that  limits size of population
Habitat Needs   Cover – shelter; trees, shrubs,    etc.   Water   Nutrients
Population Growth   Populations can grow until    competition for resources increases &    the carrying capacity is reached
BiosphereCarbon   Phosphorus   Nitrogen      Water   Oxygen cycle      cycle      cycle        cycle    cycle             ...
CARBON CYCLE
Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen Fixation   This is the first step of the nitrogen cycle    where specialized bacteria convert gaseous    nitroge...
Nitrification   Ammonia is converted to nitrite, then to    nitrateAssimilationPlant  roots absorb ammonium ions andnitr...
Ammonification    After nitrogen has served its purpose in     living organisms, decomposing bacteria     convert the nit...
Biomagnification Concentration of toxin at higher trophic levels
Succession   The process where plants & animals    of a particular area are replaced by    other more complex species ove...
Stages of SuccessionLand – rock  lichen  small shrubs   large shrubs  small trees  large trees
Primary Succession When   the starting  point is an ABIOTIC  environment     Volcano     Flood
Secondary Succession   When an    EXISTING    ecosystem is    disturbed        Fire/lightning        Disease        Hu...
Fig 10.7 Diagram of bogsuccession.            Wetland Succession                               1     Wetland    Succession...
CLIMATE: A BRIEF INTRO. Weather - local, short-term conditions such as  temperature and precipitation Climate - a region...
BIOMES:    Large terrestrial regions characterized     by similar climate, soil, plants, and     animals
Biomes Around the World
DESERT BIOMES   The evaporation is greater than the    precipitation (usually less than 25    cm). Covers 30% of the earth.
DESERT BIOMES                   Variations in                    annual                    temperature (red)             ...
FOREST BIOMES     Forests have enough precipitation to support      stands of trees and are found in tropical,      tempe...
FOREST BIOMES                   Variations in                    annual temperature                    (red) and         ...
Taiga (evergreen coniferous forest)   Just south of the tundra (northern part of N.    America), it covers 11% of earth’s...
MOUNTAIN BIOMES (Taiga)             High-elevation              islands of              biodiversity             Often h...
Evergreen Coniferous Forests                    Consist mostly of                     cone-bearing                     ev...
Tropical Rainforest   Near the equator. It has warm    temperatures, high humidity & heavy    rainfall.
Tropical Rain Forest                    Tropical rain                     forests have heavy                     rainfall...
Tropical Rain Forest     Filling such niches enables species to avoid      or minimize competition and coexist
Temperate Rain Forests     Coastal areas support huge cone-bearing      evergreen trees such as redwoods and      Douglas...
Temperate Deciduous Forest   It has moderate temperatures, long, warm    summers, cold winters &lots of rain. Trees    in...
Temperate Deciduous Forest                   Most of the trees                    survive winter by                    dr...
Grassland   The rainfall is erratic & fires are    common. It has & shrubs that are    good for grazing animals.
GRASSLANDS AND CHAPARRALBIOMES     Variations in      annual      temperature      (red) and      precipitation      (blu...
Savanna   The tropical & subtropical grassland.    It is warm all year long with    alternating wet & dry seasons.
Chaparral (temperate grassland)   These are coastal areas. Winters are mild    & wet, w/ summers being long, hot, &    dry.
Chaparral               Chaparral has a                moderate                climate but its                dense thick...
Temperate Grasslands                    The cold winters                     and hot dry                     summers have...
Tundra (polar grasslands)   Covers 10% of earth’s land. Most of the year,    these treeless plains are bitterly cold with...
Polar Grasslands                      Polar grasslands                       are covered with                       ice a...
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Ecology chpter 9 10

  1. 1. Ecology Notes
  2. 2. What is ECOLOGY?  Ecology is a study of connections in nature.  How organisms interact with one another and with their nonliving environment. Figure 3-2
  3. 3. Levels of Organization
  4. 4. Organisms The different forms of life on earthSpecies Organisms that can breed & produce fertile offspring
  5. 5. Population  A group of individual organisms that belong to the same species and live in the same area.
  6. 6. Community Different populations that live & interact in an area.
  7. 7. Ecosystem The community plus their non-living environment.
  8. 8. Biotic & Abiotic Factors of Ecosystems  Biotic (living)  Ex. – bacteria, animals, plants  Abiotic (non-living)  Ex. – humidity, solar energy, rocks, clouds
  9. 9. Biome A group of ecosystems that have the same climate  Ex. – Tundra, Taiga, Desert, Tropical Rainforest
  10. 10. Biosphere All of the combined portions of the planet where life exists, including land, water, and atmosphere
  11. 11. Universe Galaxies Solar systems Biosphere Planets Earth Biosphere Ecosystems Ecosystems Communities Populations Organisms Realm of ecology Communities Organ systems Organs Tissues Cells Protoplasm Populations Molecules Atoms OrganismsSubatomic Particles Fig. 3-2, p. 51
  12. 12. Energy Flow  Producers Autotrophs - use solar energy or chemical energy to make their own food Chemosynthesis Photosynthesis
  13. 13. Energy Flow Consumers Heterotrophs - get energy from the food they eat  Herbivores – eats plants  Carnivores – eats animals (includes insects)  Omnivores – eats plants and animals  Detritovores – feed on dead matter (scavengers)  Decomposers – break down dead matter
  14. 14. Break it Down Auto – self  -vore – eat  Herb – plant Troph – feeding  Carni – meat Photo – light  Omni – all Synthesis – make Hetero – different
  15. 15. Energy Flow  Food Chains & Food Webs Show how energy & nutrients move from one organism to another through the ecosystem
  16. 16. Energy Pyramid Shows the amount of energy available at each trophic level 0.1% Tertiary Consumer Secondary Consumer 1%Primary Consumer 10% Producer 100%
  17. 17. Energy Flow Losing Energy in Food Chains and Webs  90% of the energy at each energy level is lost because the organism uses the energy. (heat)
  18. 18. Energy Flow  Other PyramidsBiomass pyramid – total amount of living tissue - Amount of potential food for each trophic levelPyramid of Numbers – # of individuals at each level - Does not always resemble a pyramid - Forest – fewer producers than consumers 1 tree = lots of insects / birds
  19. 19. Interactions in an Ecosystem Habitat – The area where an organism or a population lives
  20. 20. Interactions in an Ecosystem Niche - the total role of a species in an ecosystem  All the physical and biological conditions a species needs to live & reproduce in an ecosystem
  21. 21. Interactions in an Ecosystem Relationships Predation – one organism captures and feeds on another
  22. 22. Predator – Prey Cycle SOURCE: Isle Royale Wolf/Moose Study | GRAPHIC: By Patterson Clark, The Washington Post - July 21, 2008
  23. 23. Interactions in an Ecosystem Relationships  Competition – organisms of the same or different species attempt to use the same resources at the same time
  24. 24. Interactions in an Ecosystem Relationships Symbiosis – any relationship in which 2 species live closely together  Mutualism  Commensalism  Parasitism
  25. 25. Mutualism: Win-Win Relationship  Both of them benefit Pollination of flowers by insects Oxpeckers and black rhinoceros
  26. 26. Commensalism: Using without harming  One is helped and has little or no effect on the other Burrs are carried by animals. This helps scatter the seeds for the parent plant.
  27. 27. Parasitism: Sponging Off of Others One benefits and the other is harmed Mosquitos Tapeworms
  28. 28. Carrying Capacity The maximum # of individuals that a given habitat can support
  29. 29. What is the carrying capacity?
  30. 30. Lower limit of Upper limit of tolerance tolerance No Few Abundance of organisms Few Noorganisms organisms organisms organismsPopulation size Zone of Zone of Optimum range Zone of Zone ofintolerance physiological physiological intolerance stress stress Low Temperature High Fig. 3-11, p. 58
  31. 31. 4 Factors Determine Growth Rate  1. Birth rate  2. Immigration  3. Death rate  4. Emigration Which increase and which decrease the population?
  32. 32. Limiting Factors  Bioticor abiotic resource that limits size of population
  33. 33. Habitat Needs Cover – shelter; trees, shrubs, etc. Water Nutrients
  34. 34. Population Growth Populations can grow until competition for resources increases & the carrying capacity is reached
  35. 35. BiosphereCarbon Phosphorus Nitrogen Water Oxygen cycle cycle cycle cycle cycle Heat in the environment Heat Heat Heat Fig. 3-7, p. 55
  36. 36. CARBON CYCLE
  37. 37. Nitrogen Cycle
  38. 38. Nitrogen Fixation This is the first step of the nitrogen cycle where specialized bacteria convert gaseous nitrogen to ammonia that can be used by plants. This is done by cyanobacteria or bacteria living in the nodules on the root of various plants.
  39. 39. Nitrification Ammonia is converted to nitrite, then to nitrateAssimilationPlant roots absorb ammonium ions andnitrate ions for use in making molecules sucas DNA, amino acids and proteins.
  40. 40. Ammonification After nitrogen has served its purpose in living organisms, decomposing bacteria convert the nitrogen-rich compounds, wastes, and dead bodies into simpler compounds such as ammonia. Denitrification •Nitrate ions and nitrite ions are converted into nitrous oxide gas and nitrogen gas. This happens when a soil nutrient is reduced and released into the atmosphere as a gas.
  41. 41. Biomagnification Concentration of toxin at higher trophic levels
  42. 42. Succession The process where plants & animals of a particular area are replaced by other more complex species over time.
  43. 43. Stages of SuccessionLand – rock  lichen  small shrubs  large shrubs  small trees  large trees
  44. 44. Primary Succession When the starting point is an ABIOTIC environment  Volcano  Flood
  45. 45. Secondary Succession When an EXISTING ecosystem is disturbed  Fire/lightning  Disease  Hurricanes Credit: Jeff Schmaltz, NASAs MODIS Rapid Response Team  Human activities
  46. 46. Fig 10.7 Diagram of bogsuccession. Wetland Succession 1 Wetland Succession Sedges and floating plants close over the 2 open water, trapping sediments intheir roots, and gradually drying out the 3 pond. © 2003 John Wiley and Sons Publishers
  47. 47. CLIMATE: A BRIEF INTRO. Weather - local, short-term conditions such as temperature and precipitation Climate - a region’s average weather conditions over a long time  Latitude and elevation help determine climate
  48. 48. BIOMES:  Large terrestrial regions characterized by similar climate, soil, plants, and animals
  49. 49. Biomes Around the World
  50. 50. DESERT BIOMES The evaporation is greater than the precipitation (usually less than 25 cm). Covers 30% of the earth.
  51. 51. DESERT BIOMES  Variations in annual temperature (red) and precipitation (blue) in tropical, temperate and cold deserts. Figure 5-12
  52. 52. FOREST BIOMES  Forests have enough precipitation to support stands of trees and are found in tropical, temperate, and polar regions.
  53. 53. FOREST BIOMES  Variations in annual temperature (red) and precipitation (blue) in tropical, temperate, and polar forests. Figure 5-19
  54. 54. Taiga (evergreen coniferous forest) Just south of the tundra (northern part of N. America), it covers 11% of earth’s land. Its winters are long, dry & cold. Some places have sunlight 6 to 8 hours a day. The summers are short and mild, w/ sunlight 19 hours a day.
  55. 55. MOUNTAIN BIOMES (Taiga)  High-elevation islands of biodiversity  Often have snow- covered peaks that reflect solar radiation and gradually release water to lower- elevation streams and ecosystems.
  56. 56. Evergreen Coniferous Forests  Consist mostly of cone-bearing evergreen trees that keep their needles year-round to help the trees survive long and cold winters.
  57. 57. Tropical Rainforest Near the equator. It has warm temperatures, high humidity & heavy rainfall.
  58. 58. Tropical Rain Forest  Tropical rain forests have heavy rainfall and a rich diversity of species.  Found near the equator.  Have year-round uniformity warm temperatures and high humidity.
  59. 59. Tropical Rain Forest  Filling such niches enables species to avoid or minimize competition and coexist
  60. 60. Temperate Rain Forests  Coastal areas support huge cone-bearing evergreen trees such as redwoods and Douglas fir in a cool moist environment.
  61. 61. Temperate Deciduous Forest It has moderate temperatures, long, warm summers, cold winters &lots of rain. Trees include oaks, hickory, maple, and beech.
  62. 62. Temperate Deciduous Forest  Most of the trees survive winter by dropping their leaves, which decay and produce a nutrient-rich soil.
  63. 63. Grassland The rainfall is erratic & fires are common. It has & shrubs that are good for grazing animals.
  64. 64. GRASSLANDS AND CHAPARRALBIOMES  Variations in annual temperature (red) and precipitation (blue). Figure 5-14
  65. 65. Savanna The tropical & subtropical grassland. It is warm all year long with alternating wet & dry seasons.
  66. 66. Chaparral (temperate grassland) These are coastal areas. Winters are mild & wet, w/ summers being long, hot, & dry.
  67. 67. Chaparral  Chaparral has a moderate climate but its dense thickets of spiny shrubs are subject to periodic fires.
  68. 68. Temperate Grasslands  The cold winters and hot dry summers have deep and fertile soil that make them ideal for growing crops and grazing cattle.
  69. 69. Tundra (polar grasslands) Covers 10% of earth’s land. Most of the year, these treeless plains are bitterly cold with ice & snow. It has a 6 to 8 week summer w/ sunlight nearly 24 hours a day.
  70. 70. Polar Grasslands  Polar grasslands are covered with ice and snow except during a brief summer.

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