Staff Development and the Process of Teacher Change


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Staff Development and the Process of Teacher Change

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Staff Development and the Process of Teacher Change

  1. 1. Staff Development and the Process of Teacher Change Article Summary
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Staff development programs are designed to “alter the professional practices, beliefs, and understanding of school persons toward an articulated end. </li></ul><ul><li>Staff development programs are a systematic attempt to bring about: </li></ul><ul><li>1.Change in practices </li></ul><ul><li>2. Change in beliefs and attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>3. Change in the learning outcomes of students. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Historical Context
  4. 4. <ul><li>PD can be traced back to the early 19 th century </li></ul><ul><li>The history of staff development is characterized primarily by disorder, conflict and criticism </li></ul><ul><li>“ Much of what goes for in-service education is uninspiring and ineffective: (Davies (1967) </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers participate in PD because they believe it will help them be better teachers </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Becoming a better teachers means enhancing the learning outcomes of the students. </li></ul>How is becoming a better teacher defined?
  6. 6. <ul><li>PD must offer teachers practical ideas that can be efficiently used to directly enhance desired learning outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the teacher process of change in mind. PD often tries to begin by changing the beliefs of teachers first. </li></ul>Important Factors of PD
  7. 7. An Alternative Model
  8. 8. This model suggests a different temporal sequence among the three major outcomes of staff development. Staff Development Change in Teachers’ Beliefs and Attitudes Change in Teachers’ Classroom Practices Change in Student Learning Outcomes
  9. 9. Support for the Model <ul><li>Bolster (1983) emphasizes that ideas and principles about teaching are believed to be true by teachers only “when they give rise to actions that ’work’ ”. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Bolster, efforts to improve education must begin by recognizing that teachers knowledge of teaching is validated very pragmatically, and that without verification from the classroom, attitude change among teachers with regard to any new program or innovation is very unlikely. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Support for the Model <ul><li>Teacher commitment was found to develop primarily after implementation took. </li></ul><ul><li>Fullan (1985) notes that changes in attitude, beliefs and understanding generally followed rather than preceded changes in behaviour. </li></ul>
  11. 11. A Similar Model (Proposed 100 years ago) <ul><li>Psychologist William James theorized that the important factor in an emotion is feedback from bodily changes that occur in response to a particular situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: We see a bear and run therefore we are afraid. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers beliefs and attitudes is primarily a result rather than a cause. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Implications
  13. 13. Staff Development Implications <ul><li>Recognize that change is a gradual and difficult process for teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that teachers receive regular feedback on student learning progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide continued support and follow-up after the initial training. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Future Research <ul><li>Change is a process rather than an event. </li></ul><ul><li>We must find ways to help teachers translate new knowledge into practice. </li></ul><ul><li>We must find better methods of providing teachers with feedback as well as find better ways of measuring these variables. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Reference <ul><li>Guskey, Thomas, R. “Staff Development and the Process of Teacher Change.” Educational Researcher , Vol. 15, No, 5. (May, 1986), pp.5-12. </li></ul>