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Deliberative Asssessment with E-Portfolios

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A presentation given at the Association of American Colleges and Universities Annual Meeting, January 20, 2010 in Washington, DC.

A presentation given at the Association of American Colleges and Universities Annual Meeting, January 20, 2010 in Washington, DC.

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  • Intercultural knowledge and competence
  • Three dimensions, two frames

Transcript

  • 1. Deliberative Assessment with E-Portfolios
    Darren Cambridge
    Association of American Colleges and Universities Annual Meeting
    January 20, 2010, Washington, DC
  • 2. Tensions in Portfolio Use
  • 3.
  • 4. Rubrics
  • 5. Liberal Education for America’s Promise (LEAP)
    • Knowledge of Human Cultures and the Physical and Natural World
    • 6. Through study in the sciences and mathematics, social sciences, humanities, histories, languages, and the arts
    • 7. Intellectual and Practical Skills
    • 8. Inquiry and analysis
    • 9. Critical and creative thinking
    • 10. Written and oral communication
    • 11. Quantitative literacy
    • 12. Information literacy
    • 13. Teamwork and problem solving
    • 14. Personal and Social Responsibility
    • 15. Civic knowledge and engagement—local and global
    • 16. Intercultural knowledge and competence
    • 17. Ethical reasoning and action
    • 18. Foundations and skills for lifelong learning
    • 19. Integrative Learning
    • 20. Synthesis and advanced accomplishment across general and specialized studies
  • VALUE Intercultural Rubric
  • 21. Reflection as an End of Its Own
    Dewey: Rigorous analytical thinking
    Schön et. al.: Key to professional practice
    Keegan: Essential to challenges of adult life
    Boud: United cognitive and affective
    Mezirowet. al.: Understanding and challenging domination
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24. Clear learning outcomes
    Opportunities for students to achieve them
    Assessment of that achievement
    Use of the results for improvement
  • 25. Useful
    Cost-effective
    Reasonably accurate and truthful
    Multiple
    Direct
    Planned, organized, systematized and sustained
    Kinds of direct evidence
    Portfolios of student work
    Student reflections on their values, attitudes, and beliefs, if developing those are intended outcomes of the course or program
  • 26.
  • 27. Virginia Tech
  • 28. Sometimes they align …
  • 29. Deliberative Assessment
    Assessment as a means for participation in collective decision making
    Deliberative democracy
    Decision making
    Legitimation
  • 30. Principles of Deliberation
    Publicity
    Deliberative system which informs and holds accountable
    Inclusiveness
    All impacted by decisions can participate
    Reasonableness
    Economy of moral objections
    Respect for reasonable disagreement
    Provisionality
    Openess to changing positions and decisions
  • 31. Scholarship as Deliberative System
    Publicity
    Deliberative system which informs and holds accountable
    Inclusiveness
    All impacted by decisions can participate
    Reasonableness
    Economy of moral objections
    Respect for reasonable disagreement
    Provisionality
    Openess to changing positions and decisions
  • 32. A New Role for Competencies
    Standardized: Matching performance to a pre-defined set of outcomes
    Deliberative: Capture standards all stakeholders value as enacted in practice and examining alignment of both student and programmatic performance
  • 33. Competencies in Organizational Learning
    Standardized: Articulating expectations to students
    Deliberative: Means for mutually accountable connection between individual and organizational learning
    Boundary objects: “Boundary objects are objects that are both plastic enough to adapt to local needs and constraints of the several parties employing them, yet robust enough to maintain a common identity across sites” (Leigh Star 1989)
  • 34. Deliberative Assessment
    Standardized: Objectivist/utilitarian
    Expressive: Subjectivist/intuitionist (Gray 2002)
    Deliberative assessment
    Learning complex and situated
    Judgment based in embodied expertise
    Students as “authoritative informants about their own learning” (Yancey 1998)
    Institutional values and outcomes the result of deliberation based these sources of expertise
  • 35. Deliberative Assessment
    Student are privileged informants about their own learning
    Evidence of learning needs to come from multiple contexts, and the relationships between them need to be articulated
    Assessment should be a deliberative process that makes programs more responsive to all stakeholders
  • 36. Liberal Education for America’s Promise (LEAP)
    • Knowledge of Human Cultures and the Physical and Natural World
    • 37. Through study in the sciences and mathematics, social sciences, humanities, histories, languages, and the arts
    • 38. Intellectual and Practical Skills
    • 39. Inquiry and analysis
    • 40. Critical and creative thinking
    • 41. Written and oral communication
    • 42. Quantitative literacy
    • 43. Information literacy
    • 44. Teamwork and problem solving
    • 45. Personal and Social Responsibility
    • 46. Civic knowledge and engagement—local and global
    • 47. Intercultural knowledge and competence
    • 48. Ethical reasoning and action
    • 49. Foundations and skills for lifelong learning
    • 50. Integrative Learning
    • 51. Synthesis and advanced accomplishment across general and specialized studies
  • Ineffable  Essentially Contested
    Ineffable outcomes: Things we all think are important but don’t think we can measure
    E.g., ethics, leadership, social responsibility
    Essentially contested concept (Gallie, 1956)
    No single shared definition
    Common tradition or exemplar
    More optimal development because of contestation
  • 52. Ineffable  Essentially Contested
    Ineffable outcomes: Things we all think are important but don’t think we can measure
    E.g., ethics, leadership, social responsibility
    Essentially contested concept (Gallie, 1956)
    More optimal development because of contestation
  • 53. Eportfolios for Contested Outcomes
    Makes multiple understands of outcomes visible
    Requires reasoning to be articulated
    Grounds understanding in evidence and experience
    Puts multiple positions into conversation
  • 54. Eportfolios for Contested Outcomes
    Measurable learning outcome: Ability to articulate a reasoned stance based on evidence
    Makes multiple understandings of outcomes visible
    Requires reasoning to be articulated
    Grounds understanding in evidence and experience
    Puts multiple positions into conversation
  • 55. NCC Competencies
    Communication
    Critical Thinking
    Strategic Problem Solving
    Valuing
    Group Interaction
    Global Understanding
    Effective Citizenship
    Aesthetic Awareness
    Information Technology
  • 56. NCC Graduation Portfolio
    No predefined standard for what constitutes satisfactory performance in each competency
    Students exposed to (and assessed with) many models and standards through coursework and experiential learning
    Students redefine each competency, beginning with “official definition”
    Synthesizing multiple perspectives
    Integrating evidence from own experience
    Taking ownership and planning for the future
  • 57.
  • 58.
  • 59.
  • 60.
  • 61. Three curricula
    Kathleen Yancey, Teaching Literature as Reflective Practice
  • 62. Academics as Test of Self
    We intended for curricular content to be an central source of evidence and ideas and strategies, but it didn’t show up this way
    Class work functioned as
    A demonstration of character virtues
    An experience
    A goal putting aspiration towards those virtues in action
  • 63. Complicating Evidence
    Link between evidence and reflection distinguishes eportfolios and other digital means for
    supporting reflective learning
    Managing information about knowledge, skills, abilities and experiences
    “Evidence” is the documents included in a portfolio on which the author reflects
    Use of evidence in practice is more complex than the eportfolio literature often acknowledges
  • 64. Evidence in Reflection
    Research at Alverno College suggests that, as students become more skilled at reflection, they
    Draw on analysis of their own experiences rather than appealing to external authorities
    Reference a wider range of activities and artifacts
    Research deals only with the content of the reflections, not the evidence itself
  • 65. Types of Evidence
    Types of evidence in science portfolios (Collins, 1992):
    Artifacts
    Attestations
    Reproductions
    Mixes analytically distinct dimensions, such as characteristics of evidence and purpose
  • 66. Project Background
    Portfolio contexts: Integrative approach to learning with specific attention to classroom-based, experiential, and co-curricular learning
    NCC and portfolio-based assessment
    Intentional collaboration with University Life
    Small data sets over two cohorts (spring ’07; spring ’08); additional cohort beginning in fall ’08
    Member of cohort 3 of the Inter/National Coalition for Electronic Portfolio Research (I/NCEPR)
  • 67. I/NCEPR
    Institutional research teams examining the impact of electronic portfolio practice on learning
    50 institutions in five cohorts
    Third cohort focuses on student affairs -academic affairs collaboration
    US, Canada, England, Scotland, Netherlands
    Book to be published by Stylus in November
    More information on website: ncepr.org.
  • 68. An Emergent Typology of Use of Evidence in ePortfolios
    Characteristics of item used as evidence
    Agency
    Media
    Purpose of incorporating evidence
    Rhetorical Function
    Object
    Characteristics of associated learning activities
    Sponsorship
    Participation
  • 69. Matches and Mismatches
    Reflective description of evidence
    Content of evidence
    Local – site of specific evidence use
    Global – the whole portfolio
    Match and mismatches yield more sophisticated understanding and resources for supporting portfolio authors
  • 70. An Example: Richard Zepp’s ePortfolio
  • 71.
  • 72.
  • 73. Electronic Portfolios 2.0: Emergent Findings and Shared Questions
    Collection of 24 chapters detailing research from cohorts I, II, and III of the Inter/National Coalition for Electronic Portfolio Research
    Published by Stylus, March 2009