Deliberative Assessment with E-Portfolios<br />Darren Cambridge<br />Association of American Colleges and Universities Ann...
Tensions in Portfolio Use<br />
Rubrics<br />
Liberal Education for America’s Promise (LEAP)<br /><ul><li>Knowledge of Human Cultures and the Physical and Natural World
Through study in the sciences and mathematics, social sciences, humanities, histories, languages, and the arts
Intellectual and Practical Skills
Inquiry and analysis
Critical and creative thinking
Written and oral communication
Quantitative literacy
Information literacy
Teamwork and problem solving
Personal and Social Responsibility
Civic knowledge and engagement—local and global
Intercultural knowledge and competence
Ethical reasoning and action
Foundations and skills for lifelong learning
Integrative Learning
Synthesis and advanced accomplishment across general and specialized studies</li></li></ul><li>VALUE Intercultural Rubric<...
Reflection as an End of Its Own<br />Dewey: Rigorous analytical thinking<br />Schön et. al.: Key to professional practice<...
Clear learning outcomes <br />Opportunities for students to achieve them<br />Assessment of that achievement<br />Use of t...
Useful <br />Cost-effective<br />Reasonably accurate and truthful<br />Multiple<br />Direct <br />Planned, organized, syst...
Virginia Tech<br />
Sometimes they align …<br />
Deliberative Assessment<br />Assessment as a means for participation in collective decision making <br />Deliberative demo...
Principles of Deliberation<br />Publicity<br />Deliberative system which informs and holds accountable <br />Inclusiveness...
Scholarship as Deliberative System<br />Publicity<br />Deliberative system which informs and holds accountable <br />Inclu...
A New Role for Competencies<br />Standardized: Matching performance to a pre-defined set of outcomes<br />Deliberative: Ca...
Competencies in Organizational Learning<br />Standardized: Articulating expectations to students<br />Deliberative: Means ...
Deliberative Assessment<br />Standardized: Objectivist/utilitarian<br />Expressive: Subjectivist/intuitionist (Gray 2002) ...
Deliberative Assessment<br />Student are privileged informants about their own learning<br />Evidence of learning needs to...
Liberal Education for America’s Promise (LEAP)<br /><ul><li>Knowledge of Human Cultures and the Physical and Natural World
Through study in the sciences and mathematics, social sciences, humanities, histories, languages, and the arts
Intellectual and Practical Skills
Inquiry and analysis
Critical and creative thinking
Written and oral communication
Quantitative literacy
Information literacy
Teamwork and problem solving
Personal and Social Responsibility
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Deliberative Asssessment with E-Portfolios

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A presentation given at the Association of American Colleges and Universities Annual Meeting, January 20, 2010 in Washington, DC.

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  • Intercultural knowledge and competence
  • Three dimensions, two frames
  • Deliberative Asssessment with E-Portfolios

    1. 1. Deliberative Assessment with E-Portfolios<br />Darren Cambridge<br />Association of American Colleges and Universities Annual Meeting <br />January 20, 2010, Washington, DC<br />
    2. 2. Tensions in Portfolio Use<br />
    3. 3.
    4. 4. Rubrics<br />
    5. 5. Liberal Education for America’s Promise (LEAP)<br /><ul><li>Knowledge of Human Cultures and the Physical and Natural World
    6. 6. Through study in the sciences and mathematics, social sciences, humanities, histories, languages, and the arts
    7. 7. Intellectual and Practical Skills
    8. 8. Inquiry and analysis
    9. 9. Critical and creative thinking
    10. 10. Written and oral communication
    11. 11. Quantitative literacy
    12. 12. Information literacy
    13. 13. Teamwork and problem solving
    14. 14. Personal and Social Responsibility
    15. 15. Civic knowledge and engagement—local and global
    16. 16. Intercultural knowledge and competence
    17. 17. Ethical reasoning and action
    18. 18. Foundations and skills for lifelong learning
    19. 19. Integrative Learning
    20. 20. Synthesis and advanced accomplishment across general and specialized studies</li></li></ul><li>VALUE Intercultural Rubric<br />
    21. 21. Reflection as an End of Its Own<br />Dewey: Rigorous analytical thinking<br />Schön et. al.: Key to professional practice<br />Keegan: Essential to challenges of adult life<br />Boud: United cognitive and affective <br />Mezirowet. al.: Understanding and challenging domination<br />
    22. 22.
    23. 23.
    24. 24. Clear learning outcomes <br />Opportunities for students to achieve them<br />Assessment of that achievement<br />Use of the results for improvement<br />
    25. 25. Useful <br />Cost-effective<br />Reasonably accurate and truthful<br />Multiple<br />Direct <br />Planned, organized, systematized and sustained<br />Kinds of direct evidence<br />Portfolios of student work <br />Student reflections on their values, attitudes, and beliefs, if developing those are intended outcomes of the course or program<br />
    26. 26.
    27. 27. Virginia Tech<br />
    28. 28. Sometimes they align …<br />
    29. 29. Deliberative Assessment<br />Assessment as a means for participation in collective decision making <br />Deliberative democracy <br />Decision making <br />Legitimation<br />
    30. 30. Principles of Deliberation<br />Publicity<br />Deliberative system which informs and holds accountable <br />Inclusiveness<br />All impacted by decisions can participate<br />Reasonableness<br />Economy of moral objections<br />Respect for reasonable disagreement <br />Provisionality<br />Openess to changing positions and decisions<br />
    31. 31. Scholarship as Deliberative System<br />Publicity<br />Deliberative system which informs and holds accountable <br />Inclusiveness<br />All impacted by decisions can participate<br />Reasonableness<br />Economy of moral objections<br />Respect for reasonable disagreement <br />Provisionality<br />Openess to changing positions and decisions<br />
    32. 32. A New Role for Competencies<br />Standardized: Matching performance to a pre-defined set of outcomes<br />Deliberative: Capture standards all stakeholders value as enacted in practice and examining alignment of both student and programmatic performance<br />
    33. 33. Competencies in Organizational Learning<br />Standardized: Articulating expectations to students<br />Deliberative: Means for mutually accountable connection between individual and organizational learning <br />Boundary objects: “Boundary objects are objects that are both plastic enough to adapt to local needs and constraints of the several parties employing them, yet robust enough to maintain a common identity across sites” (Leigh Star 1989)<br />
    34. 34. Deliberative Assessment<br />Standardized: Objectivist/utilitarian<br />Expressive: Subjectivist/intuitionist (Gray 2002) <br />Deliberative assessment <br />Learning complex and situated <br />Judgment based in embodied expertise<br />Students as “authoritative informants about their own learning” (Yancey 1998)<br />Institutional values and outcomes the result of deliberation based these sources of expertise <br />
    35. 35. Deliberative Assessment<br />Student are privileged informants about their own learning<br />Evidence of learning needs to come from multiple contexts, and the relationships between them need to be articulated <br />Assessment should be a deliberative process that makes programs more responsive to all stakeholders <br />
    36. 36. Liberal Education for America’s Promise (LEAP)<br /><ul><li>Knowledge of Human Cultures and the Physical and Natural World
    37. 37. Through study in the sciences and mathematics, social sciences, humanities, histories, languages, and the arts
    38. 38. Intellectual and Practical Skills
    39. 39. Inquiry and analysis
    40. 40. Critical and creative thinking
    41. 41. Written and oral communication
    42. 42. Quantitative literacy
    43. 43. Information literacy
    44. 44. Teamwork and problem solving
    45. 45. Personal and Social Responsibility
    46. 46. Civic knowledge and engagement—local and global
    47. 47. Intercultural knowledge and competence
    48. 48. Ethical reasoning and action
    49. 49. Foundations and skills for lifelong learning
    50. 50. Integrative Learning
    51. 51. Synthesis and advanced accomplishment across general and specialized studies</li></li></ul><li>Ineffable  Essentially Contested<br />Ineffable outcomes: Things we all think are important but don’t think we can measure<br />E.g., ethics, leadership, social responsibility<br />Essentially contested concept (Gallie, 1956)<br />No single shared definition<br />Common tradition or exemplar<br />More optimal development because of contestation <br />
    52. 52. Ineffable  Essentially Contested<br />Ineffable outcomes: Things we all think are important but don’t think we can measure<br />E.g., ethics, leadership, social responsibility<br />Essentially contested concept (Gallie, 1956)<br />More optimal development because of contestation<br />
    53. 53. Eportfolios for Contested Outcomes<br />Makes multiple understands of outcomes visible<br />Requires reasoning to be articulated<br />Grounds understanding in evidence and experience<br />Puts multiple positions into conversation <br />
    54. 54. Eportfolios for Contested Outcomes<br />Measurable learning outcome: Ability to articulate a reasoned stance based on evidence <br />Makes multiple understandings of outcomes visible<br />Requires reasoning to be articulated<br />Grounds understanding in evidence and experience<br />Puts multiple positions into conversation <br />
    55. 55. NCC Competencies<br />Communication<br />Critical Thinking<br />Strategic Problem Solving<br />Valuing<br />Group Interaction<br />Global Understanding<br />Effective Citizenship<br />Aesthetic Awareness<br />Information Technology<br />
    56. 56. NCC Graduation Portfolio<br />No predefined standard for what constitutes satisfactory performance in each competency<br />Students exposed to (and assessed with) many models and standards through coursework and experiential learning <br />Students redefine each competency, beginning with “official definition”<br />Synthesizing multiple perspectives <br />Integrating evidence from own experience <br />Taking ownership and planning for the future <br />
    57. 57.
    58. 58.
    59. 59.
    60. 60.
    61. 61. Three curricula<br />Kathleen Yancey, Teaching Literature as Reflective Practice<br />
    62. 62. Academics as Test of Self<br />We intended for curricular content to be an central source of evidence and ideas and strategies, but it didn’t show up this way <br />Class work functioned as<br />A demonstration of character virtues<br />An experience <br />A goal putting aspiration towards those virtues in action <br />
    63. 63. Complicating Evidence <br />Link between evidence and reflection distinguishes eportfolios and other digital means for<br />supporting reflective learning<br />Managing information about knowledge, skills, abilities and experiences <br />“Evidence” is the documents included in a portfolio on which the author reflects <br />Use of evidence in practice is more complex than the eportfolio literature often acknowledges<br />
    64. 64. Evidence in Reflection<br />Research at Alverno College suggests that, as students become more skilled at reflection, they<br />Draw on analysis of their own experiences rather than appealing to external authorities<br />Reference a wider range of activities and artifacts<br />Research deals only with the content of the reflections, not the evidence itself <br />
    65. 65. Types of Evidence<br />Types of evidence in science portfolios (Collins, 1992): <br />Artifacts<br />Attestations<br />Reproductions<br />Mixes analytically distinct dimensions, such as characteristics of evidence and purpose <br />
    66. 66. Project Background <br />Portfolio contexts: Integrative approach to learning with specific attention to classroom-based, experiential, and co-curricular learning<br />NCC and portfolio-based assessment<br />Intentional collaboration with University Life <br />Small data sets over two cohorts (spring ’07; spring ’08); additional cohort beginning in fall ’08<br />Member of cohort 3 of the Inter/National Coalition for Electronic Portfolio Research (I/NCEPR) <br />
    67. 67. I/NCEPR<br />Institutional research teams examining the impact of electronic portfolio practice on learning<br />50 institutions in five cohorts <br />Third cohort focuses on student affairs -academic affairs collaboration<br />US, Canada, England, Scotland, Netherlands <br />Book to be published by Stylus in November<br />More information on website: ncepr.org.<br />
    68. 68. An Emergent Typology of Use of Evidence in ePortfolios<br />Characteristics of item used as evidence<br />Agency<br />Media<br />Purpose of incorporating evidence<br />Rhetorical Function<br />Object<br />Characteristics of associated learning activities<br />Sponsorship<br />Participation<br />
    69. 69. Matches and Mismatches<br />Reflective description of evidence <br />Content of evidence <br />Local – site of specific evidence use <br />Global – the whole portfolio <br />Match and mismatches yield more sophisticated understanding and resources for supporting portfolio authors <br />
    70. 70. An Example: Richard Zepp’s ePortfolio<br />
    71. 71.
    72. 72.
    73. 73. Electronic Portfolios 2.0: Emergent Findings and Shared Questions<br />Collection of 24 chapters detailing research from cohorts I, II, and III of the Inter/National Coalition for Electronic Portfolio Research<br />Published by Stylus, March 2009<br />

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