Short term psych revision

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Short term psych revision

  1. 1. Self-efficacy = self-confidence in a Performance particular situationaccomplishmentsVicarious experience Self-efficacy judgements Verbal/social persuasionEmotional arousal
  2. 2. Anxiety - 3 dimensions COGNITIVE SOMATIC• State Anxiety – Situation Specific. ANXIETY Role, Place, competition• Trait Anxiety – A General feeling of Apprehension BEHAVIOURAL
  3. 3. Theories linking anxiety & arousal to performanceTheory Source CommentsInverted U Yearkes & A difficult theory to test, predicts a relationship between arousal and Dodson (1908) performance as inverted U shapeDrive Theory Zajonc (1965) Over simplistic, fails to appriciate the different personalities of the performer and the context of the performerCatastrophe Hardy (1996) Suggests that arousal has different effects on sports performancemodel depending on cognitive anxiety. Arousal will increase performance when cognitive anxiety is low, but may lead to a sudden catastrophic decline in performance when cognitive anxiety is highProcessing Eysenck & Anxiety may effect processing efficiency rather than task effectiveness.efficiency Calva Anxious athletes have to work harder to maintain the same levels oftheory performance they would display if they were not anxious.Choking ‘The inability to perform to an athlete’s optimum performance – sudden impairment or failure of sports performance due to anxiety’Why is it that sometimes the harder you try the worse you get!!!?Over concern about situation, competition, ability, team mates etc?http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/front_page/13185266.stm
  4. 4. Graphs for theoriesDraw the Catastrophe theory…
  5. 5. Aggression Vs Assertion Assertion is defined as ‘theAggression is defined as ‘intent to use of legitimate force within harm outside the laws of the a game to win and not game’ necessarily to harm’ Where aggression is controlled and channeled it becomes assertion. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N1-25s4uwFQInstinct Theory (Freud 1933) Frustration/aggression hypothesisAggression is an innate biological drive in Due to certain acts in sport we becomehumans to dominate (nature) frustrated as our goals are blocked Thus leading to aggression Social Learning Theory (Bandura 1977) We learn to be aggressive by watchingWhat causes you to become others (nurture)aggressive? Whatever aggression we are born with is culturally overridden
  6. 6. Questions…2. Bandura suggested that self-efficacy is influenced by four factors. Identify and apply these factors to a sport of your choice. (8 marks)3. As a coach of a sports team how would you raise an individuals level of self efficacy? (4 marks)4. Discuss the possible relationships between anxiety and performance in sporting activities. (12 marks)5. High levels of arousal have often been linked with stress. Sketch a graph showing the relationship between the performance of a complex skill and level of arousal. (2 marks)6. Add a second curve to your graph showing how the performance of a simple skill might me affected by arousal. (2 marks)7. With reference to sporting performance, explain how cognitive and somatic anxiety differ. (5 marks)8. Using examples from sport, briefly describe the differences between aggression and assertion. (2 marks)9. Explain in more detail what is meant by social learning when applied to aggression. (4 marks)10. The aggressive cue hypothesis (Berkowitz, 1969), is a theory which explains why aggression may be explained by sports performers. Using an example from sport, describe the aggressive cue hypothesis. (4 marks)
  7. 7. Choking usually occurs when a performer is overlyconcerned with what others think about the performanceSo we need to formulate strategies to overcome anxiety & as a result choking…What do you do before a big event? Sporting or otherwise.• Set your own achievable goals• Use imagery before a competition to review strategy and techniqueand create a sense of confidence• Use positive talk, both in preparation and in competition• Practice relaxation sessions – somatic (physical, progressivemuscular relaxation) and cognitive (mental, centering)• Use music prior to a competition to help maintain focus by controllingnegative thoughts• Behavioral coping skills – understand that pressure is a perceptionnot a fact, requires a change in attitude so that a pressure situationbecomes enjoyable.• Performance monitoring – watch races and identify what they likewhen they produce a good performance• Simulation training – practice under conditions that mimic anticipatedpressure situations
  8. 8. Do large, supportive crowds help the home team in terms of motivation? Varca (1980) “A crowd leads to increased arousal of performers” Links to social facilitation, aggression, and arousal theories Are players more aggressive away from home? What about supporters? (Dysfunctional Behaviour – football hooliganism)
  9. 9. The crowd effect:Social facilitation, social inhibition,evaluation apprehension,environmental conditions
  10. 10. The Crowd Effect Does the presence of ‘others’ influence arousal therefore, affecting performance? Social Facilitation Zajonk (1965) “The influence other people can have on performance” Co-actors – teammates and opponents (Interactive Others – direct interference) Audience – spectators (Passive Others – no direct interference)
  11. 11. Social Inhibition “The negative effect of an audience on a performer”Effects – Arousal levels, Competitive Drive, Speed of Performance Triplett (1898) found that cyclists performance improved by 30% when they were riding in a group Ringelmann effect (1913) ‘performance improvement up to a certain number but when group size gets too big ‘social loafing occurs – due to a loss in motivation’
  12. 12. Drive theory Zajonk (1965) Link between arousal and performance SO Audience increases arousal Audience + skilled performer = improved performanceLearned behaviours tend to be Audience + novice performer = our dominant response reduced performance --------------------- Performance affected by the following factors: Dominant Response • Presence of others increases performers arousal • Presence of others promotes performers dominant response • Expert performer/simple skill = correct response• Novice performer/complex skill = incorrect response
  13. 13. How do you cope with crowds? • Practice selective attention to cut out negative awareness of others • Use cognitive visualisation, (imagery and mental rehearsal), to help focus • Ensure skills are grooved to ensure successful dominant response under pressure • Practice with simulated crowd • Stress management and relaxation techniques
  14. 14. Evaluation Apprehension (Cottrell 1972)‘The worry that those watching are assessing performance quality’Leads to increased arousal and the resulting dominant performance!
  15. 15. The importance of Competition Martens et al (1998) – Theory of competitive Strategies for state anxiety Coping (with‘Competitive anxiety is defined as an competitive individual’s tendency to perceive competitive situations as anxiety) threatening and to respond to these situations by experiencing TASK state anxiety’ The more important the competition Read the information on the higher the level of state pages 38 and 39. anxiety Give one specific example of how each An athlete’s perception of external of the four techniques sources is the key to anxiety! may be used by a (media, audience etc) player in your chosen sport
  16. 16. Environmental factors These include the physical and climatic setting but also the crowd, competitors (teammates and opponents), coaches and media Novice performers perform best in low arousal environments What does this mean? An aggressive or close crowd might make a performer more anxious or more aggressive A supportive crowd may reassure performers Playing home or away may also have an effect on performanceAdverse climatic conditions (temp, wind, humidity) may also affect a performer (the more experienced players will cope better)
  17. 17. Questions…2. What is meant by social facilitation and what is its main effect? (3 marks)3. What effects can be experienced by an individual if there is an audience present? (6 marks)4. What is meant by evaluation apprehension? (2 marks)5. As a coach of an individual who is affected adversely by the presence of an audience, how would you help him or her to overcome the negative influences? (4 marks)

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