History of Drug Aproval


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History of Drug Aproval

  1. 1. Historical Aspects <br />of <br />New Drug Approval Process<br />Prepared by:<br />Paresh K Bharodiya<br />09pct07<br />Guided by:<br />Mr. Dharmesh. M. Modi<br />Department of pharmaceutics<br />A.R College & G.H Patel Institute of Pharmacy<br />2009-10<br />1<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />
  3. 3. New drug Approval.<br /><ul><li>Today, the drug review process in the United States is recognized worldwide as the gold standard. Drugs must undergo a rigorous evaluation of safety, quality, and effectiveness before they can be sold.
  4. 4. The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) is the arm of the FDA that, as its name suggests, evaluates new drugs before they are sold.
  5. 5. This process requires multiple levels of research to make sure that medications are safe and effective before they are made available to the public. And that takes time and money</li></ul>3<br />
  6. 6. Overview of the drug approval process<br />Drug development can generally be divided into phases.<br />The Preclinical phase<br />Clinical phases<br />4<br />
  7. 7. Clinical<br />Phases <br />Preclinical<br />Phase <br />Phase 1<br />Phase 2<br />Phase 3<br />100-300<br />patients<br />1000-3000 patients<br />20-100 <br />volunteers<br />Laboratory <br />&<br />Animal study<br />subjects<br />File NDA<br />Verify effectiveness. long term side effects<br />Purpose <br />Safety &<br />Dosage <br />Effectiveness.<br />Side effects<br />Access safety & <br />Biological activity<br />File IND<br />Time<br /> corse<br />4-5years<br />1-2 years<br />3-4 years<br />6-8 years<br />New <br />drugs <br />pass <br />33 %IND<br />27 %<br />70 % of IND<br />100 %<br />5<br />
  8. 8. FDA Review andApproval<br />After phase III, the pharmaceutical company prepares reports on all studies conducted on the drug and submits the reports to the FDA in a New Drug Application (NDA).<br />The FDA then reviews this information to determine whether the drug is safe and effective for its intended use. If the drug passes this review, it is approved for use.<br />6<br />
  9. 9. A Historical Perspective of drug regulation and approval<br />At the turn of the 20th century, there were no federal regulations to protect the public from dangerous drugs<br />Misfortune, disaster, and tragedy have triggered most of the advances in drug regulation<br />7<br />
  10. 10. The First Federal Drug Law<br />The original Pure Food and Drugs Act was passed by Congress in 1906 and signed by President Theodore Roosevelt.<br />concerns about worthless or even dangerous medicines led to the enactment of the Food and Drug Administration Act of 1906.<br />This law<br />Required that drugs meet official standards of strength and purity,<br />Defined the terms adulterated and misbranded, and<br />Prohibited the shipment for sale of misbranded and adulterated foods, drinks, and drugs<br />8<br />
  11. 11. Limitations of the first federal drug law<br />There was norequirement that any information be submitted to the FDA before marketing <br />the law required only that drugs meet standards of strength and purity<br />The burden of proof was on the government to show that a drug's labeling was false and misleading before it could be taken off the market.<br />9<br />
  12. 12. Sherley Amendment in 1912 <br />US v Johnson case<br />The act did not prohibit false therapeutic claims, only false claims about ingredients. <br />Sherley Amendment - 1912 <br />specifically prohibits false claims<br />10<br />
  13. 13. The Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938<br />Revised legislation wasn't passed until 107 people died from a poisonous ingredient in Elixir Sulfanilamide. The S.E. Massengill Co. of Bristol, Tenn.<br />As a consequence of this event, Congress passed the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD&C) Act of 1938 with new provisions<br />11<br />
  14. 14. manufacturers were required to show that a drug was safe before it could be marketed.<br />Manufacturers had to submit an application to the FDA before marketing a drug. If the FDA didn't act on the application in a certain time period, the application automatically became approved.<br />The 1938 act also eliminated the Sherley Amendment, which called for adequate labeling for safe use<br />set safe tolerances for unavoidable poisonous substances, and authorized factory inspections<br />This mandate for premarket evidence of a drug's safety represented the birth of the new drug application, or NDA.<br />12<br />
  15. 15. Durham-Humphrey Amendment, In 1951<br />Following the 1938 Act, the FDA began to distribute public notices (known as trade correspondences) to the industry regarding the labeling and dispensing of drugs<br />It was in these public notices that the FDA first distinguished medications that should be available only by prescription<br />At this point the decision about which drugs should receive a caution label was largely at the discretion of the manufacturer.<br />In 1951, the Durham-Humphrey Amendment set forth the basis for distinguishing between prescription and nonprescription drugs.<br />13<br />
  16. 16. The DH amendments gave FDA the responsibility to clarify which drugs are:<br />Habit-forming,<br />Not safe except under a practitioner’s supervision, and,<br />Drugs limited to prescription sale as part of the approval of a New Drug Application.<br />Required “Caution: Federal Law Prohibits Dispensing Without a Prescription.” (Today “Rx Only”.) <br />Prescription exemption (for manufacturers)<br />Pharmacists must label prior to dispensing. <br />14<br />
  17. 17. The Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendments<br />In 1961, an Australian obstetrician, William McBride, reported an increase of fetal malformations in association with the hypnotic drug thalidomide.<br />Although thalidomide<br />was heavily marketed in <br /> Western Europe, approval<br /> of this drug was delayed<br /> by the FDA in the United <br /> States and never made it to <br /> market<br />In October 1962, Congress <br />passed the Kefauver-Harris<br />Drug Amendments to the<br />Federal FD&C Act<br />15<br />
  18. 18. As per this amendments<br />Before marketing a drug, firms now had to prove not only safety, but also provide substantial evidence of effectiveness for the product's intended use<br />Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendments also asked the Secretary to establish rules of investigation of new drugs, including a requirement for the informed consent of study subjects.<br />The amendments also formalized good manufacturing practices,<br />required that adverse events be reported, <br />and transferred the regulation of prescription drug advertising from the Federal Trade Commission to the FDA.<br />16<br />
  19. 19. In 1981, <br />formal standards for the Protection of Human Subjects and<br />Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) were strengthened. <br />The IRBs are panels of scientists and non-scientists in hospitals and research institutions who ensure the safety and well-being of human subjects involved in research<br />17<br />
  20. 20. Anti-Tampering Regulations 1982<br />After seven people in Chicago died from swallowing Tylenol capsules laced with cyanide, the FDA issued Tamper-Resistant Packaging Requirements in 1982. The Federal Anti-Tampering Act, passed in 1983, makes it a crime to tamper with packaged consumer products.<br />18<br />
  21. 21. 1983 - “Orphan Drug Act<br />the Orphan Drug Act (ODA) was passed in 1983<br />It allowed the FDA to encourage research and development of drugs needed to treat rare diseases<br />The ODA created financial incentives, including tax credits for the costs of clinical research and<br />seven years of marketing exclusivity for the first sponsor of an orphan product who receives FDA approval for a particular indication<br />Examples of rare diseases that can now be treated with orphan medications include sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and T-cell lymphoma.<br />19<br />
  22. 22. Encouraging Generic Drugs1984 - “Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act’’<br />Expanded the number of drugs for which an abbreviated new drug application (ANDA) could be submitted.<br />Generic drug companies don't have to repeat the expensive clinical trials that brand companies have already conducted to show safety and effectiveness<br />But they must perform tests and show the FDA that their drugs are equivalent to the brand name in terms of therapeutic effect.<br />20<br />
  23. 23. Drugs for Life-Threatening Illnesses<br />In 1987, partially in response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, new regulationswere developed to accelerate approval for high-priority medications.<br />Another example of improving access to treatment is "accelerated approval," which was formalized in 1992<br />This type of drug approval is based on an encouraging effect such as tumor shrinkage, before there is actual evidence of improved survival or other clinical benefit,<br />The FDA approves a drug under accelerated approval on the condition that the drug manufacturer verify the actual clinical benefit.<br />21<br />
  24. 24. The Prescription Drug User Fee Act<br />The Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) was passed in 1992, and mandated that drug companies pay user fees so the FDA could add more resources and speed up drug review times, without compromising standards.<br />22<br />
  25. 25. The Food and Drug Modernization Act of 1997<br />In 1997, the PDUFA was renewed under the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act and then renewed again in 2002 for five more years<br />In addition, the Food and Drug Modernization Act (FDAMA) supported accelerated approval and gave an extra period (six months) of marketing exclusivity to manufacturers that carried out studies in children.<br />23<br />
  26. 26. Expanding Demographics in Clinical Trials<br />In the 1980s and 1990s, several FDA guidance's and rules drew attention to the need to include representative populations in clinical trials<br />The inclusion of such populations has helped experts analyze results for possible differences in drug response among demographic subsets.<br />Here are some key changes that have helped expand demographic evaluation in drug research:<br />24<br />
  27. 27. In 1989, the FDA issued guidelines asking manufacturers to determine whether a drug is likely to have significant use in older people, and to include older patients in clinical studies. <br />In 1993, the FDA issued the Gender Guideline, which called for assessments of medication responses in both genders<br />In 1998, the FDA required that a marketing application analyze data on safety and effectiveness by age, gender, and race. This is known as the Demographic Rule. <br />In 1998, the FDA promulgated the Pediatric Rule, a regulation that required manufacturers of selected drugs to conduct studies to assess their safety and efficacy in children.<br />In 2002, the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act was passed to improve the safety and effectiveness of medicines for children.<br />In 2003, the FDA was given clear authority under the Pediatric Research Equity Act to require drug sponsors to conduct clinical research into pediatric applications for new drugs. <br />25<br />
  28. 28. References <br />US Food and drug administration.“Histories of Product Regulation” , available at http:/www.fda.gov . Accessed 12 may 2010<br />Susan Berg,”From test tube to medicine chest, the approval process for new drug”, Asthma magazine, pg 24<br />Martin S. Lipsky, MD, and Lisa K. Sharp, “From Idea to Market: The Drug Approval Process”. JABFP September–October 2001 Vol. 14 No. 5, pg-362<br />26<br />