Compassionate Chaos
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Compassionate Chaos

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From our Network partner at the Los Angeles Police Department\'s DRE Unit

From our Network partner at the Los Angeles Police Department\'s DRE Unit

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  • Slide 2: Brain regions and neuronal pathways Certain parts of the brain govern specific functions. Point to sensory, motor, association and visual cortex to highlight specific functions. Point to the cerebellum for coordination and to the hippocampus for memory. Indicate that nerve cells or neurons travel from one area to another via pathways to send and integrate information. Show, for example, the reward pathway. Start at the ventral tegmental area (VTA) (in magenta), follow the neuron to the nucleus accumbens, and then on to prefrontal cortex. Explain that this pathway gets activated when a person receives positive reinforcement for certain behaviors ("reward"). Indicate that you will explain how this happens when a person takes an addictive drug.

Compassionate Chaos Compassionate Chaos Presentation Transcript

  • Compassionate Chaos When she opened it, all of the evils, ills, diseases, and burdensome labor that mankind had not known previously, escaped from the jar.
  • Since 1996, 13 States have Legalized Medical Marijuana
    • Alaska
    • California
    • Colorado
    • Hawaii
    • Maine
    • Michigan
    • Montana
    • Nevada
    • New Mexico
    • Oregon
    • Rhode Island
    • Vermont
    • Washington
  • State Year Possession Limit Alaska 1998 1 oz, 3 mature , 3 immature California 1996 8 oz, 6 mature, 12 immature Colorado 2000 2 oz, 3 mature, 3 immature Hawaii 2000 1 oz, 3 mature, 4 immature Maine 1999 1.25 oz, 3 mature, 3 immature Michigan 2008 2.5 oz, 12 plants Montana 2004 1 oz, 6 plants Nevada 2000 1 oz, 3 mature, 4 immature New Mexico 2007 6 oz, 4 mature, 3 immature Oregon 1998 24 oz, 6 mature, 18 immature Rhode Island 2007 2.5 oz, 12 plants Vermont 2004 2 oz, 2 mature, 7 immature Washington 1998 24 oz, 15 plants
  • Alaska ???
    • Legalization has been tried before—and failed miserably.
    • Alaska’s experiment with Legalization in the 1970s led to the state’s teens using marijuana at more than twice the rate of other youths nationally.
    • This led Alaska’s residents to vote to re-criminalize marijuana in 1990.
    • In 1998 they passed a medical marijuana law
  • Minnesota’s Battle
    • 2006 - 1973/HF 2171 Medical Marijuana ` FAILED
    • 2005 - 1973/HF 2171 (carried fwd. into 2006) FAILED
    • 2004 - Minneapolis Charter: Amend for Distribution of Medical Marijuana**
    • (Not on 2004 ballot-City Council did not allow) FAILED
    • 2003 HF 1440/SF 1328 Compassionate Use Act (decriminalize) FAILED
    • 1999 Bill allowing hemp production PASSED
    • Bill Decriminalize for Medical Marijuana (dies in Legislature) FAILED
    • 1997 HB 1025 Allow prescriptions for marij. & medical necessity defense FAILED
    • Bill To Study Feasibility of Industrial Hemp Crops (Governor vetoed) P ASSED
    • 1980 HF 2476 Marijuana use for therapeutic research PASSED
    • 1976 Decriminalized marijuana possession (Act of Mar. 11, 1976, ch. 42,
    • 1976 Minn. Laws 101) PASSED
  • Law Enforcement Perception
  • PUBLIC PERCEPTION
  • Public Perception of “Medical Marijuana” Ailments v. What We Have Seen
    • CANCER
    • ANOREXIA
    • AIDS
    • CHRONIC PAIN
    • SPASTICITY
    • GLAUCOMA
    • ARTHRITIS
    • MIGRAINES
    • OR any other illness for which marijuana provides relief
    • Headaches
    • Pain from wearing high heels
    • Insomnia
    • PMS
    • Dry Skin
    • Increase Appetite
    • Suppress Appetite
    • Back Pain
    • Sports Injury
    • Anxiety/Panic Attacks
    • Anger Management
    • Mental Awareness
  • Analysis of Dispensaries’ "Patients” by Ailment
  • Analysis of Dispensaries’ “ Patients” by Age 53% of the customers of dispensaries are under 30 years of age.
    • Over the past 20 years, researched have discovered cannabinoid receptors:
      • CB1, which mediates the Central Nervous System
      • CB2, which occurs outside the CNS and is believed to have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity
    Basic Research
  • Basic Research
    • Cannabinoid Receptors Are Located in Many Areas Throughout the Brain and Play An Important Role In Regulating:
    • Brain Development
    • Memory and Cognition
    • Motivational Systems
    • & Reward
    • Appetite
    • Immunological Function
    • Reproduction
    • Movement & Coordination
    • Pain Regulation
    • & Analgesia
    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cannabinoid Receptors
  • Medical Marijuana
    • Is marijuana an accepted or effective medicine?
    • What other drug does a doctor tell you to smoke?
    • What other drug was voted on by the people?
    • Does marijuana treat a disease or symptoms?
    • Is marijuana “treatment” a short term or long term therapy?
    • Is there any way to regulate the dose administered?
    • What other drug do you take as much as you want?
  • Marijuana as Medicine
    • Marijuana has never been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for any medical use and remains a schedule I controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act. (Review in 2006)
    • Because of the varying types and concentrations of marijuana, it would be difficult for the FDA to approve or regulate this type of drug.
    • Marinol, a synthetic composition of THC, is an FDA-approved drug that possesses all the reported benefits without the harmful effects of smoked marijuana.
    Since 1985
  • What do Medical Associations Say?
    • The Institute of Medicine
    • The American Medical Association
    • The American Cancer Society
    • The American Academy of Pediatrics
    • The National Multiple Sclerosis Society
    • The British Medical Association
  • Institute of Medicine
    • In Jan’97 the ONDCP asked the IOM to review the science behind medical marijuana
    • Information was gather through:
      • scientific workshops,
      • site visits to cannabis buyers’ clubs,
      • HIV / AIDS clinics,
      • analysis of the relevant scientific literature,
      • extensive consultation with biomedical and social scientists
  • Institute of Medicine
    • Three focal concerns in evaluating the medical use of marijuana are:
      • Evaluation of the effects of isolated cannabinoids
      • Evaluation of the health risk associated with the medical use of marijuana
      • Evaluation of the efficacy of marijuana
  • Institute of Medicine Conclusions
    • Cannabinoids likely have a natural role in pain modulation, control of movement and memory
    • The role of cannabinoids in immune systems is likely multifaceted and remains unclear
    • The brain develops tolerance to cannabinoids
    • Animal research demonstrates the potential for dependence, but this potential is observed under a narrower range of conditions than with benzodiazepines, opiates, cocaine or nicotine
    • Withdrawal symptoms can be observed in animals, but appear to be mild compared to opiates or benzodiazepines, such as diazepam
  • Institute of Medicine Conclusions
    • The report concludes that the future of cannabinoid drugs lies not in smoked marijuana, but in chemically-defined drugs that act on the cannabinoid systems that are a natural component of human physiology.
    • The report also calls for further studies
  • The American Medical Association June 2001
    • rejected pleas to endorse marijuana
    • instead urged that it remain a prohibited, schedule I controlled substance, at least until more research is done.
  • American Medical Assoc. Cont.
    • HIV – Wasting
    • Marinol is used for the treatment of anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS
    • Marional is less affective than megestrol
    • Smoked marijuana stimulates appetite and increases caloric intake in normal subjects
    • THC is only moderately effective in the treatment of HIV-wasting
  • American Medical Assoc. Cont.
    • Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting:
    • Oral THC was more effective than placebo and equivalent or superior to prochlorperazine in controlling nauseas and vomiting.
    • The combination of dronabinol (oral THC) and prochlorperazine was more effective than either drug alone in reducing nausea and vomiting.
  • American Medical Assoc. Cont.
    • Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting:
    • Oral and smoked THC reduced the number of retching and vomiting episodes, the degree and duration of nausea and vomiting of emesis in patients .
    • When directly compared, oral THC was preferred to smoked marijuana, but only 20% to 25% of patients receiving either drug achieved complete control of emesis.
  • American Medical Assoc. Cont.
    • Oral THC and smoked marijuana retain antiemetc effectiveness
    • but are clearly less effective than current standard therapies.
  • American Medical Assoc. Cont.
    • Marijuana vs Opiates
    • In some studies marijuana increased the acute pain response to thermal, electrical and ischemic stimuli.
    • Smoke marijuana also produced dose dependent analgesic effects.
  • American Medical Assoc. Cont.
    • Marijuana vs Opiates for Cancer patients
    • 15mg and 20 mg exerted significant analgesic effects with sedation and metal clouding
    • 20mg THC was comparable to 120mg of codeine in relieving pain
    • But caused alarming psychological effects (eg, depersonalization, loss of control, dizziness, ataxia and blurred vision)
  • American Medical Assoc. Cont.
    • Glaucoma: smoked marijuana or Oral THC;
    • Although smoked marijuana reduces intraocular pressure, its clinical utility in glaucoma is compromised by its short duration of action and accompanying side effects.
  • American Medical Assoc. Cont.
    • Neither smoked marijuana nor oral THC is a viable approach in the treatment of glaucoma,
    • But research on their mechanism of action maybe important in developing new agents that act in an additive or synergistic manner with currently available therapies.
  • The American Cancer Society May 2001
    • does not advocate inhaling smoke,
    • nor the legalization of marijuana,
    • although the organization does support carefully controlled clinical studies for alternative delivery methods, specifically a THC patch.
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics June 2004
    • expressed the view that any change in the legal status of marijuana, even if limited to adults, could affect the prevalence of use among adolescents.
    • while it supports scientific research on the possible medical use of cannabinoids as opposed to smoked marijuana, it opposes the legalization of marijuana.
  • The National Multiple Sclerosis Society April 2008
    • stated that it could not recommend that medical marijuana be made widely available for people with multiple sclerosis (MS) for symptom management, explaining:
    • “ This decision was not only based on existing legal barriers to its use but, even more importantly, because studies to date do not demonstrate a clear benefit compared to existing symptomatic therapies and because issues of side effects, systemic effects, and long-term effects are not yet clear,”
  • The British Medical Association
    • voiced extreme concern that downgrading the criminal status of marijuana would mislead the public into believing that the drug is safe.
  • The British Government
    • Did not heed their Medical Associations warning and downgraded cannabis from Class B to Class C in 2004.
    • This resulted in an increase of crime and various health problems.
    • May 2008, they reversed their decision, reclassified it back to a Class B.
  • Studies on the Harmful Effects of Marijuana
    • Harvard University researchers report that the risk of heart attack is five times higher than usual in the hour after smoking marijuana.
    • National Institute of Health found that a person who smokes 5 joints per week may be taking in as much tar and cancer-causing chemicals into their lungs as someone who smokes a pack of cigarettes a day.
    • Yale School of Medicine (2007) says long term exposure to marijuana smoking is linked to the same health problems as tobacco smoke, such as increased respiratory symptoms.
    • Other studies indicate that smoked marijuana causes cancer, respiratory problems, increased heart rate, loss of motor skills, and damage to the immune system.
  • Marijuana and Mental Health
    • Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug in the United States.
    • Research indicates marijuana use is associated with an increased risk of mental health problems such as depression, suicidal tendencies, and schizophrenia.
    • Strength of marijuana has increased over last two decades.
    • THC amount has more than doubled since 1983.
    • The increase in potency may be leading to an increase in marijuana treatment admissions and may worsen mental health.
    • Treatment reports show a 164% increase in marijuana admissions since 1992.
  • Organized Crime
    • Have any / all the Countries and States who have legalized medical marijuana seen an increase in organized crime?
    • Let’s take a look at The Dutch, Canada and California.
  • Organized Crime
    • Crimes associated with medical marijuana and Organized Crime include:
      • Money Laundering
      • Illegal Grow Operations (indoors and out)
        • Mortgage Fraud
        • Utility Theft
        • Dumping of Hazardous Waste
      • Home / Store Invasion Robberies
      • Murder, Kidnapping and Conspiracies
  • The Dutch
    • “ Coffeeshops” permitted since the mid 1970’s
  • The Dutch
    • In 1988, The Netherlands had three organized crimes groups, but by 1993 that # has risen to 93 .
    • The murder rate in Amsterdam is greater that Newark in New Jersey (city of similar size).
    • Netherlands gained the reputation of the crime capital of Europe.
    • There has been a 49 % rise in registered cannabis addicts between 1991-93.
    • Cannabis use among students in Holland has increase by 250 % since 1984.
  • The Dutch
    • In December, 2008, Amsterdam unveiled plans to close brothels, sex shops and marijuana cafes in a major effort to drive organized crime out.
    • The measure starts with 36 “coffeeshops”, a little less than 20% of the city total.
    • The measure will spend $38 to $51 million to restore the area(s).
  • The Dutch Future
    • “ Two years from now, all coffeeshops in the Netherlands will have closed.”
    • So predicts Henk van de Bunt, professor of criminology at the Erasmus University Rotterdam.
  • Canada
  • How much Dope?
    • Canadians use marijuana more than any country in Europe, Asia or Latin America, according to the United Nations’ 2007 World Drug Report.
    Will the real Canadian Flag please step forward?
  • Canada’s Tolerance Fades
    • The marijuana harvest in British Columbia generated about 7 billion dollars in 2006, making it one of the most lucrative industries in the Canadian province.
    • But after a string of high-profile arrests and slayings — including the execution-style murders of six people in October — the easygoing attitude that has long surrounded marijuana in Canada is under attack.
  • So who is running their medical marijuana program? “ The marijuana grows -- run primarily by motorcycle gangs or Vietnamese immigrant-organized crime groups -- have "become a plague" in British Columbia.” (First Assistant U.S. Attorney Mark Bartlett) Organized Crime
  • Compassionate Chaos
    • In Vancouver, large profits, lenient laws, lax enforcement and an established smuggling and money-laundering infrastructure attracted organized crime.
    • at least 19 fatal drug-related shootings took place there last year.
    • In 2000, marijuana was grown in 17,500 homes in the province.
  • Compassionate Chaos
    • Conservative Prime Minister Stephen Harper is calling for a cultural shift,
    • He has introduced legislation that would set mandatory minimum jail sentences for marijuana growers and traffickers, and
    • He is seeking more money for enforcement and prosecution.
  • California Marijuana McMansions Indoor / Asian Organized Crime Outdoor / Mexican Organized Crime
  • Organized Crime
    • According to the DEA, Asian organized crime groups from Canada are moving their operations down to Washington, Oregon, Alaska, Idaho and California.
    • More plants are seized in California than any other state. (A total of 4,951,976, in 2007 , – 70% of all the plants in the Unites States.)
    • Organized Crime takes advantage of the fast profits that can be made and relatively lax penalties a person faces under California laws.
  • Organized Crime
    • Organized Crime are also the supplier / owner / operators of the Medical Marijuana Dispensaries
  • What the Public Does Not Hear About Information gleaned from an investigation of 11 medical marijuana dispensaries in early 2007, indicated:
    • 14 of the 17 owners/operators had a criminal history (82%)
    • 7 had weapons charges
    • 8 had prior drug charges
    • 2 had a murder or attempted murder charges
  • Organized Crime
    • Mexican DTO’s are the leading producers of marijuana in the Unites States
    • They typically cultivate cannabis in large outdoor plots, primary in the Western States
    • The “Botello” Cartel is responsible for grows in California, Oregon, Washington and Arizona
    • Are using new strains with shortened growing cycles
    • Are increasing their use of armed guards
  • The Societal Costs Related to Drug Abuse
    • Heath care cost.
    • The cost of lost productivity.
    • The cost of other effects.
    The Overall Cost of Drug Abuse Rose 5.9 Percent Annually Between 1992 and 1998.
  • The Cost of Lost Productivity
    • Drug Abuse / Related Illness
    • Institutionalization / Hospitalization
    • Loss of Productivity of Victims of Crimes
    • Incarceration
    • Premature Death
  • The Cost of Other Effects
    • Crime
    • Property Lost
    • Social Welfare
    • Criminal Justice System Cost
  • Estimated Cost of Drug Abuse, 1992-1998 (in millions of dollars) 5% increase per year, for 2009 the total would be 245,277 Category 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Health Care Cost 10,820 11,114 11,279 11,305 11,428 12,085 12,862 Productivity Losses 69,421 77,972 82,685 88,085 92,423 94,470 98,467 Other Cost 21,912 22,410 24,440 27,120 27,444 30,526 32,083 Total 102,154 111,496 118,404 126,510 131,295 137,802 143,411
  • Estimated Economic Cost to Society from Substance Abuse and Addiction:
    • Illegal drugs: $181 billion/year
    • Alcohol: $185 billion/year
    • Tobacco: $158 billion/year
    • Total: $524 billion/year
    Surgeon General’s Report, 2004; ONDCP, 2004; Harwood, 2000.
  • So Let’s Look At Marijuana
    • Marijuana robs you of at least three things: Concentration – Memory – Motivation
    • The short term effects of marijuana use include:
      • memory loss,
      • distorted perception,
      • trouble with thinking and problem solving,
      • loss of motor skills,
      • decrease in muscle strength,
      • increased heart rate, and
      • anxiety.
  • Compassionate Chaos
    • Because marijuana compromises the ability to learn and remember information, the more a person uses marijuana the more he or she is likely to fall behind in accumulating intellectual, job, or social skills.
    • As a result, someone who smokes marijuana once daily may be functioning at a reduced intellectual level all of the time.
  • Compassionate Chaos
    • Research clearly demonstrates that marijuana has the potential to cause problems in daily life or make a person’s existing problems worse.
    • Several studies associate workers’ marijuana smoking with increased absences, tardiness, accidents, workers’ compensation claims, and job turnover.
  • Compassionate Chaos
    • A study among postal workers found that employees who tested positive for marijuana on a pre-employment urine drug test had:
    • 55 percent more industrial accidents,
    • 85 percent more injuries, and
    • 75 percent increase in absenteeism compared with those who tested negative for marijuana use
  • Compassionate Chaos
    • Users can become dependent on marijuana to the point they must seek treatment to stop abusing it.
    • In 1999, more than 200,000 Americans entered substance abuse treatment primarily for marijuana abuse and dependence.
  • Compassionate Chaos
    • The latest treatment data indicate that in 2006 marijuana was the most common illicit drug of abuse.
    • It was responsible for about 16 percent (289,988) of all admissions to treatment facilities in the United States.
  • Compassionate Chaos
    • In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of emergency room mentions of marijuana use.
    • From 1993-2000, the number of emergency room marijuana mentions more than tripled.
  • Part I Crimes Robbery Murder Aggravated Assaults Burglary Larceny/Theft Burglary from Motor Vehicles Arson Crimes and complaints associated with medical marijuana Part II Crimes Drug Violations DUI Weapons Simple Assaults Disorderly Conduct Traffic Congestion Vagrancy Curfew and Loitering
  • Crime, Violence and Drugs
    • Six times as many homicides are committed by people under the influence, as by those who are looking for money to buy drugs.
    • Most drug crimes aren’t committed by people trying to pay for drugs; they’re committed by people on drugs.
  • The Los Angeles Police Department
    • A 200% increase in robberies
    • 52.2% increase in burglaries
    • 57.1 rise in aggravated assaults
    • 130.8% rise in burglaries
    Reports of incidents of violence and property crimes at or near dispensaries
  • San Francisco Police Department
    • 98 Aggravated Assaults
    • 144 incidents of battery
    • 7 batteries on Police Officer
    • 1 attempted rape
    • 1 forcible rape
    • 3 sexual batteries
    • 2 attempted homicides
    • 3 homicides with a gun
    • 21 deaths (causes unk)
    • 6 possession of a loaded firearm
    • 1 exhibiting deadly weapon
    • 27 attempted robberies
    • 57 robberies
    Jan ’06 and Jan ’07, significant concentration of crimes committed at or near a cannabis clubs
  • San Francisco Police Department
    • 20 attempted thefts
    • 294 grand thefts
    • 23 credit card thefts
    • 139 petty thefts
    • 2 attempted burglaries
    • 198 burglaries
    Property crimes at, or in close proximity to a cannabis club
  • Conclusions
    • Past Evaluations by the;
      • Department of Health and Human Services
      • Food and Drug Administration
      • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services
      • National Institute of Drug Abuse
      • The Institute of Medicine
      • The American Medical Association
      • The American Cancer Society
      • The American Academy of Pediatrics
      • The National Multiple Sclerosis Society
      • The American Academy of Ophthalmology
      • The British Medical Association
    • Conclude that for smoked marijuana:
      • For any treatment that smoked marijuana are “recommended”, there is current accepted medications that perform better with less risk
      • No animal or human data supported the safety or effectiveness of marijuana for general medical use
      • Although marijuana delivers THC and other cannabinoids to the body, it also delivers other harmful substances
  • Conclusions
    • Several of those Associations support a continued scientific evaluation of:
      • non-smoked forms of THC,
      • a smoke-free inhaled delivery system,
      • or alternative delivery methods,
      • specifically a THC patch.
  • Conclusions
    • Current Medical Marijuana laws are vague, to broad or poorly written which:
      • leads to abuse,
      • problems with possible legitimate use,
      • problems with enforcement and
      • a greater social acceptance of marijuana.
  • Conclusions
    • Countries and States that have medical marijuana laws are magnets for Organized Crime
    • They have also seen increased crimes rates
    • An increase in Social Cost
    • A decrease in their Labor Force
    • An increase in Environmental Concerns
  • Conclusion
    • When we look at society as whole, the small percentage of individuals who could possibly be helped by Medical Marijuana does not outweigh the greater cost that it places on the rest of society.
  • Special Thanks To:
    • Robert Bushman
      • The Minnesota Statewide Gang & Drug Task Force Coordinator
    • Special Agent Joseph Bryson
      • Los Angeles DEA Office
    • Les Kjemhus
      • Retired Royal Canadian Mounted Police
    • Narcotics Detective Robert Wagner
      • Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department
    • Narcotics Detective Mark Brewster
      • Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department
  • Questions?