9/27/06 This is a great quote to use in a behavior training because it illustrates the importance of preventive/proactive strategies. It is good to emphasize that there are too many students being forced to shout.
9/27/06 This checklist serves a variety of purposes. The checklist forces the teacher to examine current teaching practices. This checklist can act as a baseline for the teacher. It also acts as a research based “best practices” tool. Administrators may use this tool as a way to organize teacher observations. This tool is not evaluative in nature… its purpose is to highlight effective instructional foci.
9/27/06 Many times teachers and administrators overlook the importance of classroom rules. Even when rules are displayed, their impact is not apparent in the moment by moment classroom dynamics This slide delineates the important components of rules Logically represent your basic expectations for student behavior Publicly posted Tie rules to consequences
9/27/06 Dr. Bill Jenson recommends this classroom rule formula. This formula provides a structure for teachers to design rules. It also provides a guide for administrators. Classroom teachers with high rates of office referral may be required to address behavior in this matter. This in by no means to be perceived or used as an evaluative tool.
9/27/06 Respect authority nonexample Keep your hands and feet to yourself example Have books, pencils, and paper when you come to class example Do your best non example Be in class by 8:00 example Non examples and examples are a research validated means of quickly teaching concepts.
9/27/06 Card sort Participant match rules with type of rule based on formula
9/27/06 Due to the importance of classroom rules, teachers are to reevaluate their current rules based on the formula provided. Teachers without rules may use this time to create rules to address the various areas.
9/27/06 Point out the importance of sharing strategies with teachers that are research based. This slide is a form of guided notes. ASR vs. OT…. Active Student Responding… filling in the blanks. Proof that at that time the student is engage in the material at hand. This differs from on task (OT) behavior. When a student is on task that does not mean the student is really attending to the material or conversation at hand. It means that the student is looking at you and nodding his or her head. ASR is the student observably and measurably engaging in the task at hand. Guided notes are a quick effective way to increase engaging and student success. If students know what they are supposed to do, they are less likely to do what they are not supposed to do. Again, we need to explicitly teach all our students the rules and routines. We cannot ever assume that all kids will behave the way you would like them to.
9/27/06 If students know what they are supposed to do, they are less likely to do what they are not supposed to do. Again, we need to explicitly teach all our students the rules and routines. We cannot ever assume that all kids will behave the way you would like them to.
9/27/06 This graphic comes from Dr. David Chard. This is a pictorial representation of scaffolded instruction. It illustrates the shift from Teacher support to student independence while highlighting the importance of time.
9/27/06 Provide with a lesson planning format In the world of behavior it is just as important to teach behavioral expectations as it is to teach spelling words Click on Explicitly to get to script
9/27/06 This chart is used to post both reinforcement for following the rules, and undesirable consequences for not following the rules. This should be listed in a hierarchy from small reinforcers up to larger reinforcers for following rules, and mild consequences to severe consequences for not following the rules. The severe clause is for those behaviors that are so severe that they need a severe consequence immediately as opposed to going through the hierarchy (i.e.. severe aggression which injures someone). This chart should be clearly posted in your classroom, and should be taught to students so they know both the desirable and undesirable consequences for rule following behavior.
9/27/06 Click on clip art for lesson plan
9/27/06 Old military saying. What does that quote mean to you as a teacher? It’s about being prepared. To win the battle of who “manages the classroom”, we need to be proactive and put research based principles into place. “ Scientifically research based means research that involves the application of rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain valid and reliable information relevant to education activities and programs.” The two areas we want to look at are using time effectively and efficiently and keeping students engaged.
9/27/06 This slide is intended to give a little further guidance about the difference between rules and routines. You should only have 3-5 rules. But because of the different requirements of different settings, you will likely have a greater number of routines. For example, if a rule is to protect people and materials from damage, you will need to teach the routines of safely carrying books and bookbags in the halls, of moving chairs, desks, and/or materials within the classroom, and moving through the cafeteria safely with a lunch tray…One rule, several routines.
9/27/06 Refer participants to the CHAMPS Classroom Routine Worksheet as a means to develop standards for routines in their classrooms. Participants do not have this version….
9/27/06 The CHAMPS form can be used to develop your expectations for the routines.
9/27/06 Use the document camera to show the CHAMPS classroom Routine form These are some guidelines when deciding what are the specific behaviors that you expect in the classroom. These are the expectations/routines that you would explicitly teach. These expectations/routines can be developed for classroom activities and transitions. Click on clip art for example
9/27/06 On the next page, there are examples of activities to develop expectations.
9/27/06 CHAMPS Classroom Activity Worksheet Have them break out into groups (if possible) and develop a CHAMPS form for an activity that they choose. Participants may complete a form and share out if there is time.
9/27/06 To access the lesson plans for routines click on “lesson plans”
9/27/06 Review of session outcomes
Transitions effective classroom management
“Because we ignored thewhispers of behavior, we created the shouting behavior… The idea is to listen as soon as possible so theperson does not have to keep shouting.”
Explicit Teaching of RulesStudents usually know what “NOT” to do, butoften don’t know what “TO DO”._________ students how to perform basicschool skills _________ behavior problemsand saves precious instructional time.We can’t expect them to “just know” what todo.__________ teach and demonstrate rules andprovide booster sessions when needed.
Explicit Teaching of RulesStudents usually know what “NOT” to do, butoften don’t know what “TO DO”.Teaching students how to perform basicschool skills prevents behavior problemsand saves precious instructional time.We can’t expect them to “just know” what todo.Explicitly teach and demonstrate rules andprovide booster sessions when needed.
ScaffoldingTeacher StudentSupport Independence Time Adapted from Dr. David Chard, University of Oregon (2004)
Strategies to Teach Rules must be explicitly taught and practiced Take out your calendar Commit to a schedule for teaching the rules Review rules every morning or beginning of program for 2 weeks Allow for discussion of rules Follow the I do, We do, You do format
Gradual Release of Responsibility (You Watch) T Modeled Instruction E A Shared Instruction C (Together!) H Guided Practice (I Watch/Guide) Independent Practice (Reflect) Copyright Angela Maiers 2008 Adapted from Doug Fisher, 2008
Strategies for Student Compliance Define your behavior reinforcement plan. Define your behavior reduction plan. What does reinforcement really mean?
Consequences What happens when I break a rule? AND What happens when I follow the rules?
Praise vs. Reprimands According to studies conducted by White and Van Houghten, from second grade to junior high school, the average rate of teacher reprimands in the classroom is once every 2 minutes. After 2nd grade, the rate of teacher praise declines rapidly, with the rate of reprimands almost always exceeding praise rates. Rhode, Jenson, and Reavis. (1993). The Tough Kid Book.
What If Chart?What if you do? What if you don’t? Mystery Motivator Serious Clause: __________________ __________________
Next step…. Design lesson plans for explicitly teaching the classroom rules Remember: I Do, We Do, You Do Praise and reinforcement Pre-corrections if needed
A Structured Environment Consider… Where you will place your desk Teaching is an aerobic activity! Creating space and routes to move around Moderation on room décor Seat arrangement and assignment
Scheduling Draft your list of activities you anticipate Establish procedures/routines for these activities Designate start and stop times for each activity Allow 2-3 minutes to transition Avoid “down time” Discourage unplanned interruptions
Scheduling Consider… Organization of teacher materials “One of the biggest time-wasters in schools is the time teachers spend shuffling papers, etc. to find lessons.” Distribution of student materials Reconfiguration of students for different activities
Rules Routines Provide overarching Specific procedures for guidance for daily accomplishing daily behavior—Listen when tasks—How to move teacher is talking to you. chair or carpet square. Apply across settings Vary somewhat from setting to setting Must be behaviorally defined—What does it Provide the “how-to” for look like? sound like? meeting rule expectations Behaviorally defined
Example Routines Attendance/tardiness procedures heading papers assigning and collecting work homework procedures for when there are classroom visitors transitioning individual to group work lining up attention signal sharpening pencils organizing desks/workspace bathroom breaks preparing for and returning from recess/assembly requesting assistance
Teaching Routines Devote ample time in your classroom schedule, especially in the beginning, to teaching your students your basic classroom routines.
Behavior Class Schedule teaching time and do lesson planning for behaviors similar to reading and math. Explicitly teaching behaviors will save time in the long run. May need to do booster sessions throughout the year.
Teaching RoutinesDefine and demonstrate what youwant and do not want, using examplesand nonexamples.Provide practice and rehearsalopportunities.
Teaching Routines Provide encouragement, corrective feedback, prompts, and reinforcement. Provide more review, then continued practice and feedback.
CHAMPS: An Organizing Tool forClassroom Activities C -Conversation (Can students talk to each other?) H -Help (How do students get their questions answered?) A -Activity (What is the task/objective/end product?) M -Movement (Can students move about?) P -Participation (What does the expected student behavior look/sound like?) CHAMPs, Sprick, Garrison, Howard
Expectation/Routine DesignList your classroom activities Examples: Small group instruction Independent work Cooperative groups Transition to hallwaysChoose one routineComplete CHAMPS worksheet
CHAMPS Classroom ActivityWorksheet What are your expectations for the activity/routine you selected? Conversation? Help? Activity? Movement? Participation?
Next step…. Design lesson plans for routines and explicitly teach expectations AND routines Remember: I Do, We Do, You Do Praise and reinforcement Pre-corrections if needed
Research on Teaching Routines Teachers can save more than an hour of instructional time by systematically teaching routines (LaFleur, Witt, Naquin, Harwell, & Gilbertson, 1998) Classrooms with specific procedures for getting assistance, turning in work, working independently or in groups, and lining up have fewer off-task and disruptive behaviors (Emmer & Evertson, 1981) Teachers who develop and use routines attain high task-engagement rates, which is correlated with student achievement (Brophy, 1986)