Intercultural Approach To Taskbased Colloboration 11th


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Overcoming personal and cultural barriers to producing language for students in monolingual educational environments is a major challenge. This session introduces a broad outline for setting up an intercultural approach to task-based, performance-focused learning. Design of performance tasks and ways to enhance them through student collaboration is the main focus.

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Intercultural Approach To Taskbased Colloboration 11th

  1. 1. An Intercultural Approach to Task-based EFL Learning through Collaboration Greece TESOL Convention March 14, 2009 David L. Brooks, Associate Professor Kitasato University, Japan Learning English On (the) Net
  2. 2. Outline of the session <ul><li>Rationale of intercultural task-based approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Process for Implementing ICTB </li></ul><ul><li>Types of performance tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of collaborative tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative tools and strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Questions and Reflections </li></ul>Greece TESOL Convention Athens, March 14-15, 2009
  3. 3. Teaching and Learning <ul><li>Elegantly simple in concept </li></ul><ul><li>… .. but…. </li></ul><ul><li>Infinitely complex in the reality of it. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cultural Milieu for ESOL <ul><li>Most language students undertake the study of a foreign language for “ reasons which arise directly or indirectly out the perceived needs of the community to which they belong ” (Tudor, 1996, p. 128) </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently, students (and teachers) may not undertake the learning of English as a vehicle for real communication and cross-cultural understanding . </li></ul><ul><li>Result - intercultural gap, barriers to communication, and a schism in the classroom </li></ul>
  5. 5. Learning language <ul><li>As fundamental itself as being human… </li></ul><ul><li>… but… </li></ul><ul><li>It is a living, fluid, highly personalized process </li></ul><ul><li>… . ultimately transformational and without end. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cultures collide in the classroom <ul><li>… ..or.. At least they bump into each other gently. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cultural assumptions - visible and hidden Watch this iPhoto album What are some of the cultural assumptions or values? Of the people in the photos Of the photographer? Of the institution or country?
  8. 8. Intercultural Domain <ul><li>Any classroom forms an essential habitat in the learner’s ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>It encompasses the domains of the learning environment: physical, social, instructional and psychological. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the ESL classroom adds an additional dimension – the intercultural domain – human interaction across cultures </li></ul><ul><li>This affords a new cultural learning environment that is affected by perceptions and by the realities of classroom structure, group processes, classroom climate and teacher-mediated activities. </li></ul>
  9. 10. There is no ideal solution <ul><li>… . only an idealized perception of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Just as the face in the center is a blend of the ideal attributes of the six around it, so too is the ‘best’ way to learn languages. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Here is my face on that solution! <ul><li>It results from 33 years as an educator and 12 years as a English teacher at a Japanese university. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Intercultural Task-Based Approach <ul><li>Tasks involve speaking foremost (Several forms of oral discourse) </li></ul><ul><li>The INTERCULTURE is English for International Communication as it intersects with Japanese school culture ( or Greek or Spanish learners of EFL / ESL ) </li></ul><ul><li>Performing is EMPHASIZED as the main task goal (for my particular situation) Speaking and Listening skills have been ignored in Japan compulsory education and the University Entrance Examinations. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Rationale for ICTB approach <ul><li>A central challenge we face as TESOLs is the problem of getting students to actually produce language in a new cross-cultural (classroom) environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Overcoming barriers inherent in the monolingual classroom needs a restructured learning experience. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Why ICTB ? <ul><li>By the middle the 21st century, ‘foreign’ language mastery will no longer truly be needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Just think about what foretells this inevitable conclusion….. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global media presence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global economic interdependence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computing technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital and virtual communication tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shrinking planet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mega-complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>So…….. </li></ul>
  14. 15. The Paradigm Shift <ul><li>Instead of foreign language mastery, what we really need is….. </li></ul><ul><li>Intercultural Communicative Competence </li></ul>
  15. 16. Rationale for Metacognitive Inculturalization <ul><li>Fact : Whether we recognize it or not, all teachers employ an explicit, mutually-actualized, teacher-mediated process for intuitively ‘ inculturating’ students into the our own classroom culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Risk : Not being ready for changes </li></ul><ul><li>Aim : I am advocating that both the teacher and students realize this, plan for it, and collaborate. </li></ul><ul><li>How : It is not simply the natural absorption of a new culture, normally referred to as acculturation, but rather a contextual and meta-cognitive cross-cultural classroom training is advocated. (Brooks, 1999) </li></ul>
  16. 17. What is Metacognitive Inculturalization? 1 <ul><li>Metacognitive inculturization is a theory-based, yet, practical classroom-focused instructional approach to cross-cultural training </li></ul><ul><li>assists language learners in consciously and unconsciously adapting their own culture for learning a language (EFL) and </li></ul><ul><li>in acquiring new cultural behaviors to enhance the communicative environment of the EFL language classroom . </li></ul>
  17. 18. What is Metacognitive Inculturalization? 2 <ul><li>It can be used to nurture both the learners’ understanding of the process and spark their willingness to embark on a new journey of cross-cultural discovery and deeper language acquisition. </li></ul>
  18. 19. What is Metacognitive Inculturalization? 3 <ul><li>To equip EFL learners with a specific repertoire of individual, pair, small group, and whole class behaviors for internalizing new patterns of learning, cognitive strategies, and, most importantly,for enhancing interaction between themselves, with the target culture, and with the teacher. </li></ul>
  19. 20. How Metacognitive Inculturalization Works
  20. 21. How Metacognitive Inculturalization Works <ul><li>contextual reframing </li></ul><ul><li>incorporating old and establishing new patterns of social interaction </li></ul><ul><li>building trust and areas of comfort and challenge </li></ul><ul><li>teaching both communicative instructional ‘content’ tasks and the communication, intercultural, and learning strategies </li></ul><ul><li>reflective assessment of the learning both the communicative content and the meta-cognitive content </li></ul>
  21. 22. The context is the learning environment. <ul><li>Any classroom forms an essential habitat in the learner’s ecosystem. </li></ul>This habitat is no longer simply a classroom.
  22. 23. 1. Contextual Reframing <ul><li>The primary method of reframing the traditional context for classroom learning is re-defining the nature of the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>through identifying new purposes for the classroom as a language-learning environment. </li></ul><ul><li>by introducing a curriculum content focused on significant and meaningful issues </li></ul><ul><li>by an evaluation system based on accomplishing real-life objectives using a task-based performance approach </li></ul>
  23. 24. Being a fully actualized learner in EFL classroom should be like a journey to another country - even another habitat. The Environment / Habitat
  24. 25. Cross Training Environments <ul><li>Changing the definition of the </li></ul><ul><li>classroom to a wider, global more diverse set of learning environments (functions) </li></ul>
  25. 26. 2. Incorporating old and establishing new patterns of social interaction <ul><li>By using social structures and common ways of organizing behaviors from the students’ common classroom culture, build up a set of adaptive communicative learning behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw upon forms and styles of social communication they already possess </li></ul><ul><li>Shape these with the students’ awareness and cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>The key is forming and maintaining culturally-appropriate but evolving functional groups </li></ul>
  26. 27. Re-defining the classroom <ul><li>New Purposes </li></ul><ul><li>New Processes </li></ul><ul><li>New Content </li></ul><ul><li>New Activities / Tasks (performance tasks involving collaborating) </li></ul><ul><li>New Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>New Focus on broader outcomes </li></ul>
  27. 28. The Art and Science of our Profession <ul><li>3. Building trust and balancing levels of comfort ( support ) with challenge ( change ) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Teaching both communicative instructional ‘content’ = language tasks ….. and the communication, intercultural, and learning strategies </li></ul><ul><li>5. Reflective assessment of learning --- both the communicative content and the meta-cognitive content </li></ul>
  28. 29. Studying, planning, and building are what make great ideas into an ideology.
  29. 30. Instructional practices for an intercultural approach to task-based learning <ul><li>1. Selling approach to reluctant speakers. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Authentic tasks and meaningful performances for large classroom groups. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Preparing students for success in performance tasks </li></ul><ul><li>4. Setting up evaluation (and reflective assessments) </li></ul><ul><li>5. A brief demonstration of performance task projects </li></ul><ul><li>6. Using technology and varying classroom infrastructure to maximize and enhance the instructional environment </li></ul>Greece TESOL Convention Athens, March 14-15, 2009
  30. 31. One possible approach <ul><li>This is only one Model among many. </li></ul><ul><li>It changes the students’ Status or Frame of Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Make him or her the Explorer, Research, Philosopher, Scientist… </li></ul><ul><li>Learner as Ethnographer </li></ul>
  31. 32. Learners as ethnographers <ul><li>Ethnography is the systematic observation and description of how a language community behaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of linguistic and cultural learning can facilitate communication and interaction (Byram & Fleming, 1998) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparison of others and self to stimulate reflection on -- and critical analysis of -- one’s own culture and the target culture they are attempting to acculturate (English) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An increase in cross-cultural awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A shift in perspective involving psychological processes of socialisation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This approach affects the design and choice of learner tasks since language learning is part of a richer, cultural exploration of the target community. (Corbett, 2003) </li></ul>Greece TESOL Convention Athens, March 14-15, 2009
  32. 33. Culture and Conversational English <ul><li>Ethnographic approach to studying and creating ‘model’ conversations. </li></ul><ul><li>Transactional (message / content exchange) vs Interactional (social function) </li></ul><ul><li>How do conversational patterns vary across cultures? </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreting subtexts (implied meanings) - jokes, irony, unstated criticism, indirect affirmation or denial </li></ul><ul><li>Even the most simple conversation can allow for such explorations. </li></ul>Greece TESOL Convention Athens, March 14-15, 2009
  33. 34. Model Conversation Project <ul><li>Analyzing language samples </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting exemplars (sample language patterns that convey important cultural meaning) </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to content but also context, genre and social interaction elements (discourse analysis) </li></ul><ul><li>Use of communicative strategies - Interactive listening, compensation, body language…. </li></ul><ul><li>Write a typical or ‘model’ conversation based on the ‘data’ collected </li></ul><ul><li>Revise, practice, and perform with reflective assessments </li></ul>Greece TESOL Convention Athens, March 14-15, 2009
  34. 35. Types of performance tasks <ul><li>model conversations </li></ul><ul><li>role-plays </li></ul><ul><li>simulations </li></ul><ul><li>poster talks </li></ul><ul><li>storytelling </li></ul><ul><li>action research presentations </li></ul><ul><li>pair discussions </li></ul><ul><li>group debate </li></ul><ul><li>making video programs </li></ul><ul><li>speeches (various types) </li></ul><ul><li>dramatizations </li></ul><ul><li>Internet-based collaborations </li></ul>Greece TESOL Convention Athens, March 14-15, 2009
  35. 36. Here are some examples Stages of students’ project work
  36. 37. If time permits, show next slides Check Session TIME Questions <ul><li>Comments </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>David! <ul><li>OK? </li></ul>Yeah? Hey, you guys. It’s your turn.
  37. 38. An Intercultural Approach to Task-based EFL Learning through Collaboration Greece TESOL Convention March 14, 2009 David L. Brooks, Kitasato University, Japan Learning English On (the) Net
  38. 39. Example of Task Instruction for a sample project <ul><li>Topic Speech (or Group Presentation) </li></ul>Performance Task (project)
  39. 40. Topic Speech <ul><li>Presentation of Project: Goals, Process, Strategies, Progress </li></ul><ul><li>Teach these explicitly </li></ul><ul><li>Break down the task & set stage requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorming a topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Writing Process (stages) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer Editing and Peer Rehearsal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessment (peer and self-evaluation) </li></ul>
  40. 41. Classroom Instruction <ul><li>Slides used in the Topic Speech Project </li></ul><ul><li>The cultural or social context does matter and SETTING UP one (real or imaginary) can have a positive benefit on student learning and achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>UN General Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Global Climate Crisis Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Therapy Workshop </li></ul>
  41. 42. Goals for Giving a Speech <ul><li>Gain confidence in public speaking in English </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how to organize a topic presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Share information (in English) to your classmates  “ Teach them something valuable.” </li></ul><ul><li>Improve your self-awareness of audience, structuring ideas, clarity, manner of speaking </li></ul>
  42. 43. Topic Speech Process <ul><li>Schedule of the “writing-performing” process for your Topical Speech </li></ul>DUE DATES          ASSIGNMENT: DUE June 16 Speech Performance DUE Brainstorming or Planning   (計画書 ) June 3 Due June 9 Speech Draft ( 下書き) Performance ( 発表 )   June 17 Due: July 1 Final Speech ( 原稿) and Self Assessment ( 自己評価 ) May 20  June 3  June 10 June 17 Develop Topic and Structure Write / Revise Speech Polish Speech Skills Performance Evaluation Intro to Speech May 27  Model Conversation Practice (live) July 1 Self Assessment
  43. 44. Understand goals 1 st Draft Plan w/ a tool Write complete Speech Edit Revise Correct Practice Speech Evaluate Assess/ Reflect Perform Process for Success
  44. 45. Understand goals 1 st Draft Plan w/ a tool Write complete Speech Edit Revise Correct Practice Speech Evaluate Assess/ Reflect Perform Process for Success
  45. 46. Criteria for Success <ul><li>Organization of Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall Structure/ Logical development, Transitions / Emphasis on important points (repetition / stressed) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clarity and effectiveness of Presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>choice of topic/ focus on it, enough details </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conciseness (to the point), supported with examples, illustrations, anecdotes or facts, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of English Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate vocabulary, sentence structure, variety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of language familiar to audience, correctness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manner of Speaking / Presence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confident, Volume, Speed, Tone, Variation, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures, Body Control, Use of Props/Visuals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Audience Awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interesting to Audience / Appropriate style / Monitoring audience response / Eye Contact </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. <ul><li>Organization  構造 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical development: main idea and key points are clear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear Transitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective Conclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content  内容 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fulfilled Assignment:  目標を達成 Purpose must be clear. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choice of topic was interesting / appropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed / supported with reason, examples, details </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Met time limit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAIN IDEA: ______________________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of English Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate vocabulary, sentence structure, grammar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of language familiar to audience, used ‘signal’ words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pronunciation / Intonation / Stress-Rhythm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spoke fluently, without too much hesitation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manner of Speaking (Delivery) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintained Eye Contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of reading (notes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spoke in natural manner / Spoke loudly and clearly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used effective posture, gestures, movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Showed awareness of the audience </li></ul></ul>
  47. 49. Organizing your topic: Structure <ul><li>Three Part Form </li></ul><ul><li>Main Idea is stated clearly in the Topic Sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Develop supporting ideas (Key points) </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction “Tell them what you’re going to say, and Conclusion ( “Tell them what you told them” </li></ul><ul><li>Tell them what you’re going to say, tell them, and then remind them what you said. </li></ul>Introduction Topic Sentence 1 st Key Point 2nd Key Point 3rd Key Point Ending B O D Y
  48. 50. Writing a paragraph (samples) Not only is the food different in Europe from Japanese food, but so are the meal customs and table manners . There are some important differences between what Europeans do at mealtime . Here are some useful tips for what Japanese visitors to France and Italy should and should not deal when eating. In France, arrive on time because this is a sign of politeness. But in Italy, it is a good idea to arrive just a little late. In both countries it is polite to bring a gift, for example a bottle of wine or some sweets. Flowers are also a good gift, but don’t give people red roses because they express love – the romantic kind. Also, table manner are important in both countries . For example, keep the fork in your left hand and the knife in your right. Remember that it’s not polite to put your elbows on the table. People in France do not like to see a person take a bit from a large piece of bread. Instead, you should tear off a smaller piece of bread and bring that to your mouth to bite. While Italian sometimes hang the napkin from the neck to keep off sauce stains, the French people keep their napkins in their laps. So you can see that is helps to know a bit about meal customs before you travel to Europe. Topic Sentence Topic Sentence Concluding Sentence Connecting to Paragraph before
  49. 51. Outline for a speech p.0 <ul><li>Title of your speech </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Body (Main Idea (Topic Sentence) and Presentation of Supporting Key Points, examples, reasons, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Ending (Conclusion / Summary / Challenge(Appeal) </li></ul>Introduction Topic Sentence 1 st Key Point 2nd Key Point 3rd Key Point Ending 3rd Key Point
  50. 52. Sentence Structure S V S V O S V b C <ul><li>I like books. I love to read mystery stories. I like Agatha Christie. </li></ul><ul><li>I like reading. My favorite books are mystery stories. The best mystery that I ever read in my life was a book written my own grandfather . In the this book, the author describes the life of a young man who has to face a set of serious challenges that…. </li></ul>Simple Complex Variety MIX
  51. 53. Transitions <ul><li>Transitional Expressions </li></ul><ul><li>These words and phrases act as signposts for readers, telling which direction the writing is about to move in. They usually come at the beginning of a sentence, where they show how a new thought relates to what has come before. Some common transitional expressions are listed below, according to the type of relationship they indicate. </li></ul><ul><li>contrast and qualification --on the contrary, however , in contrast, still, But , yet , nevertheless, on the other hand </li></ul><ul><li>continuity --besides , furthermore, in addition, also , first , secondly , to continue, next, similarly, likewise, moreover , indeed, again, in other words </li></ul><ul><li>cause/effect --thus, therefore, as a result , consequently, hence, for this reason </li></ul><ul><li>exemplification --for instance, for example , in fact , more specifically, to illustrate </li></ul><ul><li>summation --finally , in conclusion, to sum up , in brief, lastly, as we have seen </li></ul>Making it easier to follow and understand your speech….
  52. 54.   <ul><li>Introduction: “I’d like to tell you about a very interesting experience I had last summer while travelling in Canada.”   </li></ul><ul><li>“ The purpose of my speech today is to give you advice about how to choose the right part-time job.” “ </li></ul><ul><li>Today I am going to talk about ____. I want you to understand / know / see / THAT/ WHY / HOW ___________________ (“that it is important to think about your future job and your real dreams WHILE you are still a college student. “ </li></ul><ul><li>SIGNAL words time order / logical order </li></ul>Making the Purpose Clear
  53. 55.   <ul><li>Be careful when using Online translation tools -- Simply writing in Japanese and then doing 自動翻訳 can be very risky. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, if you insist that you CANNOT write directly in English, then check your language word by word or phrase by phrase </li></ul><ul><li>EIJIRO </li></ul>Making the Meaning Clear
  54. 56. Conclusion * (ending your speech) <ul><li>Bring your speech to a natural close </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize your key points or.. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( Re-state the Topic Sentence (main idea is different words – not just repeat) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make an appeal or challenge.. And/or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bring the listener back to the large picture - what was the value of what you said for them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* Not 結論 </li></ul>
  55. 57. Conclusion <ul><li>Use signal phrase to start your ENDING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All in all,…. In any event, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In other words, … In conclusion,… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To sum up, … In brief, … In short,… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indeed,… Therefore, Let me finish by saying/ reminding you / challenging you/ asking you. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample: Because river conditions can be dangerous, the wild exciting adventure is only fore the courageous and experienced. In short, if you are fearless and in good physical condition, and can react quickly, then river rafting is the ideal sport for you. </li></ul></ul>
  56. 58. Unstressed Words in Sentences <ul><li>Most frequent unstressed words are: </li></ul><ul><li> a, an, the of , or and, for, to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to hear to listen and repeat to practice </li></ul></ul>They’re in a hurry. I have an idea. The books are under the table. I talked to a lot of people. She’d like to talk to you. That’s enough for now.
  57. 59. Listening for Differences <ul><li>Some frequently mis-heard words are: </li></ul><ul><li>Negative vs positive (affirmative) forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to hear to listen and repeat to practice </li></ul></ul>Those people are paying attention. Those people aren’t paying attention. The students have worked hard. The students haven’t worked hard. You can take a break now. You can’t take a break now.
  58. 60. Listening for Stressed and Unstressed Forms <ul><ul><li>Try to hear to listen the differences and repeat to practice </li></ul></ul>Can we leave now? Were the students angry? I think they were . You can take a break now. You can take a break now. I’m not sure if we can . We can leave in a few minutes. No, I think they were tired . You can take a break now. You can take a break now . You gonna take a break now ?
  59. 61. Planning Your Presentation <ul><li>Planning Your Presentation--Questions You Need to Answer page 1 </li></ul><ul><li>When you learn that you are to give an oral presentation, the first step in preparing for the presentation is to analyze each aspect of your speech and its performance by answering the following questions, just as you did in planning your written communication. Once you have done so, you are ready to design, structure, and organize your presentation so that it will effectively satisfy the constraints that arise from your consideration of each point. </li></ul><ul><li>Situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What situation creates the need for this presentation? Who is involved? What is the scenario for this situation? ( Think about what you want your classmates to know, understand or believe .) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where will I be speaking? What will the presentation look like / setup? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is my audience? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do I know about my audience's background, knowledge, position in the organization, attitudes toward me and my subject? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is my purpose in giving this oral presentation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there (should there be) a long-range purpose? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the situation that led to this presentation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Given my audience's background and attitudes, do I need to reshape my purpose to make my presentation more acceptable to my audience? </li></ul></ul>
  60. 62. Planning Your Presentation <ul><li>Planning Your Presentation--Questions You Need to Answer page 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Content - Organization of Ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What issues, problems, questions or tasks are involved in the situation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What ideas do I want to include or omit? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the audience and the context, what difficulties do I need to anticipate in choosing content? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the structure (logical organization) clear and reasoned? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can any ideas be misunderstood and be harmful to the audience’s enjoyment? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What questions does the audience want answered? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graphics (THESE ARE NOT REQUIRED AND SHOULD BE ONLY ONE or 2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What kinds of visual aids will I need to enhance the ideas I will present? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which points could be understood better with a visual? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where should I use these in my presentation? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language and Style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What kind of tone do I want to use in addressing my audience? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the level of vocabulary and the length / difficulty of the sentences right ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What level of language do I need to use, based on my audience's background and knowledge of my subject? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What level of effort and motivation to communicate will my audience expect from me? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How formal / informal should I be? Will I ask for questions or respond to comments? </li></ul></ul>
  61. 63. Helping the Audience Understand your Speech p.1 <ul><li>Use Techniques to Enhance Audience Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Because your audience cannot &quot;re-hear&quot; ideas, once you have stated them, look for ways to help your audience easily follow your ideas : REPETION / EMPHASIS (voice / gesture) </li></ul><ul><li>Make it clear in your INTRODUCTION – your purpose, Main idea (Topic Sentence) and state briefly the KEY POINTS. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure you clearly mark (signal) the beginning and end of each point and segment of your presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Announce each key point as you come to it . That way, your audience knows when you have completed one topic and are beginning the next one. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow a slight pause to occur after you have completed your introduction, then announce your first topic. Use PAUSES to help mark each key idea and supporting point. </li></ul><ul><li>After completing your final topic in the main body of your presentation, allow a slight pause before you begin your conclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>In the ENDING, restate the PURPOSE / MAIN IDEAS (SUMMARIZE Topic sentennce and Key points) </li></ul>
  62. 64. Helping the Audience Understand your Speech p.2 <ul><li>Use Techniques to Enhance Audience Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Speak slowly, vigorously, and enthusiastically. Be sure you enunciate your words carefully, particularly if you are addressing a large group. </li></ul><ul><li>Use gestures to accentuate points. Move your body deliberately to aid you in announcing major transition points . In short, avoid standing transfixed before your audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain eye contact with your audience . Doing so helps you keep your listeners involved in what you are saying. If you look at the ceiling, the floor, the corners of the room, your audience may sense a lack of self-confidence. Lack of eye contact also tends to lessen your credibility. In contrast, consistent eye contact enhances the importance of the message. By looking at your audience, you can often sense their reaction to what you are saying and make adjustments in your presentation if necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not just memorize your presentation, and do not read from notes . KNOW WHAT YOU WANT TO SAY and PRACTICE SAYING IT WELL BEFOREHAND. Otherwise, your speech will sound as if you are just reading it. If possible, write type the outline of your presentation on one sheet of paper. If you do forget what you are going to say, a quick glance at the OUTLINE will usually refresh your memory. NO OTHER PAPER WILL BE ALLOWED. </li></ul>
  63. 65. Helping the Audience Understand your Speech p.3 <ul><li>Use Techniques to Enhance Audience Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearse your presentation until you are comfortable . Try walking around, speaking each segment and then speaking aloud the entire presentation. Rephrase ideas that are difficult for you to say--these will likely be hard for your audience to follow. Be sure to time your presentation so that it does not exceed the time limit. Keep your presentation as short as possible. Therefore, avoid adding information to your presentation (and your outline) as your rehearse. </li></ul><ul><li>If possible, record your speech before the presentation day . Listen to yourself -- what you have said as objectively as possible. As you listen, consider the main issues of audience, purpose, organization, context, content, and style. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen for tone, attitude, and clarity. Is the tone you project appropriate for your audience and your purpose clear ? Is each sentence easy to understand? Are you speaking too rapidly? Are the major divisions in your presentation easy to hear? Are any sentences difficult to understand? </li></ul>
  64. 66. Related Resources <ul><li>Brainstorming: Score WriteDesign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic Organizers EdTech </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Finding a topic or issue for a speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GRE issues list </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On-line Writing Resources / Tutorials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.geocities. com/dbrooks_tokyo/writing .html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>English Grammar/ Usage References </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www. refdesk . com/factgram .html </li></ul></ul>
  65. 67. Main Idea Question <ul><li>What do you think of (about) your own dream? (Do you really know what your LIFE dream is?) </li></ul><ul><li>What will happen if the tropical rain forests (of the world) disappear? </li></ul>
  66. 68. An Intercultural Approach to Task-based EFL Learning through Collaboration Greece TESOL Convention March 14, 2009 David L. Brooks, Associate Professor Kitasato University, Japan Learning English On (the) Net