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Rationale Part I: A paper presented at ACE 2009, the inaugural conference of the Asian Conference on Education in Osaka (Ramada Hotel), Oct 24-25, 2009 by David L. Brooks, Associate Professor, English ...

Rationale Part I: A paper presented at ACE 2009, the inaugural conference of the Asian Conference on Education in Osaka (Ramada Hotel), Oct 24-25, 2009 by David L. Brooks, Associate Professor, English (Foreign Language Dept), Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Japan

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    Ace Intercultural Dimensions Of Task Based Learning For Authentic Communication Ace Intercultural Dimensions Of Task Based Learning For Authentic Communication Presentation Transcript

    • Intercultural Dimensions of Task-based Learning for Authentic Communication Asian Conference on Education ACE 2009, Oct 24-25 Osaka, Japan David L. Brooks, Associate Professor Kitasato University, Sagamahira, Japan Asian Conference on Education ACE 2009, Oct 24-25 Osaka, Japan David L. Brooks, Associate Professor Kitasato University, Sagamahira, Japan
    • Outline of the session
      • Rationale of intercultural task-based approaches
      • Process for Implementing ICTB
        • Types of performance tasks
        • Examples of collaborative tasks
        • Collaborative tools and strategies
      • Questions and Reflections
      Asian Conference on Education ACE 2009 October 24-25, Osaka, Japan
    • Teaching and Learning
      • Elegantly simple in concept
      • … .. but….
      • Infinitely complex in the reality of it.
    • Cultural Milieu for ESOL
      • Most language students undertake the study of a foreign language for “ reasons which arise directly or indirectly out the perceived needs of the community to which they belong ” (Tudor, 1996, p. 128)
      • Consequently, students (and teachers) may not undertake the learning of English as a vehicle for real communication and cross-cultural understanding .
      • Result - an intercultural gap - at time extreme - , barriers to communication, and a schism in the classroom
    • Learning language
      • As fundamental itself as being human…
      • … but…
      • It is a living, fluid, highly personalized process
      • … . ultimately transformational and without end .. Or lifelong (actually not so true anymore…)
    • Cultures collide in the classroom
      • … ..or.. At least they bump into each other gently.
    • Cultural assumptions - visible and hidden Watch this iPhoto album What are some of the cultural assumptions or values? Of the people in the photos Of the photographer? Of the institution or country?
    • Intercultural Domain
      • Any classroom forms an essential habitat in the learner’s ecosystem.
      • It encompasses the domains of the learning environment: physical, social, instructional and psychological.
      • However, the ESL classroom adds an additional dimension – the intercultural domain – human interaction across cultures
      • This affords a new cultural learning environment that is affected by perceptions and by the realities of classroom structure, group processes, classroom climate and teacher-mediated activities.
    •  
    • There is no ideal solution
      • … . only an idealized perception of learning.
      • Just as the face in the center is a blend of the ideal attributes of the six around it, so too is the ‘best’ way to learn languages.
    • Here is my face on that solution!
      • It results from a total of 33 years as an educator : 
      • 3 years at a US state school for juvenile offenders
      • 16 years at international schools
      • 12 years as a full-time English teacher at a Japanese university
      • Worked at 8 Japanese college, attended univ. in 3 countries, father of bilingual family
    • Intercultural Task-Based Approach
      • Tasks involve speaking foremost (Several forms of oral discourse because ‘direct’ interaction requires the most requisite knowledge of intercultural communication).
      • The INTERCULTURE is English for International Communication as it intersects with Japanese school culture ( or Greek, Thai, or Chinese learners of EFL, ESL )
      • Performing is EMPHASIZED as the main task goal (for my particular situation & metaculture) Speaking and Listening skills have been ignored in Japan compulsory education and in the University Entrance Examinations.
    • Rationale for ICTB approach
      • A central challenge we face as TESOLs is the problem of getting students to actually produce language in a new cross-cultural (classroom) environment.
      • Overcoming barriers inherent in the monolingual classroom needs a restructured learning experience.
    • Why ICTB ?
      • By the middle the 21st century, ‘foreign’ language mastery will no longer truly be needed.
      • Just think about what foretells this inevitable conclusion…..
        • Global media presence
        • Global economic interdependence
        • Computing technology
        • Digital and virtual communication tools
        • Shrinking planet - Global problems & Solutions
        • Interconnectivity
        • Mega-complexity
      • So……..
    • The Paradigm Shift
      • Instead of foreign language mastery, what we really need is…..
      • Intercultural Communicative Competence
    • Rationale for Metacognitive Inculturalization
      • Fact : Whether we recognize it or not, all teachers employ an explicit, mutually-actualized, teacher-mediated process for intuitively ‘ inculturating’ students into the our own classroom culture.
      • Risk : Not being ready for changes
      • Aim : I am advocating that both the teacher and students realize this, plan for it, and collaborate.
      • How : It is not simply the natural absorption of a new culture, normally referred to as acculturation, but rather a contextual and meta-cognitive cross-cultural classroom training is advocated. (Brooks, 1999)
    • What is Metacognitive Inculturalization? 1
      • Metacognitive inculturization is a theory-based, yet, practical classroom-focused instructional approach to cross-cultural training
      • assists language learners in consciously and unconsciously adapting their own culture for learning a language (EFL) and
      • in acquiring new cultural behaviors to enhance the communicative environment of the EFL language classroom .
    • What is Metacognitive Inculturalization? 2
      • It can be used to nurture both the learners’ understanding of the process and spark their willingness to embark on a new journey of cross-cultural discovery and deeper language acquisition.
    • What is Metacognitive Inculturalization? 3
      • To equip EFL learners with a specific repertoire of individual, pair, small group, and whole class behaviors for internalizing new patterns of learning, cognitive strategies, and, most importantly,for enhancing interaction between themselves, with the target culture, and with the teacher.
    • How Metacognitive Inculturalization Works
    • How Metacognitive Inculturalization Works
      • contextual reframing
      • incorporating old and establishing new patterns of social interaction
      • building trust and areas of comfort and challenge
      • teaching both communicative instructional ‘content’ tasks and the communication, intercultural, and learning strategies
      • reflective assessment of the learning both the communicative content and the meta-cognitive content
    • The context is the learning environment.
      • Any classroom forms an essential habitat in the learner’s ecosystem.
      This habitat is no longer simply a classroom.
    • 1. Contextual Reframing
      • The primary method of reframing the traditional context for classroom learning is re-defining the nature of the classroom
      • through identifying new purposes for the classroom as a language-learning environment.
      • by introducing a curriculum content focused on significant and meaningful issues
      • by an evaluation system based on accomplishing real-life objectives using a task-based performance approach
    • Being a fully actualized learner in EFL classroom should be like a journey to another country - even another habitat. The Environment / Habitat
    • Cross Training Environments
      • Changing the definition of the
      • classroom to a wider, global more diverse set of learning environments (functions)
    • 2. Incorporating old and establishing new patterns of social interaction
      • By using social structures and common ways of organizing behaviors from the students’ common classroom culture, build up a set of adaptive communicative learning behaviors.
      • Draw upon forms and styles of social communication they already possess
      • Shape these with the students’ awareness and cooperation
      • The key is forming and maintaining culturally-appropriate but evolving functional groups
    • Re-defining the classroom
      • New Purposes
      • New Processes
      • New Content
      • New Activities / Tasks (performance tasks involving collaborating)
      • New Assessment
      • New Focus on broader outcomes
    • The Art and Science of our Profession
      • 3. Building trust and balancing levels of comfort ( support ) with challenge ( change )
      • 4. Teaching both communicative instructional ‘content’ = language tasks ….. and the communication, intercultural, and learning strategies
      • 5. Reflective assessment of learning --- both the communicative content and the meta-cognitive content
    • Studying, planning, researching and building them into actual practice are what make a great idea into an ideology.
    • Instructional practices for an intercultural approach to task-based learning
      • 1. Selling approach to reluctant speakers.
      • 2. Authentic tasks and meaningful performances for large classroom groups.
      • 3. Preparing students for success in performance tasks
      • 4. Setting up evaluation (and reflective assessments)
      • 5. A brief demonstration of performance task projects
      • 6. Using technology and varying classroom infrastructure to maximize and enhance the instructional environment
      Asian Conference on Education ACE 2009 1st Annual Conference, October 24-25, 2009, Osaka, Japan
    • One possible approach
      • This is only one Model among many.
      • It changes the students’ Status or Frame of Reference
      • Make him or her the Explorer, Research, Philosopher, Scientist…
      • Learner as Ethnographer
    • Learners as ethnographers
      • Ethnography is the systematic observation and description of how a language community behaves.
      • Integration of linguistic and cultural learning can facilitate communication and interaction (Byram & Fleming, 1998)
        • Comparison of others and self to stimulate reflection on -- and critical analysis of -- one’s own culture and the target culture they are attempting to acculturate (English)
        • An increase in cross-cultural awareness
        • A shift in perspective involving psychological processes of socialisation
      • This approach affects the design and choice of learner tasks since language learning is part of a richer, cultural exploration of the target community. (Corbett, 2003)
      Asian Conference on Education Osaka, Japan October 24-25, 2009
    • Culture and Conversational English
      • Ethnographic approach to studying and creating ‘model’ conversations.
      • Transactional (message / content exchange) vs Interactional (social function)
      • How do conversational patterns vary across cultures?
      • Interpreting subtexts (implied meanings) - jokes, irony, unstated criticism, indirect affirmation or denial
      • Even the most simple conversation can allow for such explorations.
      Asian Conference on Education Osaka, Japan October 24-25, 2009
    • Model Conversation Project
      • Analyzing language samples
      • Collecting exemplars (sample language patterns that convey important cultural meaning)
      • Attention to content but also context, genre and social interaction elements (discourse analysis)
      • Use of communicative strategies - Interactive listening, compensation, body language….
      • Write a typical or ‘model’ conversation based on the ‘data’ collected
      • Revise, practice, and perform with reflective assessments
      Asian Conference on Education Osaka, Japan October 24-25, 2009
    • Types of performance tasks
      • model conversations
      • role-plays
      • simulations
      • poster talks
      • storytelling
      • action research presentations
      • pair discussions
      • group debate
      • making video programs
      • speeches (various types)
      • dramatizations
      • Internet-based collaborations
      Asian Conference on Education Osaka, Japan October 24-25, 2009
    • If time permits, show next slides Check Session TIME Questions
      • Comments
      • Experiences
      • Discussion
      David!
      • OK?
      Yeah? Hey, you guys. It’s your turn.
    • Here are some examples of students’ task-based work
    • Intercultural Dimensions of Task-based Learning for Authentic Communication Asian Conference in Education ACE 2009 Inaugural Conference October 24-25, 2009 David L. Brooks, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Japan You can find the handout and Powerpoint at: http: //leon . blogspot .com Learning English On (the) Net