Humanities 100: Chapter 1

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  • Wall painting: Horses, Chauvet Cave, Vallon-Pont-d’Arc, Ardèche gorge, France.ca. 30,000 BCE. Paint on limestone cave wall. Approx. height: 6'.Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. Direction Régionale des Affaires Culturelles de Rhone-Alpes. Service Régional de l’Archéologie. [Fig. 1.1]
  • Map: Major Paleolithic caves in France and Spain.[Fig. Map 1.1]
  • Map: The Great River Valley Civilizations. ca. 2000 BCE.[Fig. Map 1.2]
  • Wall painting with bird-headed man, bison, and rhinoceros, Lascaux Cave, Dordogne, France.ca. 15,000-13,000 BCE. Paint on limestone cave wall. Approx. length: 9'.[Fig. 1.2]
  • Woman (Venus of Willendorf), found at Willendorf, Austria.ca. 24,000-21,000 BCE. Limestone. Height: 4".Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. [Fig. 1.3]
  • Reconstruction of a mammoth-bone house, Mezhirich, Ukraine.ca. 16,000-10,000 BCE. Mammoth bones.Kiev Museum of Paleontology, Mezhirich, Ukraine. [Fig. 1.4]
  • Beaker with ibex, dogs, and long-necked birds, from Susa, southwest Iran.ca. 5000–4000 BCE. Baked clay with painted decoration. Height: 11-1/4".Musée du Louvre, Paris. [Fig. 1.5]
  • Head, Nok.ca. 500-200 BCE. Terracotta. Height: 14-3/16".Werner Forman/Art Resource, NY. [Fig. 1.6]
  • Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, England.ca. 2750–1500 BCE.[Fig. 1.7]
  • Durrington Walls in Relation to Stonehenge.[Fig. Map 1.3]
  • San people. Wall painting: Giraffes, zebra, eland, and abstract shapes, Inanke, Matobo National Park, Zimbabwe.Before 1000 CE. Wall painting or rock art.Photo: Christopher and Sally Gable © Dorling Kindersley. [Fig. 1.8]
  • Anasazi. Cliff dwelling: Spruce Tree House, Mesa Verde, Colorado, Anasazi culture.ca. 1200-1300 CE.[Fig. 1.9]
  • Anasazi. Diagram: Cribbed roof construction of a kiva at the Spruce Tree House, Mesa Verde, Colorado, Anasazi culture.ca. 1200-1300 CE. Sandstone brick, trees.After a National Park Service pamphlet. [Fig. 1.10]
  • Kachina doll (Maalo). Hopi culture. Late nineteenth century. Wood, pigment, feathers, fiber, string, 11-1/2 x 2-1/2". Brooklyn Musuem of Art. Museum Expedition 1904, Museum Collection Fund, 04.297.5604. Creative Commons-BY-NC. [Fig. 1.11]
  • Shinto. Naiku (Inner) Shrine housing Amaterasu, Ise, Japan (periodically reconstructed).Late 5th-early 6th century CE. Wood beams, thatched roof.[Fig. 1.12]
  • The ziggurat at Ur (modern Muqaiyir, Iraq). ca. 2100 BCE. Mud brick.[Fig. 1.13]
  • Reconstruction drawing of the ziggurat at Ur (modern Muqaiyir, Iraq).ca. 2100 BCE.[Fig. 1.14]
  • Sumerian. Dedicatory statues, from the Abu Temple, Tell Asmar, Iraq.ca. 2900-2700 BCE.Marble, alabaster, and gypsum. Tallest figure approx. 30" high.Courtesy of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. [Fig. 1.15]
  • Map: Major Mesopatamian capitals. ca. 2600-500 BCE.[Fig. Map 1.4]
  • Sumerian. Royal Standard of Ur, front (“War”) side, from tomb 779, cemetery at Ur (modern Muqaiyir, Iraq).ca. 2600 BCE. Shell, lapis lazuli, and red limestone, originally on a wooden framework. Height: 8". Length: 19".© The Trustees of The British Museum/Art Resource, NY. [Fig. 1.16a]
  • Sumerian. Royal Standard of Ur, back (“Peace”) side, from tomb 779, cemetery at Ur (modern Muqaiyir, Iraq).ca. 2600 BCE. Shell, lapis lazuli, and red limestone, originally on a wooden framework. Height: 8". Length: 19".© The Trustees of The British Museum/Art Resource, NY. [Fig. 1.16b]
  • Akkadian. Head of an Akkadian Man, from Nineveh (modern Kuyunjik, Iraq).ca. 2300-2200 BCE. Copper alloy. Height: 14-1/8".Iraq Museum, Baghdad. [Fig. 1.17]
  • Babylonian. Stele of Hammurabi, from Susa (modern Shush, Iran).ca. 1760 BCE. Diorite. Height of stele: approx. 7'. Height of relief: 28".Musée du Louvre, Paris. [Fig. 1.18]
  • Hebrew. Mosaic floor decorations: The Ark of the Covenant and sanctuary implements. From Hammath, near Tiberias, Israel.Fourth century CE. Mosaic.Radovan/www.BibleLandPictures.com. Israel Antiquities Authority, Jerusalem. [Fig. 1.19]
  • Map: The United Monarchy of Israel under David and Solomon.ca. 1000 BCE.[Fig. Map 1.5]
  • Persian. Darius and Xerxes Receiving Tribute. Detail, relief from a stairway leading to the Apadana, ceremonial complex, Persepolis, Iran.491-486 BCE. Limestone, originally painted & gilded. Height: 8' 4".Iranbastan Museum, Teheran. [Fig. 1.20']
  • Egyptian. The pyramids of Menkaure (ca. 2470 BCE), Khafre (ca. 2500 BCE), and Khufu (ca. 2530 BCE). 2530-2470 BCE.[Fig. 1.21]
  • Map: Nile River Basin, with archeological sites in relation to modern Cairo.[Fig. Map 1.6]
  • Egyptian. Nebamun Hunting Birds, from the tomb of Nebamun, Thebes.Dynasty 18, ca. 1400 BCE. Fresco on dry plaster. Height: approx. 2' 8".The British Museum, London. [Fig. 1.22]
  • Chart: Some of the Principal Egyptian Gods (with color drawings).[Fig. Table 1.1]
  • Egyptian. Menkaure with a Queen, probably Khamerernebty, from valley temple of Menkaure, Giza.Dynasty 4, ca. 2460 BCE. Schist. Height: 54-1/4".Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Harvard University-Boston Museum of Fine Arts, 1.1738. Photograph © 2008 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. [Fig. 1.23]
  • Egyptian. Palette of Narmer (verso). From Hierakonpolis.Dynasty 1, ca. 3000 BCE. Schist. Height: 25-1/4".Egyptian Museum, Cairo. [Fig. 1-CL.1]
  • Egyptian. Palette of Narmer (recto). From Hierakonpolis.Dynasty 1, ca. 3000 BCE. Schist. Height: 25-1/4".Egyptian Museum, Cairo. [Fig. 1-CL.2]
  • Egyptian. Akhenaten and His Family, from Akhetaten (modern Tell el-Amarna).Dynasty 18, ca. 1345 BCE. Painted limestone relief. 12-3/4" x 14-7/8".Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Ägyptisches Museum. [Fig. 1.24]
  • Egyptian. Funerary mask of Tutankhamun.Dynasty 18, ca. 1327 BCE. Gold inlaid with glass and semiprecious stones. Height: 21-1/4".Egyptian Museum, Cairo. [Fig. 1.25]
  • Egyptian. Montuemhet, from Karnak, Thebes. Granite, height 54".ca. 660 BCE. Granite. Height: 54".Egyptian Museum, Cairo. [Fig. 1.26]
  • Greek. Anavysos Kuoros, from Anavysos cemetary, near Athens.ca. 525 BCE. Height: 6' 4".National Archaeological Museum, Athens. [Fig. 1.27]
  • Polyclitus. Doryphoros (Spear Bearer), Roman copy after the original bronze.ca. 450-440 BCE. Marble (after bronze original). Height: 6' 6".Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples. [Fig. 1.28]
  • Humanities 100: Chapter 1

    1. 1. Wall painting: Horses, Chauvet Cave, Vallon-Pont-d’Arc, Ardèche gorge, France. ca. 30,000 BCE. Paint on limestone cave wall. Approx. height: 6'. Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. Direction Régionale des Affaires Culturelles de Rhone-Alpes. Service Régional de l’Archéologie. [Fig. 1.1]
    2. 2. Map: Major Paleolithic caves in France and Spain. [Fig. Map 1.1]
    3. 3. Map: The Great River Valley Civilizations. ca. 2000 BCE. [Fig. Map 1.2]
    4. 4. Wall painting with bird-headed man, bison, and rhinoceros, Lascaux Cave, Dordogne, France. ca. 15,000-13,000 BCE. Paint on limestone cave wall. Approx. length: 9'. [Fig. 1.2]
    5. 5. Woman (Venus of Willendorf), found at Willendorf, Austria. ca. 24,000-21,000 BCE. Limestone. Height: 4". Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. [Fig. 1.3]
    6. 6. Reconstruction of a mammoth-bone house, Mezhirich, Ukraine. ca. 16,000-10,000 BCE. Mammoth bones. Kiev Museum of Paleontology, Mezhirich, Ukraine. [Fig. 1.4]
    7. 7. Beaker with ibex, dogs, and long-necked birds, from Susa, southwest Iran. ca. 5000–4000 BCE. Baked clay with painted decoration. Height: 11-1/4". Musée du Louvre, Paris. [Fig. 1.5]
    8. 8. Head, Nok. ca. 500-200 BCE. Terracotta. Height: 14-3/16". Werner Forman/Art Resource, NY. [Fig. 1.6]
    9. 9. Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, England. ca. 2750–1500 BCE. [Fig. 1.7]
    10. 10. Durrington Walls in Relation to Stonehenge. [Fig. Map 1.3]
    11. 11. San people. Wall painting: Giraffes, zebra, eland, and abstract shapes, Inanke, Matobo National Park, Zimbabwe. Before 1000 CE. Wall painting or rock art. Photo: Christopher and Sally Gable © Dorling Kindersley. [Fig. 1.8]
    12. 12. Anasazi. Cliff dwelling: Spruce Tree House, Mesa Verde, Colorado, Anasazi culture. ca. 1200-1300 CE. [Fig. 1.9]
    13. 13. Anasazi. Diagram: Cribbed roof construction of a kiva at the Spruce Tree House, Mesa Verde, Colorado, Anasazi culture. ca. 1200-1300 CE. Sandstone brick, trees. After a National Park Service pamphlet. [Fig. 1.10]
    14. 14. Kachina doll (Maalo). Hopi culture. Late nineteenth century. Wood, pigment, feathers, fiber, string, 11-1/2 x 2-1/2". Brooklyn Musuem of Art. Museum Expedition 1904, Museum Collection Fund, 04.297.5604. Creative Commons-BY-NC. [Fig. 1.11]
    15. 15. Shinto. Naiku (Inner) Shrine housing Amaterasu, Ise, Japan (periodically reconstructed). Late 5th-early 6th century CE. Wood beams, thatched roof. [Fig. 1.12]
    16. 16. The ziggurat at Ur (modern Muqaiyir, Iraq). ca. 2100 BCE. Mud brick. [Fig. 1.13]
    17. 17. Reconstruction drawing of the ziggurat at Ur (modern Muqaiyir, Iraq). ca. 2100 BCE. [Fig. 1.14]
    18. 18. Sumerian. Dedicatory statues, from the Abu Temple, Tell Asmar, Iraq. ca. 2900-2700 BCE. Marble, alabaster, and gypsum. Tallest figure approx. 30" high. Courtesy of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. [Fig. 1.15]
    19. 19. Map: Major Mesopatamian capitals. ca. 2600-500 BCE. [Fig. Map 1.4]
    20. 20. Sumerian. Royal Standard of Ur, front (“War”) side, from tomb 779, cemetery at Ur (modern Muqaiyir, Iraq). ca. 2600 BCE. Shell, lapis lazuli, and red limestone, originally on a wooden framework. Height: 8". Length: 19". © The Trustees of The British Museum/Art Resource, NY. [Fig. 1.16a]
    21. 21. Sumerian. Royal Standard of Ur, back (“Peace”) side, from tomb 779, cemetery at Ur (modern Muqaiyir, Iraq). ca. 2600 BCE. Shell, lapis lazuli, and red limestone, originally on a wooden framework. Height: 8". Length: 19". © The Trustees of The British Museum/Art Resource, NY. [Fig. 1.16b]
    22. 22. Akkadian. Head of an Akkadian Man, from Nineveh (modern Kuyunjik, Iraq). ca. 2300-2200 BCE. Copper alloy. Height: 14-1/8". Iraq Museum, Baghdad. [Fig. 1.17]
    23. 23. Babylonian. Stele of Hammurabi, from Susa (modern Shush, Iran). ca. 1760 BCE. Diorite. Height of stele: approx. 7'. Height of relief: 28". Musée du Louvre, Paris. [Fig. 1.18]
    24. 24. Hebrew. Mosaic floor decorations: The Ark of the Covenant and sanctuary implements. From Hammath, near Tiberias, Israel. Fourth century CE. Mosaic. Radovan/www.BibleLandPictures.com. Israel Antiquities Authority, Jerusalem. [Fig. 1.19]
    25. 25. Map: The United Monarchy of Israel under David and Solomon. ca. 1000 BCE. [Fig. Map 1.5]
    26. 26. Persian. Darius and Xerxes Receiving Tribute. Detail, relief from a stairway leading to the Apadana, ceremonial complex, Persepolis, Iran. 491-486 BCE. Limestone, originally painted & gilded. Height: 8' 4". Iranbastan Museum, Teheran. [Fig. 1.20']
    27. 27. Egyptian. The pyramids of Menkaure (ca. 2470 BCE), Khafre (ca. 2500 BCE), and Khufu (ca. 2530 BCE). 2530-2470 BCE. [Fig. 1.21]
    28. 28. Map: Nile River Basin, with archeological sites in relation to modern Cairo. [Fig. Map 1.6]
    29. 29. Egyptian. Nebamun Hunting Birds, from the tomb of Nebamun, Thebes. Dynasty 18, ca. 1400 BCE. Fresco on dry plaster. Height: approx. 2' 8". The British Museum, London. [Fig. 1.22]
    30. 30. Chart: Some of the Principal Egyptian Gods (with color drawings). [Fig. Table 1.1]
    31. 31. Egyptian. Menkaure with a Queen, probably Khamerernebty, from valley temple of Menkaure, Giza. Dynasty 4, ca. 2460 BCE. Schist. Height: 54-1/4". Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Harvard University-Boston Museum of Fine Arts, 1.1738. Photograph © 2008 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. [Fig. 1.23]
    32. 32. Egyptian. Palette of Narmer (verso). From Hierakonpolis. Dynasty 1, ca. 3000 BCE. Schist. Height: 25-1/4". Egyptian Museum, Cairo. [Fig. 1-CL.1]
    33. 33. Egyptian. Palette of Narmer (recto). From Hierakonpolis. Dynasty 1, ca. 3000 BCE. Schist. Height: 25-1/4". Egyptian Museum, Cairo. [Fig. 1-CL.2]
    34. 34. Egyptian. Akhenaten and His Family, from Akhetaten (modern Tell el-Amarna). Dynasty 18, ca. 1345 BCE. Painted limestone relief. 12-3/4" x 14-7/8". Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Ägyptisches Museum. [Fig. 1.24]
    35. 35. Egyptian. Funerary mask of Tutankhamun. Dynasty 18, ca. 1327 BCE. Gold inlaid with glass and semiprecious stones. Height: 21-1/4". Egyptian Museum, Cairo. [Fig. 1.25]
    36. 36. Egyptian. Montuemhet, from Karnak, Thebes. Granite, height 54". ca. 660 BCE. Granite. Height: 54". Egyptian Museum, Cairo. [Fig. 1.26]
    37. 37. Greek. Anavysos Kuoros, from Anavysos cemetary, near Athens. ca. 525 BCE. Height: 6' 4". National Archaeological Museum, Athens. [Fig. 1.27]
    38. 38. Polyclitus. Doryphoros (Spear Bearer), Roman copy after the original bronze. ca. 450-440 BCE. Marble (after bronze original). Height: 6' 6". Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples. [Fig. 1.28]

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