Psychology 101: Chapter1


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Intro psychology PowerPoint for Psych 101, Wadsworth

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  • The first 3 slides relate to the American Psychological Association’s (APA’s) Learning Outcome 1.1: Characterize the nature of psychology as a discipline . This slide is most relevant to Learning Outcome 1.1b: Identify and explain the primary objectives of psychology: describing, understanding, predicting, and controlling behavior and mental processes .
  • This slide explains how psychology can be a science and why it is one. Thus it relates to Learning Outcome 1.1a. The last bullet on this slide touches on Outcome 1.1c -- Compare and contrast the assumptions and methods of psychology with those of other disciplines -- as it suggests foci that might distinguish psychology from other fields.
  • This slide introduces the functional perspective in psychology, which remains the dominant underlying viewpoint in the discipline. It is thus relevant to Outcome 1.4 -- Explain major perspectives of psychology .
  • Understanding the definition of psychology is related to Outcome 1.1. Distinguishing among clinical, applied, and research psychologists related to Outcomes 4.1 (Describe major and emerging applied areas of psychology) and 10.2 (Identify the types of academic experience and performance in psychology and the liberal arts that will facilitate entry into the workforce, postbaccalaureate education, or both.)
  • This slide explains why psychology is a science (Outcome 1.1a) and distinguishes somewhat between behavior and the mind -- Outcome 1.2d(5), understanding the mind-body problem .
  • This slide and the next 2 relate to Outcome 4.1.
  • This slide mentions the degrees generally held by different types of clinically-oriented psychologists and this relates to Outcome 10.2.
  • The specialties described on this slide relate to Outcome 1.4.
  • The learning goals listed on this slide relate primarily to Outcomes 1.2b and 1.2d. Understanding the mind-body problem reflects 1.2d(5), while understanding the nature-nurture controversy surrounding the origin of knowledge corresponds to 1.2d(1). Discussing psychology’s history is captured in Outcome 1.2b; noting the early clinical contributions of Freud and the humanists relates additionally to Objective 4.1.
  • See Outcome 1.2d(5).
  • Figure 1.2. René Descartes introduced the concept of the reflex, which he described as an automatic, involuntary reaction of a physical body to an event in the outside world. He thought the mediating structure was the pineal gland, shown here as a tear-shaped area at the back of the head.
  • This slide and the next correspond to Outcome 1.2d(1).
  • This slide and the following 8 trace the history of psychology and are related to Outcome 1.2b.
  • As functionalism, behaviorism, the psychodynamic perspective, and humanism are all current perspectives in Psychology, this slide and the following 4 are related not only to Outcome 1.2b, but also 1.4.
  • This slide and the following 2 speak not only to Outcomes 1.2b and 1.4, but also 4.1.
  • This slide and the next one correspond to Outcome 1.2b.
  • The learning goals listed here correspond to Outcome 1.2c -- levels of analysis, from the biological, through the cognitive, to the evolutionary -- and to 1.4.
  • This slide touches on the importance of Outcome 1.3e -- Integrate theorectical perspectives to produce comprehensive and mutifaceted explanations .
  • This slide relates to both 1.2b and 1.4.
  • This slide emphasizes multiple levels of analysis, from the cellular to the behavioral, and thus relates to Outcome 1.2c.
  • This slide and the next are relevant to Outcome 1.4.
  • This slide suggests the importance of critical thinking, captures in Outcome 3.
  • Psychology 101: Chapter1

    1. 1. Chapter 1 An Introduction to Psychology
    2. 2. Welcome to the Study of Psychology! <ul><li>The scientific study of behavior and mind </li></ul><ul><li>Goals of modern psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To identify the causes of normal behavior and mental processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To better treat abnormal thought and behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To improve people’s lives </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Can Psychology Be Truly Scientific? <ul><li>Human behavior difficult to predict precisely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>However: Governed by general principles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavior multiply determined, by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moment-to-moment experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>That behavior is multiply determined leads to a focus on individual and cultural differences </li></ul>
    4. 4. What’s It For? <ul><li>Functional perspective -- purpose of behavior, mental processes </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior and mind: tools helping us adapt and survive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: How do you recognize and avoid danger? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understanding purpose of processes leads to better understanding of those processes </li></ul>
    5. 5. Defining and Describing Psychology: Learning Goals <ul><li>Understand the modern definition of psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish among clinical, applied, and research psychologists. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Definition of Psychology <ul><li>Root word: “Psyche” = Soul or breath (Greek) </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific study of behavior and mind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific: Based on observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior: Observable actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mind: Subjective experiences such as thoughts, emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can be observed and measured systematically </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. What Psychologists Do <ul><li>3 main types of psychologists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical psychologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied psychologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research psychologists </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Clinical Psychologists <ul><li>Diagnose and treat psychological problems in clinics, private practice </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical psychologists (Ph. D.; Psy. D.) </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling psychologists (Ph. D.; Ed. D.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on specific adjustment issues, e.g., marriage problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychiatrists (M. D.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical doctors specializing in psychological problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can prescribe medications </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Applied Psychologists <ul><li>Not involved with psychological disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Apply psychology to practical problems in the real world </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School psychologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial/organizational psychologists (workplace) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human factors psychologists (design, engineering) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Research Psychologists <ul><li>Collect data to understand mind and behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Work in universities, colleges, research institutes </li></ul><ul><li>Specialties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biopsychologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality psychologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive psychologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental psychologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social psychologists </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. The Science of Psychology: A Brief History Learning Goals <ul><li>Understand what is meant by the mind-body problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast the different viewpoints on the origins of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Trace the development of the first scientific schools of psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>Note the early clinical contributions of Freud and the humanists. </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight the contributions of women to the development of psychology. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Mind-Body Problem <ul><li>Are the mind and body the same? </li></ul><ul><li>Descartes (17th century): Two separate entities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mind controls body through pineal gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impossible to scientifically study the mind </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychologists today: One and the same </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mind arises from brain activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The mind is what the brain does” - S. Pinker </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. Nature and Nurture: Where Does Knowledge Come From? <ul><li>To what extent is our knowledge innate, or a product of our experiences? </li></ul><ul><li>Hard to tell, because impossible to eliminate effects of experience </li></ul><ul><li>Kant: Inborn mental “structures” to perceive causality, time, and space </li></ul><ul><li>Gestalt psychologists: innate principles of visual perception </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin: Natural selection for certain adaptive traits </li></ul>
    14. 15. The Modern View: Nature Via Nurture <ul><li>Many characteristics do have a genetic (inherited) component </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Intelligence, personality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experience shapes how these characteristics develop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Educational experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In other words: Both matter </li></ul>
    15. 16. The First Psychology Laboratory <ul><li>1879, University of Leipzig </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm Wundt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy professor with background in physiology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocated scientific techniques for studying mental processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main focus: Immediate conscious experience </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. Structuralism <ul><li>Wundt, later Edward Titchener </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze elements of sensations and feelings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Sensation of taste is made up of salty, bitter, sour, and sweet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technique: Systematic introspection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-report by trained individuals </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. Functionalism <ul><li>William James, James Rowland Angell </li></ul><ul><li>Understand mental processes by understanding the goal or purpose of those processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: What is the goal or purpose of memory? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greatly influenced by work of Darwin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive value of mental processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extended psychology to study of individual differences, applied issues </li></ul>
    18. 19. Behaviorism <ul><li>John B. Watson, B. F. Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with introspection: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot directly observe mental events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective, varies by individual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solution: Focus only on observable behavior in carefully controlled experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special emphasis on animal behavior </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. Sigmund Freud <ul><li>Trained as a medical doctor in Vienna </li></ul><ul><li>Observation: Some physical problems have psychological causes </li></ul><ul><li>Established early methods for treating psychological disorders </li></ul>
    20. 21. Freud’s Ideas <ul><li>Psychoanalysis: Freud’s theory of how the mind works and how to address disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological problems solved through insight </li></ul><ul><li>Unconscious mind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicts, memories outside of awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many psychological problems arise from childhood experiences </li></ul></ul>
    21. 22. Humanistic Psychology <ul><li>Criticisms of Freudian psychology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dark, pessimistic view of human nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dismisses free will, potential for growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Humanistic psychology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans have great potential for growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therapists should encourage this through nonjudgmental support </li></ul></ul>
    22. 23. Early Psychology: The Role of Women <ul><li>Mary Calkins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Denied admission to Harvard; “guest” graduate student of William James </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>president of the APA, 1905 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contributed to study of memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Margaret Floy Washburn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st female Ph. D., 1894 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Animal Mind , 1908 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became APA president,1921 </li></ul></ul>
    23. 24. The Role of Women, continued <ul><li>Helen Thompson Wooley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped pioneer study of sex differences </li></ul></ul>
    24. 25. The Focus of Modern Psychology: Learning Goals <ul><li>Understand what it means to adopt an eclectic approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the factors that started the cognitive revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Trace recent developments in biology and evolutionary psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why psychologists think cultural factors are important determinants of behavior and mind. </li></ul>
    25. 26. What Does “Eclectic” Mean? <ul><li>Selecting or adopting information from many different sources rather than relying on one perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical psychology: Choose technique according to client preferences, particular problem </li></ul><ul><li>Research psychology: Focus on biological origins of behavior OR just describe it, depending on the circumstance </li></ul>
    26. 27. Factors Behind the Cognitive Revolution <ul><li>1950s: Shift away from behaviorism, back to interest in internal mental processes </li></ul><ul><li>What led up to the cognitive revolution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better research techniques allowed more objective observation of mental processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers became a new way to understand how the mind works </li></ul></ul>
    27. 28. Biological Factors <ul><li>New emphasis on linking brain, mind, and behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Modern technology allows us to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Record the activity of brain cells in response to stimuli in the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create images of brain activity during different mental processes, psychological states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better understand normal and abnormal brain chemistry </li></ul></ul>
    28. 29. Evolutionary Psychology <ul><li>New emphasis on applying Darwin’s ideas of natural selection to behavior and the mind </li></ul><ul><li>For example, humans may have evolved to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose certain kinds of mates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behave a certain way in social groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note: Many claims are controversial </li></ul>
    29. 30. Cultural Factors <ul><li>New emphasis on how culture shapes the mind and behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture: shared values, customs, beliefs of a group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be based on ethnicity, race, class, religion, or other factors that define a group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influential researcher: Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How children think depends on social, cultural environment around them </li></ul></ul>
    30. 31. Solving Problems With the Adaptive Mind <ul><li>Behavior is multiply determined, but purposeful </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the adaptive mind brings relevance to abstract topics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Attribution theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think: When do you need to interpret the behavior of others? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also: Critical thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How does a topic relate to an actual survival or practical problem? </li></ul></ul>