Psychology 101: Chapter7

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  • The Chapter 7 slides are relevant to APA Outcomes 1.2a(1) and 1.2d(1), as they relate to the specific domain of learning and to the broader issue of nature vs. nurture. Learning is the crux of the behavioral perspective in psychology; Outcome 1.4 is thus also relevant. Specific slides are additionally relevant to other outcomes as noted on the notes page associated with the relevant slide.
  • Antecedents and consequences -- Outcome 1.3b -- are distinguished early in a discussion of learning.
  • This slide entails a discussion of antecedents -- Outcome 1.3b.
  • This slide describes the beginnings of behaviorism with Pavlov’s work and is thus relevant to Outcomes 1.2b and 1.4.
  • Both classical and operant conditioning feature terminology that is new to beginning psychology students but is universally used as part of day-to-day language among psychologists. A discussion of conditioning thus brings Outcome 1.3 into relief.
  • Figure 7.2. Through classical conditioning, organisms learn about the signaling properties of events. The presentation of an unconditioned stimulus (US) leads to an automatic unconditioned response (UR) prior to training. A neutral stimulus is paired closely in time with a US. Eventually, the animal learns that this conditioned stimulus (CS) predicts the occurrence of the US and begins to show an appropriate conditioned response (CR) on presentation of the CS.
  • Figure 7.3. In second-order conditioning, an established CS is used in place of a US to condition a second signal. In Dr. Frolov’s experiment, a ticking metronome was first paired with food; after repeated pairings, the ticking elicited salivation as a CR. Next, a black square - which did not produce salivation initially - was paired with the ticking (no US was presented). After repeated pairings, the presentation of the black square began to produce salivation.
  • The discussion of Little Albert affords an opportunity to address the ethics of research -- Outcome 1.2e.
  • Figure 7.6. In conditioned inhibition, the CS provides information about the absence of the US. Pigeons will approach and peck at a keylight CS that signals the appearance of food (upper panel), but they will withdraw from a keylight CS signaling no food (lower panel). Notice that the withdrawal response is an indication that the red light has become a conditioned inhibitor - a CS that predicts the absence of food.
  • The discussion of Thorndilke’s law of effect reaches back into psychology’s history -- Outcome 1.2b.
  • Figure 7.7. In classical conditioning (top row), food is delivered independently of the rat’s behavior. The light CS signals the automatic arrival of the food US. In operant conditioning (bottom row), the rat must press the bar in the presence of the light in order to get the food. The light serves as a discriminative stimulus, indicating that pressing the bar will now produce the food.
  • Figure 7.8. In Thorndike’s famous experiments on animal intelligence, cats learned that some kind of unusual response - such as pressing a lever or tilting a pole - allowed them to escape from a puzzle box. The graph shows that the time required to escape gradually diminished over learning trials. Here the cat is learning that its behavior is instrumental in producing escape. (Based on Weiten, 1995.)
  • This discussion of punishment, schedules of reinforcement, shaping, and observational learning that occupy the remaining slides in Ch.7 lend themselves especially well to progress toward Outcomes 4.4, 9.2, and 9.3 -- applying psychology to daily life and effective self-regulation and self-management.
  • Figure 7.9. Schedules of reinforcement are rules that the experimenter uses to determine when responses will be reinforced. Ratio schedules tend to produce rapid rates of responding because reinforcement depends on the number of responses. Interval schedules tend to produce lower rates of responding because reinforcement is delivered only for the first response after a specified time interval. In the cumulative response functions plotted here, the total number of responses is plotted over time.
  • Psychology 101: Chapter7

    1. 1. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Chapter 7Learning From Experience
    2. 2. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 What’s It For? Learning From Experience• Noticing and Ignoring• Learning What Events Signal• Learning About the Consequences of Our Behavior• Learning from Others
    3. 3. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Noticing and Ignoring: Learning Goal1. Describe and compare habituation and sensitization.
    4. 4. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Habituation and Sensitization• Orienting response: Turning toward a new event• After repeated exposure to an event: – Habituation: Reduced responding to the event – Sensitization: Increased responding to the event
    5. 5. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Classical Conditioning: Learning Goals1. Describe the basic elements of classical conditioning.2. Discuss why and how conditioned responding develops.3. Differentiate among second-order conditioning, stimulus generalization, and stimulus discrimination.4. Discuss extinction and conditioned inhibition.
    6. 6. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Classical Conditioning Overview• Technique developed to study how simple associations form• These associations allow us to prepare ourselves for future events – Example: Association between flash of lightning and noise of thunder
    7. 7. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Pavlov’s Discovery• Pavlov (1849-1936): Russian physiologist – Used dogs as research subjects in studies of digestion• Noticed that salivation often began before food placed in their mouths – Pavlov observed that some stimuli produce automatic responses, and other stimuli can start to produce those responses too through a process of learning
    8. 8. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 The Terminology of Classical Conditioning• Unconditioned stimulus (US): A stimulus that automatically leads to a response prior to any training – Example: Food• Unconditioned response (UR): The response that is produced automatically, prior to training, on presentation of US – Example: Salivation
    9. 9. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Terminology of Classical Conditioning, continued…• Conditioned stimulus (CS): Neutral stimulus that is paired with the US during classical conditioning – Example: Feeder’s footsteps• Conditioned response (CR): The learned response produced by the conditioned stimulus – Example: Dog salivates (CR) when hearing the feeder’s footsteps (CS)
    10. 10. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7
    11. 11. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Forming the CS-US Connection• CS should function as a signal that the US is about to occur• Such a signal is most effective when it – Comes before the US, not after it or at the same time – The US follows it closely in time • Long delay -> Learning less likely – Provides new information about the US • Other stimuli may create “blocking”
    12. 12. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Why Does Conditioned Responding Develop?• The CS doesn’t just “substitute” for the US• CR isn’t always the same as the UR – Example: Rats “freezing” instead of jumping when a shock is about to occur – Cognitive view of classical conditioning• Second-order conditioning: Procedure in which an established CS is used to condition a second neutral stimulus
    13. 13. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7
    14. 14. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Stimulus Generalization• Responding to a new stimulus in a way similar to the response to an established CS – Similar stimulus -> Similar CR – Famous example created by J. Watson • “Little Albert” conditioned to fear white rats; fear extended to rabbits, fur coats• Stimulus discrimination: Responding differently to a new stimulus than one responds to an established CS
    15. 15. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Classical Conditioning and Emotional Responses• The classical conditioning of fear in an infant is described in the following video clip.
    16. 16. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7Conditioning and Emotion PLAY VIDEO
    17. 17. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Extinction: When the CS No Longer Signals the US• Extinction: Presenting a CS repeatedly, after conditioning, without the US, resulting in a loss in responding – Example: Food no longer follows a bell, so dog gradually stops salivating in response to the bell• Spontaneous recovery: Recovery of an extinguished CR after a period of nonexposure to the CS
    18. 18. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Conditioned Inhibition: Signaling the Absence of the US• Learning that an event signals the absence of the US – Example: Bell + light = No food • Won’t drool when the light is presented • Might produce a response opposite of original CR, such as leaving food area• Conditioned inhibitors can serve as “safety signals” when US is something dangerous
    19. 19. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7
    20. 20. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Operant Conditioning: Learning Goals1. Define operant conditioning and discuss the law of effect.2. Explain what we mean by the discriminative stimulus.3. Define reinforcement and punishment and distinguish between their positive and negative forms.4. Discuss and compare the different schedules of reinforcement.
    21. 21. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Operant Conditioning: Learning Goals, continued…1. Explain how complex behaviors can be acquired through shaping.2. Discuss how biological factors might limit the responses that can be learned.
    22. 22. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Learning About Consequences: Operant Conditioning• Procedure for studying how organisms learn about the consequences of their own voluntary actions – Example: Learning that studying leads to a good exam grade• Law of effect (Thorndike) – If a response is followed by a satisfying consequence, it will be strengthened; if followed by an unsatisfying consequence, it will be weakened
    23. 23. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7
    24. 24. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7
    25. 25. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7The Discriminative Stimulus: Knowing When to Respond• Discriminative stimulus: Stimulus situation in which a response will be followed by reward or punishment – Can be a particular situation or thing in the environment• May produce the behavior in response to a similar stimulus (stimulus generalization), unless it doesn’t produce same reward (stimulus discrimination)
    26. 26. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Reinforcement• Response consequences that increase likelihood of responding in a similar way again.• Positive reinforcement: An event’s presentation following a response increases the future probability of that response.• Negative reinforcement: An event’s removal following a response increases the future probability of that response.
    27. 27. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Positive Reinforcement• Usually involves an appetitive stimulus -- something the organism needs, likes, wants – However, what matters in defining it as positive is the effect on behavior, not subjective qualities• Response deprivation: Event is reinforcing if it allows you to engage in something that you’re deprived of – Example: Eating when you are very hungry
    28. 28. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Negative Reinforcement• Response leads to removal of some stimulus – Example: Shutting off a loud alarm clock• Escape conditioning: Response ends the stimulus – Example: Animal escaping ongoing shock• Avoidance conditioning: Response prevents the stimulus – Example: Animal escaping before shock
    29. 29. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Punishment• Consequences that decrease the likelihood of responding in a similar way again• Positive punishment: Presentation of an event after responding lowers likelihood of that response – Example: Scolding• Negative punishment: Removal of an event after responding lowers likelihood – Example: Taking away allowance
    30. 30. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Punishment: Practical Considerations• Does effectively suppress behavior – Example: A child fighting with a sibling• Limitation: Does not promote better, alternative behavior – Example: Does not teach a child to cooperate with sibling – Better: Reinforce an alternative response• May also increase aggression
    31. 31. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Schedules of Reinforcement• Pattern through time in the delivery of reinforcement• Continuous: Each response is followed rapidly by reinforcement – Example: Salesperson paid for each sale• Partial: Reinforcement delivered only some of the time – Example: You don’t receive a smile or a “thank you” each time you hold the door for the person behind you
    32. 32. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Partial Reinforcement• Four schedules of partial reinforcement defined by the combination of two dimensions – Interval vs. ratio: Whether the schedule on which reinforcement is delivered is based on an amount of time passing (interval) or on an amount of behavior performed (ratio) – Fixed vs. variable: Whether the amount of time or behavior is constant, or varies around an average
    33. 33. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Fixed-Ratio Schedules• Reinforcement delivered following a set amount of behavior – Example: Salesperson paid for every 10 sales• Tend to produce steady, consistent rates of responding, but might stop for a period after reinforcement• Extinction when reinforcement no longer given
    34. 34. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Variable-Ratio Schedules• A certain number of responses required for reinforcement, but this number varies around an average – Example: “1 in 12 wins!” soft-drink bottle- cap promotions -- you may win a free drink twice in a row, or you have to buy 15 before winning• Extinction takes much longer
    35. 35. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Interval Schedules• Fixed interval: Reinforcement delivered for first response after a fixed interval of time – Example: Monthly paycheck – Tend to produce low rates of responding • “Scalloping” pattern• Variable interval: Time until reinforcement changes – Example: Weekly pop quizzes
    36. 36. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7
    37. 37. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Acquiring Complex Behaviors: Shaping• Problem: Complex behaviors unlikely to occur spontaneously, so they are hard to reinforce• Solution: Shaping – A procedure in which reinforcement is delivered for successive approximations of the desired response – Or: Demanding behaviors closer to the desired one before reinforcement is given
    38. 38. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Biological Constraints on Learning• With enough time and reinforcers, is it possible to teach just any response?• Genetic constraints influence what can be learned – Example: Animals have innate tendencies that limit what they can be trained to do – Humans also have innate tendencies to learn certain things more easily • Example: Fear of snakes
    39. 39. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Observational Learning: Learning Goals1. Describe observational learning and the conditions that lead to effective modeling.2. Explain why observational learning is adaptive and discuss its practical effects.
    40. 40. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Observational Learning: Overview• Learning that occurs as a result of observing the experiences of others• Consider: What would life be like if you could only learn through your own trial and error? – Adaptive to learn from others• Observational learning occurs in many species, including chimpanzees, rhesus monkeys, and some birds
    41. 41. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Modeling• Natural tendency to imitate behavior of significant others• Strongest when – Model is viewed positively – Model is rewarded for the behavior• Bandura: Showed children a film of an adult hitting a “Bobo” doll – Children imitated behavior, especially when the adult was praised for the aggression
    42. 42. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Observational Learning: Practical Considerations• Particularly relevant to children• Modeling techniques such as films have been used to reduce fears, promote positive behavior• However, television may produce modeling of negative behaviors – Aggression – Gender stereotyping – Unrealistic beliefs about society

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