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Psychology 101: Chapter12
 

Psychology 101: Chapter12

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  • Chapter 12 slides are relevant to the APA’s Learning Outcome 1.2a(2). Specific slides are additionally relevant to other outcomes as noted on the notes page associated with the relevant slide.
  • The discussion of factor analysis on this and the following slide help students understand a data analytic technique used by psychologists, and therefore relate to Outcome 2.2.
  • Figure 12.2. Hans Eysenck proposed three primary dimensions of personality: extroversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism. Included in each circle are sample questions of the type used to measure a person’s standing on that dimension. (Questions from Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975.)
  • Figure 12.3. Many psychologists believe that personality is best analyzed in terms of five fundamental personality dimensions.
  • This slide and the following 4 describe psychological tests. They thus relate to Outcome 4.2c.
  • Figure 12.4. Psychologists often used the MMPI to help diagnose psychological disorders. A client’s scores on the various clinical scales can be compared to average scores from people who are not suffering from psychological problems, as well as from people who have been diagnosed with specific problems, such as depression or schizophrenia. (Adapted from Weiten, 1995.)
  • Figure 12.5. In projective personality tests, we are asked to interpret unstructured or ambiguous stimuli. Our answers are presumed to provide insight into our personalities. What do you see hidden in this inkblot - the fundamental decay of human society? (From Kalat, 1996.)
  • The slides desribing the psychodynamic, humanistic, and social-cognitive approaches to personality may be related to major perspectives in psychology and to the history of psychology, Outcomes 1.4 and 1.2b.
  • Figure 12.6. Freud believed that our personalities are influenced by three forces. The id is the unconscious and unrepentant seeker of pleasure; the superego is the moral seeker of ideal behavior; and the ego is the executive that acts in accordance with reality. Just as most of an iceberg lies beneath the water, much of personality operates at an unconscious level.
  • Figure 12.7. Maslow proposed that our observable personality characteristics will indicate where we are positioned in the hierarchy of needs. Someone who must worry constantly about biological or safety needs will behave differently from someone who is seeking to satisfy needs at the highest levels of the pyramid.
  • Figure 12.8. Bandura proposed that personality is shaped by complex interactions among expectations and beliefs, behavior, and the rewards and punishments delivered by the environment. In this case, expecting failure in class (personal/cognitive factors) affects studying (behavior), which in turn affects the likelihood of success on the test (environment). The arrows point both ways, suggesting that these factors can all interact.
  • The slides in the last major section relate to persisting issues in psychology -- 1.2d -- such as the heredity/environment debate, 1.2d(1).
  • Figure 12.9. Are identical twins more likely to share basic personality traits than fraternal twins? Does the rearing environment matter? These average correlations from Tellegen and colleagues reveal consistent differences between identical and fraternal twins, irrespective of the rearing environment, suggesting that genetics plays a role in determining personality. The environment also had a significant effect in some cases, but overall it appeared to be less important. (Adapted from “Personality Similarity in Twins Reared Apart and Together,” by A. Tellegen et al., 1988, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1031-1039. Copyright ©1988 by the American Psychological Association. Adapted by permission of the author.) This graph may be afford an opportunity to instruct quantitative literacy skills, Outcome 7.3c.

Psychology 101: Chapter12 Psychology 101: Chapter12 Presentation Transcript

  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12Chapter 12Personality
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 What Is Personality?• Set of psychological characteristics that differentiates us from others and leads us to act consistently across situations• Involves the study of individual differences in personality traits – Trait: Predisposition to respond in a certain way
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 What’s It For? Personality• Conceptualizing and Measuring Personality• Determining Why Personality Develops• Resolving the Person-Situation Debate
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12Conceptualizing and Measuring Personality: Learning Goals2. Discuss how factor analysis helps identify basic personality traits.3. Distinguish among cardinal, central, and secondary traits.4. Describe self-report inventories and projective personality tests.
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 The Factor Analytic Approach• Factor analysis: Mathematical procedure used to analyze correlations among test responses – Example: Asking people how well a particular term (“brooding,” “friendly,” etc.) describes them• Main question: Which terms cluster together statistically? – Terms that go together probably reflect a general personality characteristic
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 Early Use of Factor Analysis• The personality researcher Cattell used thousands of terms to establish the existence of 16 main personality traits• Eysenck used a similar approach but argued that there are really only three main factors – Called primary dimensions or superfactors • Extroversion • Neuroticism • Psychoticism
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 The Big Five• A widely accepted contemporary factor analytic theory• Five broad personality domains: – Openness – Conscientiousness – Extroversion – Agreeableness – Neuroticism
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 Allport’s Trait Theory• Focus is idiographic: On individuals, not on group averages. – Central traits: 5-10 descriptive traits that describe a person – Secondary traits: Less obvious characteristics that appear only under certain circumstances• Some individuals have cardinal traits, “ruling passions,” that dominate their lives and personalities
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 Personality Tests: Self-Report Inventories• These ask people to answer groups of questions about how they typically think, act, and feel – Responses compared to averages compiled from prior test takers• Main uses include hiring decisions, diagnosing psychological disorders• Examples: MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory), NEO-PI-R, 16-PF
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 Projective Personality Tests• Projective tests ask people to interpret unstructured or ambiguous stimuli – Assumption is that you “project” your personality into the interpretation• Most widely used: – Rorschach: “Ink blots” – Thematic Apperception Test: Ambiguous pictures of people, situations
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12Contrasting Inventories and Projective Tests• Self-report tests are highly standardized, easy to score, reliable, and valid, but their accuracy depends on the accuracy, honesty of the person taking the test• Projective tests help people open up, talk about themselves, but interpretation of responses can vary widely across testers• Both kinds are widely used
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 Determining How Personality Develops: Learning Goals1. Describe Freud’s psychodynamic theory of personality and mind.2. Summarize and evaluate humanistic approaches to personality.3. Describe social-cognitive theories of personality.
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 Freud’s Psychodynamic Approach• Psychodynamic theory holds that much of behavior is governed by unconscious forces• Mind is divided into three parts: – Conscious mind contains things that occupy one’s current attention – Preconscious mind contains things that aren’t currently in consciousness but can be accessed – Unconscious mind contains memories, urges, and conflicts that are beyond awareness
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 Role of the Unconscious Mind• Contains memories, urges that are forbidden or dangerous (more on this later) – These are kept from consciousness but can still cause problems• Dreams express contents of unconscious mind – Manifest content: What you remember – Latent content: True meaning
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 The Structure of Personality• Id: Governed by inborn instinctual drives, especially those related to sex, aggression – Obeys the pleasure principle• Superego: Motivates people to act in an ideal fashion, according to moral customs – Obeys the idealistic principle• Ego: Induces people to act with reason and deliberation, conform to outside world – Obeys the reality principle
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 Defense Mechanisms• Different parts of personality are in constant conflict, especially with regard to the id – Defense mechanisms ward off the resulting anxiety from these confrontations • These are unconscious• Often involve self-deception or replacing one urge with another
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 The Arsenal of Defense Mechanisms• Denial• Rationalization• Projection• Reaction formation• Sublimation
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 Psychosexual Development• Conflicts, memories, urges in unconscious mind come from experiences in childhood – Emerging sexuality, pleasure, is the focus of many stages of development• Failure to move through a stage properly leads to fixation – Fixated individuals continue to act in ways appropriate for a much earlier stage
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 Stages of Psychosexual Development• First year: Oral stage – Pleasure comes from sucking, putting things in mouth – Fixation at this stage can cause overeating, smoking, nail-biting• Second year: Anal stage – Pleasure comes from retaining or passing feces – Fixation at this stage can cause excessive neatness or excessive messiness
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 Stages of Psychosexual Development, Continued…• Ages 3 to 5: Phallic stage – Pleasure comes from self-stimulation of genitals – Fixation here can cause relationship, sexual problems; also Oedipus complex• Ages 5 to puberty: Latency period – Sexual feelings suppressed• Puberty to adulthood: Genital stage – Mature sexual relationships
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 Adler, Jung, and Horney• Emphasized sexuality less than Freud did• Adler -- emphasized the role of a sense of inferiority – inferiority complex• Jung -- emphasized creative life force, collective unconscious, and archetypes• Horney -- rebelled against Freud’s male- dominated views. – Emphasized beliefs about oneself
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 Evaluating Psychodynamic Theory• Extremely influential, but not accepted by many modern psychologists• Criticisms: – Lack of scientific evidence – Over-reliance on case studies of disturbed individuals – Biased against women – Pessimistic view of human nature
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 Humanistic Approaches to Personality• Focuses on people’s unique capacity for choice, responsibility, and growth• Rogers: Personality comes from self-concept – Problems arise from incongruence between self- concept and experiences, “conditions of worth”• Maslow: Personality reflects where you are in a hierarchy of needs – We all have a need for self-actualization – Problems arise from failure to satisfy needs
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 Evaluating Humanistic Theories• Also influential• Emphasis on personal choice, responsibility, free will balance Freud’s ideas well• Criticisms: – Hard to predict or explain why drive for growth, self-actualization are sometimes expressed and sometimes not – Depends too much on self-report – Too optimistic?
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12Social-Cognitive Approaches to Personality• Experience, plus how people interpret experience, determine personality growth and development• Rooted in the behaviorist tradition; emphasize learned behaviors over innate ones• Important concepts: – Locus of control – Self-efficacy – Reciprocal determinism
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 Evaluating Social-Cognitive Theories• Idea that some personality traits are learned is widely accepted, as is the role of cognitive factors in learning• Criticisms: – Overemphasize how a person responds in particular situations rather than on traits of person as a whole – Underemphasize biological, genetic factors in development
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 Resolving the Person-Situation Debate: Learning Goals2. Define the person-situation debate and discuss its components.3. Discuss how genetic factors influence personality.
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 The Person-Situation Debate• Do people really behave consistently across situations, or is behavior just determined by the situation? – Evidence suggests there’s more consistency within the same kind of situation, less across different situations – Self-monitoring is one determinant of consistency• Most psychologists believe that personality and situation interact
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12 Genetic Factors• Are identical twins highly similar in personality, even when raised apart? – MMPI scores indicate higher degree of similarity between identical twins than between fraternal twins, irrespective of raising environment• At least some traits genetically determined – However: How they are expressed may depend on environment
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 12