Pscyhology 101: Chapter8

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  • The Chapter 8 slides are relevant to APA Outcome 1.2a(1). Specific slides are additionally relevant to other outcomes as noted on the notes page associated with the relevant slide.
  • Figure 8.1. Panel 1: How the subject thinks about the word CAT will affect how that word is encoded into memory. Panel 2: CAT might be stored in long-term memory by activating existing knowledge structures. Panel 3: The person uses the cue ANIMAL to help retrieve the memory of CAT.
  • Figure 8.2. After presentation of the display, a tone indicates the row of letters to be recalled. As the subject attempts to recall them, the visual iconic memory fades and becomes less and less accurate. When only part of the display is to be recalled, most of the relevant information can be reported before the image is completely lost.
  • Figure 8.4. The amount of information that can be stored in short-term memory depends on rehearsal, which you can think of as roughly analogous to juggling. You return to each rapidly fading short-term memory trace and reactivate it through rehearsal before it is permanently forgotten. “Chunking” the material makes it easier to rehearse and therefore remember the information.
  • This slide and the next six describe elaboration and several mnemonic techniques that may be used to enhance everyday memory. Outcome 4.4 is thus relevant.
  • Figure 8.6. When we are asked to recall a list of items, our performance often depends on the temporal, or serial, position of the entries in the list. Items at the beginning of the list are remembered relatively well -- the primacy effect -- and so are items at the end of the list - the recency effect. This slide may provide an opportunity to instruct quantitative literacy, Outcome 7.3.
  • Figure 8.7. To-be-remembered items are mentally placed in various locations along a familiar path. They should now be remembered easily because visual imagery promotes an elaborate memory trace and because the stored locations are easy to access.
  • Figure 8.8. Memory often depends on how well retrieval cues match the way information was originally studied or encoded. Suppose you’re asked to remember the word pair BANK-WAGON. You form a visual image of a wagon teetering on the edge of a river bank. When presented later with the retrieval cue BANK, you’re more likely to remember WAGON if you interpret the cue as something bordering a river than as a place to keep money.
  • Figure 8.9. It’s useful to study material with the same type of mental processes that you’ll be required to use when tested. Suppose you form a visual image of a to-be-remembered word (panel 1). If the test requires you to recognize an image of the word, you should do well (panel 2). But if the test asks how the word sounds (panel 3) or whether the word was presented originally in upper- or lowercase letters (panel 4), you’re likely to perform poorly. You need to study in a way that is appropriate for the test.
  • The Loftus work on the malleability of memory, eyewitness memory, and so on is relevant to Outcome 4.3, the application of psychology to social issues and public policy.
  • Figure 8.10. Loftus and Palmer (1974) found that students remembered cars traveling faster when retrieval instructions used the word “smashed” instead of “contacted.” All subjects saw the same film, but their different schemas for the words “smashed” and “contacted” presumably caused them to reconstruct their memories differently.
  • Figure 8.12. The German philosopher Hermann Ebbinghaus memorized lists of nonsense syllables and then measured how long it took to relearn the same material after various delays. Fifty percent savings means it took half as long to relearn the list as it did to learn it originally; 0% savings would mean that it took as long to relearn the list as it did to learn the list originally. This slide may provide an opportunity to instruct quantitative literacy, Outcome 7.3.
  • Figure 8.13. The activities that occur after learning affect how well stored information is remembered. In this study by Jenkins and Dallenbach (1924), the students remembered better if they slept during the retention interval than if they remained awake. Presumably, the waking activities caused interference. This slide may provide an opportunity to instruct quantitative literacy, Outcome 7.3.
  • The issue of the accuracy of memories for sexual abuse relate to Outcome 4.3. Critically evaluating such claims in light of scientific work on memory also relates to Outcomes 3.1 and 5.3.
  • Pscyhology 101: Chapter8

    1. 1. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8Chapter 8 Memory
    2. 2. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8What’s It For? Remembering and Forgetting• Remembering Over the Short Term• Storing Information for the Long Term• Recovering Information With Cues• Updating Memory
    3. 3. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 Memory: Overview• Memory: The capacity to preserve and recover information• Involves several important processes: – Encoding: How memories are formed – Storage: How memories are kept over time – Retrieval: How memories are recovered and translated into performance
    4. 4. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8
    5. 5. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 Remembering Over the Short Term: Learning Goals1. Discuss how visual and auditory sensory memories can be measured.2. Describe how information is represented, maintained, and forgotten over the short term.
    6. 6. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 Sensory Memory• Exact replica of an environmental message which usually lasts for a second or less – Iconic memory (vision) – Echoic memory (hearing)• Sperling’s procedure for measuring it: Show visual array very briefly, ask for partial report (just one row) – Partial report much better than full report• Efron’s observation: Sounds seem to linger
    7. 7. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8
    8. 8. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 Short-Term Memory• A system we use to temporarily store, think about, reason with information• Also called “working memory”: a mental workspace• The “inner voice” – We tend to recode (translate) information into inner speech• The “inner eye” – We can also code information visually using images
    9. 9. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8Evidence For The Inner Voice And Inner Eye• Inner voice: – Mistakes made during short-term recall tend to sound like, but not look like, the correct items • Example: Might mistake “B” for “V”• Inner eye: – Judgments made based on mental images are similar to those based on actual pictures
    10. 10. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 Short-Term Forgetting• Can prolong short-term memories indefinitely through rehearsal (internal repetition)• Without rehearsal, memories disappear after 1-2 seconds
    11. 11. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 What’s The Capacity Of Short-Term Memory?• Memory span: Number of items that can be recalled from short-term memory, in order, on half of the tested memory trials – It’s about 7 plus or minus 2 items• Not absolute; also depends on – How quickly items can be rehearsed – Chunking • Rearranging incoming information into meaningful or familiar patterns
    12. 12. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8
    13. 13. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 The Working Memory Model• Several distinct mechanisms: – Phonological loop: Like the inner voice; stores word sounds – Visuospatial sketchpad: Stores visual and spatial information – Central executive: Determines which mechanism to use, coordinates among them• Brain damage can selectively affect a single mechanism without affecting others
    14. 14. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 Storing Information for the Long Term: Learning Goals1. Define episodic, semantic, and procedural memories.2. Explain why it’s important to form an elaborate and distinctive memory record.3. Describe some simple mnemonic techniques.
    15. 15. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 What’s Stored in Long-Term Memory?• Episodic memory: Memory of a particular event or episode that happened to you personally• Semantic memory: Knowledge about the world, stored as facts that make little/no reference to one’s personal experiences• Procedural memory: Knowledge about how to do things – Includes athletic skills, everyday skills such as bike riding, shoe tying
    16. 16. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 Elaboration• An encoding process that involves forming connections between to-be-remembered input and other information in memory – Helps you retrieve the information later• Ways to promote elaboration: – Think about meaning – Notice relationships – Notice differences• Tends to produce distinctive memories, which are easier to retrieve
    17. 17. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 Other Ways to Achieve Elaboration• Form mental pictures – Forces you to think about details• Space repetitions – Distributed practice: Practice material at intervals; do something else in between• Consider sequence position – Memory for items in a list is best for those at the beginning (primacy) and end (recency)
    18. 18. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8
    19. 19. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 Mnemonic Techniques• Mental tricks that help people think about material in ways that improve memory – Most depend on visual imagery• Method of loci: Choose a familiar pathway, then form visual images of to-be-remembered items sitting along the pathway• Peg-word method: Form visual images connecting to-be-remembered items with retrieval cues (“pegs”) – Variation: Linkword method • Link sound to meaning, imagery
    20. 20. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8
    21. 21. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 Flashbulb Memories• Rich records of the circumstances surrounding emotionally significant and surprising events• Example events that could produce flashbulb memories: Kennedy assassination, Challenger disaster, attacks of 9/11/01• Surprisingly, these can be inaccurate – We tend to incorporate later experiences into our memories
    22. 22. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 Recovering Information From Cues: Learning Goals1. Discuss the importance of retrieval cues in remembering.2. Explain the role of schemas in reconstructive memory.3. Discuss the differences between explicit and implicit memory.
    23. 23. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 The Importance of Retrieval Cues• Compare these testing conditions: – Free recall: Remember information without explicit retrieval cues – Cued recall: Remember based on a cue• Cued recall produces substantially better performance• Conclusion: Cues play a critical role in recall
    24. 24. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 How Cues Work• Encoding-retrieval match: Better memory when cue matches the memory that was encoded• Transfer-appropriate processing: Using the same kinds of mental processes during study and testing improves memory – Using same processes ensures that during study, you will attend to the cues that will be present when you try to recall
    25. 25. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8
    26. 26. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8
    27. 27. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 Reconstructive Remembering:• We tend to “fill in” parts of our memories based on past experience, expectations• Schemas: Organized knowledge structure in long-term memory, as clusters of related facts – We sometimes distort memories to fit schemas • Famous example: “The War of the Ghosts” (Bartlett)
    28. 28. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 Other Research on Reconstruction• Loftus and Palmer (1974): Speed estimates for a witnessed car crash are affected by wording of the question – Example: “Smashed” versus “contacted”• False memory paradigm – Example: bed rest awake tired dream… leads to falsely remembering sleep• Reconstruction is probably adaptive, but can result in memory errors
    29. 29. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8
    30. 30. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 Remembering Without Awareness: Implicit Memory• Remembering that occurs in the absence of conscious awareness or willful intent – Contrast to explicit memory: Conscious, willful remembering – Example implicit memory test: Completing a fragment of a word or picture• Encoding-retrieval match matters here too – But: Elaboration has a much reduced effect on implicit memory
    31. 31. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 Updating Memory: Learning Goals1. Discuss the contributions of Ebbinghaus and explain why forgetting is often adaptive.2. Describe the mechanisms that cause forgetting, including decay and retroactive and proactive interference.3. Discuss motivated forgetting, and the case for repression.4. Describe retrograde and anterograde amnesia, and explain where memories might be stored in the brain.
    32. 32. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 How Quickly Do We Forget?• Depends on – How it was initially encoded – Whether it was encountered again later – Kinds of retrieval cues present at time of remembering• Ebbinghaus’ work: Documented the forgetting function – Rapid loss, followed by gradual decline – Based on memory for nonsense syllables
    33. 33. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8
    34. 34. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 Why Is Forgetting Adaptive?• Must update memory, discriminate one occurrence from another – Example: Where you parked your car today, not yesterday• Case of “S.,” who could not forget (Luria)
    35. 35. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 Why Do We Forget?• Decay: Idea that memories fade with time – However: This can’t explain why “forgotten” memories can be retrieved with the right cues• More plausible: Interference – Retroactive interference: Formation of new memories hurts retention of old memories – Proactive interference: Old memories interfere with the establishment and recovery of new memories
    36. 36. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8
    37. 37. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 Motivated Forgetting• Refers to times when it’s better to forget, or when we consciously try to do so• The evidence for repression: – We do tend to recall more pleasant than unpleasant things – Some people report not being able to recall sexual abuse, and documented sexual abuse is not always recalled in adulthood• However, we may simply rehearse pleasant events more, not actively repress bad ones
    38. 38. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 8 The Neuroscience of Forgetting• Amnesia: Forgetting caused by physical problems in the brain• Retrograde amnesia affects events that happened prior to the point of injury – Often a temporary result of injury• Anterograde amnesia affects events that happened after the point of injury – Tends to be permanent – However, implicit memory may be spared

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