Psychology 101: Chapter 10
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Psychology 101: Chapter 10

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  • The Chapter 10 slides are relevant to APA Outcome 1.2a(2). Specific slides are additionally relevant to other outcomes as noted on the notes page associated with the relevant slide.
  • The discussions of Galton and Spearman on this and the following slide is relevant to the history of psychology, Outcome 1.2b.
  • Figure 10.1. Spearman discovered that to explain performance on a viarety of mental tests it was necessary to consider (1) a common factor, called g for general intelligence, that contributes to performance on all of the tests, and (2) specific factors - labeled as s 1 through s 7 - that are specific to the particular tests.
  • Figure 10.2. Many psychologists now propose hierarchical models of intelligence that include elements found in the theories of both Spearman and Thurstone. Like Thurstone, hierarchical models propose separate factors that contribute independently to certain types of tests (for example, factor 1 contributes to tests 1-3, but not to tests 4-9). Like Spearman, these models also assume that each of the separate factors is influenced by an overall g .
  • The discussion of the properties of good tests on this and the following 2 slides are relevant to Outcomes 2.3 and 4.2c.
  • Figure 10.3. IQ scores for a given age group are typically distributed in a bell-shaped, or normal, curve. The average and most frequently occurring IQ score is defined as 100. Roughly 68% of the test takers in this age group receive IQ scores between 115 and 85, one standard deviation above and below the mean. People labeled “gifted,” with an IQ of 130 and above, or “retarded,” with an IQ of 70 or below, occur infrequently in the overall population. This slide is relevant to Outcomes 7.3c and 2.3.
  • The slides in this major section relate to Outcomes 1.2d(1) and 2.6.
  • Figure 10.5. Data from the Seattle Longitudinal Study show how performance changes on a variety of mental tasks between the ages of 25 and 88. Notice that average performance is remarkably stable up to about age 60, when some declines are seen. (Data from Schaie, 1983.) This slide is relevant to 7.3c.
  • Figure 10.6. The horizontal bars show the mean correlation coefficients for pairs of people with differing amounts of genetic overlap who have been reared in similar or different environments. For example, the top bar shows the average correlation for identical twins who have been reared together in the same environment, and the bottom bar shows the correlation coefficient for adopted siblings reared together. Higher correlations mean that the measured IQ scores are more similar. (Data from Bouchard & McGue, 1981.) This slide is relevant to 7.3c.
  • This slide is relevant to Outcome 1.2d(6).
  • Figure 10.7. In the plant analogy, all variation in plant height within one pot is due to genetics, but the overall height difference between plants in one pot and plants in the other is attributable to the differing environments (rich soil versus poor soil).

Psychology 101: Chapter 10 Psychology 101: Chapter 10 Presentation Transcript

  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10 Chapter 10Intelligence
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10 What’s It For? The Study of Intelligence• Conceptualizing Intelligence• Measuring Individual Differences• Discovering the Sources of Intelligence
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10 Conceptualizing Intelligence: Learning Goals2. Understand the psychometric approach to intelligence, including Spearman’s two-factor theory.3. Distinguish between fluid and crystallized intelligence.4. Explain how the speed of neural transmission might influence intelligence.5. Evaluate the various theories of multiple intelligences.
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10 What Is Intelligence?• Adaptive mind perspective: Ability to solve the problems that are unique to your environment – Advantage of this perspective: Isn’t unique to humans – Disadvantage: Does not consider individual differences
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10 Psychometrics: Measuring the Mind• Psychometric view: Intelligence is a mental capacity that can be understood by analyzing performance on mental tests• First attempts at psychometrics carried out by Galton (1822-1911) – Conducted batteries of sensory, physical, intellectual tests – However: Scores were poor predictors of real-world performance
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10 Spearman’s Work in Psychometrics• Developed factor analysis – A procedure that groups together related items on tests by analyzing correlations • Scores that reflect a single underlying ability should correlate• Argued that a single factor, g, underlies performance on a variety of mental tests• But: A separate factor, s (for specific intelligence), is unique to each particular test – Two-factor theory: g and s
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10 Hierarchical Models• Some argue for several kinds of primary mental ability instead of just one g – Examples include verbal comprehension, verbal fluency, numerical ability, spatial ability, memory, perceptual speed, reasoning• Hierarchical idea: g exists but is made up of subfactors (abilities) that may operate independently from one another
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10 Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence• Many researchers accept the idea of general intelligence but divide it into two components• Fluid intelligence: Ability to solve problems, reason, and remember – Relatively uninfluenced by experience, schooling• Crystallized intelligence: Knowledge and abilities acquired as a result of experience – Reflects schooling, cultural background
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10Multiple Intelligences: Gardner’s Case Study Approach• People sometimes show specialized skills or abilities that are not representative of a general ability – A person can have great skills in one area, but deficits in another area• Gardner’s view: An intelligence is an ability that permits problem solving or making of products in one particular area – Study this by looking at individuals with special abilities or talents
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10 Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences• Musical• Bodily-kinesthetic• Logical-mathematical• Linguistic• Spatial• Interpersonal• Intrapersonal• Naturalist
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10Multiple Intelligences: Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory• Combines Gardner’s broad conception of intelligence with a concern for the mental operations that underlie each part of intelligence• Three parts: – Analytic intelligence – Creative intelligence – Practical intelligence
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10 Measuring Individual Differences: Learning Goals2. Understand the components of a good test.3. Understand and evaluate IQ.4. Define mental retardation and giftedness.5. Assess the validity of IQ tests and the effects of labeling.6. Contrast creativity, emotional intelligence, and tacit knowledge.
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10 Characteristics of Good Intelligence Tests• Reliability – Reliable tests: Similar results with repeated administration to the same person• Validity – Valid tests: Test measures what it is supposed to measure• Standardization – Standardized tests: Testing, scoring, and interpretation are the same for each test taker across all administrations
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10 Types of Validity• Content validity: Does it sample broadly from the domain of interest?• Predictive validity: Does it predict a future outcome, such as job or school success?• Construct validity: How well a test applies to a particular theoretical construct
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10 IQ: The Intelligence Quotient• Invented in 1904 by French psychologists Binet and Simon – Purpose: Identify students with special educational needs• Mental age: Chronological age that best fits a child’s level of performance, calculated by comparing with average test scores from different age groups – Intelligence quotient: [Mental age / Chronological age] * 100
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10 Another Approach: Deviation IQ• An intelligence score derived from determining where your performance sits in an age-based distribution of test scores – Average score for a particular age group = 100; score determined by how much more or less you scored relative to others in your age group• Helps overcome problem of comparing scores across age groups
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10Extremes of Intelligence: Mental Retardation• Definition: Scoring below 70 on a standard IQ test• Affects between 1% and 3% of population – Many are able to live independently• Many causes, including – Genetic abnormalities – Environmental factors – Teratogens
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10 Giftedness• Definition: Scoring above 130 on a standard IQ test• Do gifted children grow up to be successful, socially well adjusted, and happy? – Some research suggests yes (Terman) – Profoundly gifted children do seem to show some emotional, social problems as adults (Winner)• A special case: Savants, who have amazing abilities in only limited domains – Associated with disorders such as autism
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10 How Valid Is IQ?• Different specific IQ tests: WAIS, WISC, Stanford-Binet• These tend to correlate well with school performance, but not as well with broader measures of how a person adapts to environment• Labeling effects: Does being labeled as high IQ or low IQ tend to affect educational opportunities? – If so, IQ can become a self-fulfilling prophecy
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10Individual Differences Related to Intelligence• Creativity: Ability to generate ideas that are original, novel, useful – Not well correlated to IQ• Emotional intelligence: Ability to perceive, understand, express emotion in useful, adaptive ways• Tacit knowledge: Unspoken practical knowledge about how to perform a job well – Usually not assessed by IQ tests
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10 Discovering the Sources of Intelligence: Learning Goals1. Understand how IQ changes with age.2. Explaining how twin studies are used to evaluate genetic contributions to intelligence.3. Understand environmental influences on intelligence and how they interact with genetic influences.
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10 The Stability of IQ• Results of longitudinal studies suggest IQ is fairly stable until about age 60 – Studied longitudinally, meaning studying the same people repeatedly as they age• After age 60, no drastic loss in IQ• Crystallized intelligence declines less than fluid intelligence – May reflect an aging brain combined with the addition of new knowledge
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10 Stability of IQ in Populations: The Flynn Effect• IQ test performance in general seems to be rising over time – Decade-by-decade increases observed since 1930s• Explanations for the Flynn Effect? – Better nutrition? – Exposure to new technologies? – Exposure to preschool or day care?• True cause remains a mystery
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10 Genetic Influences on Intelligence: Twin Studies• Compare IQ scores of twins separated through adoption – Fraternal twins: Different genetics – Identical twins: Identical genetics. Tend to have more similar IQs than fraternal twins• Heritability: Mathematical index of the extent to which IQ differences can be accounted for by genetic factors – Many researchers propose 70% heritability for intelligence
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10 The Case for Environmental Influences on Intelligence• Many researchers agree on some degree of heritability, but not 100% – Therefore, environment has some role• Controversial issue: What accounts for ethnic group differences in IQ scores? – Probably not genetics – Other sources: Economic differences, test bias, cultural experiences that lead to good test performance
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10 Other Factors That May Cause Between- Group IQ Differences• Test bias – Most traditional IQ tests written, administered, and scored by White, middle-class psychologists – Terms, expressions, knowledge tested might be unfamiliar to some individuals• Stereotype threat: People’s expectations affect how they score – Example: African Americans may expect to do poorly on intelligence tests
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10 How “Nature” and “Nurture” Might Interact• Recall from chapter 3: Genotype versus phenotype – Environment affects how genes are expressed • Example: Environment and genes determine how tall a particular plant will grow• “Two-way street” between genes and experience – Having certain genes also affects the experiences you will have
  • Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 10