Descriptions of ethical theories and principles


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Descriptions of ethical theories and principles

  1. 1. Presented by Douglas Borcoman
  2. 2. <ul><li>Ethical theories and principles are the foundations of ethical analysis because they are the viewpoints from which guidance can be obtained along the pathway to a decision. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Clearly State the Problem/Conflict </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Generate a list of moral principles and ideals you might appeal to in order to solve the dilemma or problem and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses associated with each. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Based on your evaluation of alternatives, make an argument that identifies or concludes in what ought or ought not be done.--or the course of action that is most likely to solve the problem in the best possible way </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Observations/facts </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal to principles or ideals </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration of basic obligations, duties and rights </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration of consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Premise 1 : Congestion lessens quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>Premise 2 : Everyone has a right to living a quality life </li></ul><ul><li>Premise 3: The greatest number of people will benefit by lessening congestion </li></ul><ul><li>Premise 4 : Building an airport will likely result in increased congestion </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion : We should not build an airport </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The principle of beneficence guides the ethical theory to do what is good. This priority to &quot;do good&quot; makes an ethical perspective and possible solution to an ethical dilemma acceptable. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words: We should go out and try to help and evaluate our actions in light of our willingness to do good unto others. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>This is similar to beneficence, but deals with situations in which neither choice is beneficial. In this case, a person should choose to do the least harm possible and to do harm to the fewest people. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words: Act in such a way as to minimize pain and suffering. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>This principle states that an ethical theory should allow people to reign over themselves and to be able to make decisions that apply to their lives. This means that people should have control over their lives as much as possible because they are the only people who completely understand their chosen type of lifestyle. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>In the US Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>In the Universal Declaration of Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>No one else is entitled to have control over you. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The justice ethical principle states that ethical theories should prescribe actions that are fair to those involved. This means that ethical decisions should be consistent with the ethical theory unless extenuating circumstances that can be justified exist in the case. </li></ul><ul><li>Justice equals Fair Treatment </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The deontological theory states that people should adhere to their obligations and duties when analyzing an ethical dilemma. This means that a person will follow his or her obligations to another individual or society because upholding one's duty is what is considered ethically correct </li></ul><ul><li>Kant and the Categorical Imperative </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>The utilitarian ethical theory is founded on the ability to predict the consequences of an action. To a utilitarian, the choice that yields the greatest benefit to the most people is the choice that is ethically correct </li></ul><ul><li>Mill-act so as to generate the greatest good for the greatest number </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>In the rights ethical theory the rights set forth by a society are protected and given the highest priority. Rights are considered to be ethically correct and valid since a large or ruling population endorses them </li></ul><ul><li>Society tells us what is right— </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand Natural Rights stem from God or the Universe. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>The casuist ethical theory is one that compares a current ethical dilemma with examples of similar ethical dilemmas and their outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>This is similar to the case-by-case argument—by comparing examples and outcomes, we can generate a profile. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>The virtue ethical theory judges a person by his character rather than by an action that may deviate from his normal behavior. It takes the person's morals, reputation and motivation into account when rating an unusual and irregular behavior that is considered unethical </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates, Aristotle, Plato </li></ul>