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Chapter Three The Case For Moral Objectivism <ul><li>The theory that moral principles have objective validity. </li></ul><...
Moral Objectivism <ul><li>The view that there are universal moral principles, valid for all people and all situations and ...
Two Cases for Moral Objectivism <ul><li>One explanation appeals to Divine </li></ul><ul><li>Law and Human Sin. </li></ul><...
Moral Absolutism <ul><li>The notion that there is only one morally correct answer to every moral problem. </li></ul><ul><l...
Natural Law <ul><li>First appeared among the Stoics </li></ul><ul><li>in first century BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Stoics believ...
Natural Law <ul><li>Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) </li></ul><ul><li>Combined cosmic law with Aristotle’s </li></ul><ul><li>co...
Doctrine of Double Effect <ul><li>Four Conditions for an act to be permissible: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The nature of the ac...
Core Morality <ul><li>Ten principles that are considered necessary for the good life within </li></ul><ul><li>a flourishin...
Examples of Core Morality <ul><li>Do not kill innocent people. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not lie or deceive. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Principle of Humanity <ul><li>Although there are many differences </li></ul><ul><li>between human beings and </li></ul><ul...
Ethical Situationalism <ul><li>Objective moral principles are to be </li></ul><ul><li>applied differently in different  </...
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Chapter3: Moral Objectivism

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Transcript of "Chapter3: Moral Objectivism"

  1. 1. Chapter Three The Case For Moral Objectivism <ul><li>The theory that moral principles have objective validity. </li></ul><ul><li>This validity is independent of cultural acceptance. </li></ul><ul><li>Moral principles are universal, but not </li></ul><ul><li>necessarily without exception. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Moral Objectivism <ul><li>The view that there are universal moral principles, valid for all people and all situations and times. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Two Cases for Moral Objectivism <ul><li>One explanation appeals to Divine </li></ul><ul><li>Law and Human Sin. </li></ul><ul><li>Another explanation is Natural Law </li></ul><ul><li>which holds that morality is a </li></ul><ul><li>function of human nature and the </li></ul><ul><li>moral principles can be found in </li></ul><ul><li>looking at humanity and society. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Moral Absolutism <ul><li>The notion that there is only one morally correct answer to every moral problem. </li></ul><ul><li>There are moral principles that a </li></ul><ul><li>person ought never violate. </li></ul><ul><li>Moral norms are exceptionless. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Natural Law <ul><li>First appeared among the Stoics </li></ul><ul><li>in first century BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Stoics believed that humans had </li></ul><ul><li>a divine spark – logos spermatikos </li></ul><ul><li>The universe is governed by rational </li></ul><ul><li>laws which all creation obeys </li></ul><ul><li>Humans, however, have power of </li></ul><ul><li>choice </li></ul>
  6. 6. Natural Law <ul><li>Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) </li></ul><ul><li>Combined cosmic law with Aristotle’s </li></ul><ul><li>concept that humans, like every </li></ul><ul><li>natural object, have a specific </li></ul><ul><li>purpose and function. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that the reasoning process </li></ul><ul><li>has the purpose to discover these </li></ul><ul><li>natural laws </li></ul>
  7. 7. Doctrine of Double Effect <ul><li>Four Conditions for an act to be permissible: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The nature of the act condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The means-end condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The right-intention condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The proportionality condition </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Core Morality <ul><li>Ten principles that are considered necessary for the good life within </li></ul><ul><li>a flourishing human community </li></ul><ul><li>They are not arbitrary and constitute </li></ul><ul><li>the elements of a successful society </li></ul><ul><li>necessary for social cohesion and </li></ul><ul><li>personal well being. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Examples of Core Morality <ul><li>Do not kill innocent people. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not lie or deceive. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not steal or cheat. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your promises and honor your </li></ul><ul><li>contracts. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Principle of Humanity <ul><li>Although there are many differences </li></ul><ul><li>between human beings and </li></ul><ul><li>cultures, our basic nature is the </li></ul><ul><li>same. </li></ul><ul><li>We are all vulnerable to disease, </li></ul><ul><li>despair, and death. </li></ul><ul><li>We have more in common than we </li></ul><ul><li>have in differences. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ethical Situationalism <ul><li>Objective moral principles are to be </li></ul><ul><li>applied differently in different </li></ul><ul><li>contexts. </li></ul><ul><li>Different from ethical relativism which denies universal ethical principles altogether. </li></ul>
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