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    Chapter10 Chapter10 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter Ten: Religion and Ethics
      • Religion has profoundly affected human conscious life and moral behavior for over two thousand years.
      • For Western Civilization, Morality has been identified with adherence to religion.
    • For Western Civilization:
      • To act immorally is essentially to disobey God.
      • Religion has dominated the moral landscape to appear to be indistinguishable from morality.
      • Most people identify morality with religion.
    • Exceptions:
      • Confucianism: Essentially a secular system of ethics
      • Non-theist Buddhism: Also, a secular system of ethics.
      • Greek Philosophers: Contemplated morality independently of religion
    • Divine Command Theory
      • Ethical principles are simply the commands of God.
      • They derive their validity from God commanding them.
      • Without God there would be no universally valid morality.
    • Autonomy Thesis
      • Opposed to the Divine Command Theory
      • Denies the thesis of the Divine Command Theory
      • Claims that morality does not originate with God
      • Rightness and Wrongness are not dependent on God’s Will
      • There are independent ways to act
    • Religious and Secular Ethics
      • Kant claimed that both humans and God must obey the same rational principles
      • Being moral is our duty to God
      • We ought to be moral, which means we can be moral and therefore, we are able to reach moral perfection, but being imperfect beings, it will not occur in this lifetime.
    • Religion and Secular Ethics
      • Some claim that morality based in religion is an inferior brand of morality and prevents true moral development.
      • Some say that morality based in religion is not deeply rooted and is superficial.
      • Some say that morality based in religion requires that a person give up his or her rational autonomy.
    • Does Religion Enhance Moral Life?
      • If there is a God, good will win out over evil.
      • If God exists, then cosmic justice reigns in the universe.
      • If Theism is true, moral reasons always override nonmoral reasons.
    • Does Religion Enhance Moral Life?
      • If there is a God who created us in his image, all persons are of equal worth.
      • If God exists, we have a compelling solution to the posterity problem.
      • However, Religions have done harm to humanity throughout history and doubt still exists about theories of God.