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MetaEthics: Fact Value

MetaEthics: Fact Value



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Chapt12a Chapt12a Presentation Transcript

  •  Philosophizing about ethics  Analyzing the terms used in ethical discourse Unpacking the structure of ethical theory
  •  The theory that value statements can be defined in terms of factual statements. Fact: What is signified by empirically verifiable statements. Value: What is signified by an evaluation of a sentence.Reference:
  •  The theory that moral facts exist but are not natural. Moral facts are discovered by intuition. The task for philosophers is to define the terms used and the source of the definition of the terms in philosophizing.
  •  This theory holds that moral judgments do not have truth values. Moral judgments are expressions of our attitudes. These judgments express our feelings and help us to persuade others to act as we desire.
  •  The ethical theory that the good or right thing to do can be known directly via the intuition. G. E. Moore claims that a concept like the ‘Good’ is unanalyzable.
  •  The Humean Thesis: Ought statements cannot be derived from ‘is’ statements. The Platonic Thesis: Basic value terms refer to nonnatural properties. The Cognitive Thesis: Moral statements are either true or false, which can be known. The Intuition Thesis: Moral truths are discovered by intuition and are self- evident upon reflection.
  •  Value judgments do not have truth values, they are more than mere expression of attitudes. Moral judgments are universal prescriptions. Moral judgments are given to guide actions.
  •  A dependency relationship between properties or facts of one type with properties or facts of another type. In metaethics, supervenience is the idea that moral properties supervene or emerge out of natural ones. For example, badness comes out of pain or goodness comes out of happiness.
  •  This principle states that if some act is wrong (or right) for one person in a situation, then it is wrong (or right) for any relevantly similar person in that kind of situation. It is a principle of consistency that aims to eliminate irrelevant considerations from ethical assessments.
  •  Principles are central to moral reasoning. Principles serve as major premises in our moral arguments. We acquire or learn a basic set of principles. Then we learn when to use or when to subordinate those principles. We choose when, where, and why to apply our specific principles.