Re s e a r c h Ne e d s i n
     Bi o me t r i c s
A F e d e r a l Pe r s p e c t i v e



          Duane Blackburn
     ...
T h e I mp o r t a n c e o f Sc i e n c e




                      Science for the 21st Century
          Executive Offic...
Qu e s t i o n s t o Po n d e r

• Will all interesting problems in biometrics
  be solved in the next fifteen years?
• Ho...
W a t Ma k e s So me t h i n g a Sc i e n c e ?
 h
• Debatable, some qualifiers could be:
   –   Intellectual content
   –...
Ku h n ’s Vi e w o n S c i e n c e


• “means research firmly based upon one or more
  past scientific achievements, achie...
F u r t h e r mo r e …


• “Kuhn suggested that questions about
  whether a discipline is or is not a science
  can be ans...
Bi o me t r i c s Hi s t o r y –
                                   T h e S h o r t Ve r s i o n
•   1880 – Bertillion
•  ...
Bi o me t r i c s Co n s o r t i u m Co n f e r e n c e
                                            At t e n d a n c e



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Bi o me t r i c s Co n s o r t i u m
                                                l i s t s e r v Me s s a g e s

     ...
Bi o me t r i c s Ca t a l o g
                                    Ne ws Ar t i c l e s



400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
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Bi o me t r i c s i n
                                                Ma i n s t r e a m Co mme r c e




Disclaimer
Use o...
Bi o me t r i c s i n Ho l l y wo o d




Use of Video Materials in this Presentation
Fair use is any copying of copyright...
“Bi o me t r i c s ” Re s e a r c h ?


• Research is “a strenuous and devoted
  attempt to force nature into the
  concep...
Bi o me t r i c s i n Un i v e r s i t i e s
• Most universities aren’t structured
  to promote cross-discipline
  activit...
Do W Al wa y s Re me mb e r o u r Ba s i c s ?
            e
• Bowyer, et al. “A Survey of 3D and Multi-Modal 3D+2D Face
 ...
Ar e we p u s h i n g o u r s e l v e s e n o u g h ?

• It seems biometric researchers
  publish multiple papers each
  y...
T h e Gr o wi n g Pe r c e p t i o n
My Vi e w
• Biometrics is a discipline, formed to address operational
  needs, that has a systems-based foundation made of...
Ku h n ’s “P a r a d i g ms ”


• Paradigm
  – “universally recognized scientific achievements that
    for a time provide...
T h e Be n e f i t o f a Pa r a d i g m


• Science progresses because members of a
  mature scientific community work fro...
On c e Co n s e n s u s
                                  Ac h i e v e d o n a P a r a d i g m

• A paradigm transforms a ...
A Bi o me t r i c s “P a r a d i g m”

• Kuhn – when paradigms first appear they
  are “limited in scope and in precision”...
Ho w d o we g e t t h e r e f r o m h e r e ?

• Refocus Research Efforts
  – Away from the “conceptual boxes supplied
   ...
Re f o c u s Re s e a r c h Ef f o r t s

• Work on operationally significant problems.
                             25   ...
Re f o c u s Re s e a r c h Ef f o r t s
• All research needs to be done in view of the system
  and its operational funct...
Re f o c u s Re s e a r c h Ef f o r t s
 • Be cognizant of, and develop technologies that are
   considerate of, social, ...
Sh a r e Re s u l t s i n t h e
Bi o me t r i c s Co mmu n i t y




            THE BIOMETRICS PARADIGM
             “Bio...
En s u r e Ac c u r a t e
                        P u b l i c Di s c u s s i o n s




- Science for the 21st Century
Mo r e Ac a d e mi c I n t e r e s t
                                                 i n Bi o me t r i c s




          ...
Su mma r y
• Our biometrics paradigm:
  – Bounds the problem (guides research)
  – Leaves lots of unanswered questions



...
I f t h e wo r l d d i d n ’t
                                                      h a v e b i o me t r i c s …




Discl...
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BCC 2004 - Research Needs In Biometrics

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This presentation describes federal research needs for biometrics, and was given at the 2004 Biometric Consortium Conference.

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BCC 2004 - Research Needs In Biometrics

  1. 1. Re s e a r c h Ne e d s i n Bi o me t r i c s A F e d e r a l Pe r s p e c t i v e Duane Blackburn September 21, 2004 duane.blackburn@ic.fbi.gov dblackbu@ostp.eop.gov
  2. 2. T h e I mp o r t a n c e o f Sc i e n c e Science for the 21st Century Executive Office of the President of the United States July 2004 http://www.ostp.gov/nstc/21stCentury/Final_sm.pdf Science and technology have never been more essential to the defense of the nation and the health of our economy. President George W. Bush
  3. 3. Qu e s t i o n s t o Po n d e r • Will all interesting problems in biometrics be solved in the next fifteen years? • How does the biometrics community progress? • Why do most researchers in biometrics not consider themselves “biometricians”? • Is biometrics a science?
  4. 4. W a t Ma k e s So me t h i n g a Sc i e n c e ? h • Debatable, some qualifiers could be: – Intellectual content – Testable hypotheses; Scientific Method – Underlying universal/fundamental laws – Based on peer review – A body of biometric-based scientific questions (similar to Hilbert’s math problems)? • Attracts the best and the brightest • Only the best and the brightest can solve • Are specifically related to the field • Cuts across all subtopics • May take decades to solve • Solving the problems bring academic prestige and fundamental knowledge, vice increased commercialization options • On the other hand, was Edison a scientist?
  5. 5. Ku h n ’s Vi e w o n S c i e n c e • “means research firmly based upon one or more past scientific achievements, achievements that some particular scientific community acknowledges for a time as supplying the foundation for its further practice. • These achievements must be – “Sufficiently unprecedented to attract an enduring group of adherents away from competing modes of scientific activity” and – “Sufficiently open-ended to leave all sorts of problems for the redefined group of practitioners to resolve” – Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962)
  6. 6. F u r t h e r mo r e … • “Kuhn suggested that questions about whether a discipline is or is not a science can be answered only when members of a scholarly community who doubt their status achieve consensus about their past and present accomplishments.” -Kuhn Outline and Study Guide, Frank Pajares, Emory University
  7. 7. Bi o me t r i c s Hi s t o r y – T h e S h o r t Ve r s i o n • 1880 – Bertillion • 1903 – Will and William West • 1963 - Fingerprint • 1964 – Voice • 1972 – Hand • 1976 – Retinal • 1983 – Signature • 1985 – Keystroke • 1987 – Face • 1992 – First Biometrics Consortium Conference • 1993 – Daubert v. Merrill Dow Pharmaceutical (509 U.S. 579) • 1994 – Iris • 1999 – IAFIS Operational • 2000 – Facial Recognition Vendor Test; CESG Biometrics Product Test • 2001 – Terrorist attacks (Boon to the industry, or worst thing that could have happened to it?)
  8. 8. Bi o me t r i c s Co n s o r t i u m Co n f e r e n c e At t e n d a n c e 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Oct 92 Jan 93 Jun 93 Nov 93 May 94 Oct 94 Mar 95 Jun 96 Apr 97 Dec 97 Sep 98 Sep 99 Sep 00 Feb 02 Sep 02 Sep 03
  9. 9. Bi o me t r i c s Co n s o r t i u m l i s t s e r v Me s s a g e s 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 • Very few discussions on biometrics research. Why? – Good scientific practice emphasizes an accumulation of peer-approved evidence, not persistent marketing of a theory/viewpoint to the point of submission.
  10. 10. Bi o me t r i c s Ca t a l o g Ne ws Ar t i c l e s 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 03 04 4 3 4 03 3 4 -0 l-0 l-0 -0 -0 v- n- p- ar ay ay Ju Ju No Ja Se M M M
  11. 11. Bi o me t r i c s i n Ma i n s t r e a m Co mme r c e Disclaimer Use of advertisements in this presentation is for demonstration purposes only and does not imply endorsement of any kind.
  12. 12. Bi o me t r i c s i n Ho l l y wo o d Use of Video Materials in this Presentation Fair use is any copying of copyrighted material done for a limited and "transformative" purpose such as to comment upon, criticize or parody a copyrighted work. Such uses can be done without permission from the copyright owner. http://fairuse.stanford.edu Disclaimer This presentation is not associated with or endorsed by any of the movie or television companies whose material is commented upon herein.
  13. 13. “Bi o me t r i c s ” Re s e a r c h ? • Research is “a strenuous and devoted attempt to force nature into the conceptual boxes supplied by professional education.” – Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
  14. 14. Bi o me t r i c s i n Un i v e r s i t i e s • Most universities aren’t structured to promote cross-discipline activities • Academic prestige doesn’t come from “biometrics” but from the individual disciplines • Young academics seem to have an above average degree of social consciousness. Do current technical research curriculums, by focusing strictly on technical issues, erode this consciousness?
  15. 15. Do W Al wa y s Re me mb e r o u r Ba s i c s ? e • Bowyer, et al. “A Survey of 3D and Multi-Modal 3D+2D Face Recognition.” Notre Dame Department of Computer Science & Engineering Technical Report, January 2004 – Seventeen research papers on 3D Face Recognition – Eleven showed performance ≥ 97% 200 180 160 # Subjects per Test 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Test Test Test Test Test Test Test Test Test Test Test 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
  16. 16. Ar e we p u s h i n g o u r s e l v e s e n o u g h ? • It seems biometric researchers publish multiple papers each year instead of focusing on one seminal paper. Why? – Is this what they are being funded to do? – Does the recent high interest in the technology, combined with the sparse number of respected researchers, lead to little competition to get published (i.e. – no pressure to write a good paper as anything written will be published)?
  17. 17. T h e Gr o wi n g Pe r c e p t i o n
  18. 18. My Vi e w • Biometrics is a discipline, formed to address operational needs, that has a systems-based foundation made of theories and truths from multiple scientific, sociological and legal fields. “All Science is Interdisciplinary” – 2003 Nobel Lecture Real advancement will not occur until we collectively reach this consensus and act accordingly.
  19. 19. Ku h n ’s “P a r a d i g ms ” • Paradigm – “universally recognized scientific achievements that for a time provide model problems and solutions to a community of practitioners.” – “acquisition of a paradigm and of the more esoteric type of research it permits is a sign of maturity in the development of any given scientific field” – Without a paradigm, research: • is more random • is restricted to data that is already available • results are oftentimes viewed as equally relevant • produces less scientific literature
  20. 20. T h e Be n e f i t o f a Pa r a d i g m • Science progresses because members of a mature scientific community work from a single paradigm or from a closely related set – help scientific communities bound their discipline in that they help the scientists to • Create avenues of inquiry • Formulate questions • Select methods with which to examine questions • Define areas of relevance -Kuhn Outline and Study Guide, Frank Pajares, Emory University
  21. 21. On c e Co n s e n s u s Ac h i e v e d o n a P a r a d i g m • A paradigm transforms a group into a profession or, at least a discipline. From this follow: – Formation of specialized journals – Foundation of professional societies – Claim to a special place in academe (and academe’s curriculum) – Promulgation of scholarly articles intended for and “addressed only to professional colleagues, whose knowledge of a shared paradigm can be assumed and who prove to be the only ones able to read the papers” – Textbooks A paradigm guides the whole group’s research, and it is this criterion that most clearly proclaims a field a science. -Kuhn Outline and Study Guide, Frank Pajares, Emory University
  22. 22. A Bi o me t r i c s “P a r a d i g m” • Kuhn – when paradigms first appear they are “limited in scope and in precision”. They “gain status because they are more successful…in solving a few problems that the group of practitioners has come to recognize as acute.” (acute: important/crucial) • An initial Biometrics Paradigm: “Biometrics is a discipline, formed to address operational needs, that has a systems-based foundation made of theories and truths from multiple scientific, sociological and legal fields.”
  23. 23. Ho w d o we g e t t h e r e f r o m h e r e ? • Refocus Research Efforts – Away from the “conceptual boxes supplied by professional education” – Towards our new biometrics paradigm • Application/Function driven • Research should be multidisciplinary • Maintains usage of scientific principles THE BIOMETRICS PARADIGM “Biometrics is a discipline, formed to address operational needs, that has a systems-based foundation made of theories and truths from multiple scientific, sociological and legal fields.”
  24. 24. Re f o c u s Re s e a r c h Ef f o r t s • Work on operationally significant problems. 25 FRVT 2002, FRVT 2002, Outdoor Pose Algorithm Error Rat Frequency of Score 20 Experimental Frequency 15 Control Algorithm Error Rate Frequency 10 5 0 0.00-0.05 0.05-0.10 0.10-0.15 0.15-0.20 0.20-0.25 0.25-0.30 0.30-0.35 0.35-0.40 0.40-0.45 0.45-0.50 0.50-0.55 0.55-0.60 0.60-0.65 0.65-0.70 0.70-0.75 0.75-0.80 0.80-0.85 0.85-0.90 0.90-0.95 0.95-1.00 Error Rate Bins THE BIOMETRICS PARADIGM • J.P. Phillips and E.M. Newton. "Meta- “Biometrics is a discipline, Analysis of Face Recognition Algorithms." formed to address operational Fifth IEEE International Conference on needs, that has a systems-based Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, Washington, D.C., May 2002 foundation made of theories and truths from multiple scientific, sociological and legal fields.”
  25. 25. Re f o c u s Re s e a r c h Ef f o r t s • All research needs to be done in view of the system and its operational function. THE BIOMETRICS PARADIGM “Biometrics is a discipline, formed to address operational needs, that has a systems-based foundation made of theories and truths from multiple scientific, sociological and legal fields.”
  26. 26. Re f o c u s Re s e a r c h Ef f o r t s • Be cognizant of, and develop technologies that are considerate of, social, legal and privacy issues – It is NOT someone else’s problem – Scientist’s non-technical thinking needs to go beyond simply obtaining IRB approval for experiments •But I’m a scientist –You’re a scientist working on operational systems –Before commercializing the lighting industry, Edison also had to invent light sockets with on-off switches! THE BIOMETRICS PARADIGM “Biometrics is a discipline, •Isn’t it better to do it now than at formed to address operational the end? needs, that has a systems-based foundation made of theories and truths from multiple scientific, sociological and legal fields.”
  27. 27. Sh a r e Re s u l t s i n t h e Bi o me t r i c s Co mmu n i t y THE BIOMETRICS PARADIGM “Biometrics is a discipline, formed to address operational needs, that has a systems-based foundation made of theories and truths from multiple scientific, sociological and legal fields.”
  28. 28. En s u r e Ac c u r a t e P u b l i c Di s c u s s i o n s - Science for the 21st Century
  29. 29. Mo r e Ac a d e mi c I n t e r e s t i n Bi o me t r i c s - Science for the 21st Century • The federal government (and other employers) need graduates that have solid backgrounds in technology, legal/social issues, and economics so they can solve real-world problems. • Biometrics is the perfect case study! – Relevant – No easy answers – Spans multiple disciplines – Lessons learned can be ported to other issues
  30. 30. Su mma r y • Our biometrics paradigm: – Bounds the problem (guides research) – Leaves lots of unanswered questions SCIENCE! • More than 15 years worth? – Promotes respect in academe • Attracts the best & brightest – “points us toward innovative solutions to today’s major challenges, provides the foundation for economic growth and development, and enhances our quality of life.” THE BIOMETRICS PARADIGM “Biometrics is a discipline, formed to address operational needs, that has a systems-based foundation made of theories and truths from multiple scientific, sociological and legal fields.”
  31. 31. I f t h e wo r l d d i d n ’t h a v e b i o me t r i c s … Disclaimer Use of advertisements in this presentation is for demonstration purposes only and does not imply endorsement of any kind.

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