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Attitudes 1

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  • 1. ATTITUDES A2 PHYSICAL EDUCATION Psychological Aspects
  • 2. LEARNING OUTCOMES • Definitions and components of attitudes • Influences on formation of an attitude and influences on behaviour • Changing attitudes through cognitive dissonance and persuasive communication
  • 3. ATTITUDES • An attitude is ‘a complex mix of feelings, beliefs and values that predisposes somebody to behave towards something or someone in a consistent way.’ • Attitudes are used to explain a pattern of behaviour or a response in a given situation. • An enduring emotional & behavioural response, & although it can be established firmly, an attitude is unstable & can be changed & controlled.
  • 4. ATTITUDES • Attitudes are directed towards ATTITUDE OBJECTS, which can be PLACES, SITUATIONS & the BEHAVIOUR of other people. • Eg. A player dislikes training. The attitude object is the training & the player may adopt a negative attitude towards training.
  • 5. How attitudes are formed..... • Formed by experience and learning. This can be influenced by a number of factors. PEER GROUPS Friendship groups and wider peer groups strongly influence an individuals attitude. An acceptance of the groups attitudes towards an attitude object is a way of gaining membership of a group and gaining a sense of identity. A team that has a shared set of attitudes will show a high degree of cohesion. CONDITIONING Rewards will strengthen existing attitudes. A performer who is praised for training will have their attitude towards training strengthened, which in turn will strengthen the intention to train and therefore the likelihood of training.
  • 6. SOCIALISATION AND SOCIAL LEARNING We learn a lot from significant others – parents, teachers, coaches, wider role models and the media – and they are powerful formers of attitudes, including negative ones that may lead to prejudice and stereotyping. FAMILIARITY The more a person experiences an attitude object, the more likely a person is to develop a positive attitude towards it. For example the more often a child is taken to a sports club or to matches by their parents, the more likely the child is to develop a positive attitude towards that sport and to take it up themselves.
  • 7. Positive attitudes are formed by… belief in exercise enjoyable experiences in sport being good at a particular sport being excited by the challenge of sport using sport as a stress release the influence of others where participation is the norm Negative attitudes are formed by… not believing in the benefits of exercise a bad past experience injury a lack of ability fear of taking part suffering stress when taking part the influence of others when non-participation is the norm
  • 8. COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDES • According to the Triadic model, attitudes have three elements (components). • THE COGNITIVE COMPONENT - what we know and believe about the attitude object • THE AFFECTIVE COMPONENT - how we feel about the attitude object • THE BEHAVIOURAL COMPONENT – how we behave towards, respond to or intend to respond to the attitude object.
  • 9. EXAM STYLE QUESTION • Most elite performers have positive attitudes to their preparation and performance. a. What is meant by the term ‘attitude’ and how might an elite performer have developed such a positive attitude? (4 marks) b. Using an example from sport and with reference to the triadic model, discuss how a negative attitude could be altered. (3 marks)