1. HaHagana Train Station-New Central Bus StationIntermodal InterchangeA Sustainable Development Project in the NeveSha’anan Neighborhood of Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel8/30/2010Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Sustainable Community DevelopmentProfessor Dr. Yosef JabareenDaniel Louis Berkowitz
2. IntroductionMany people travel in, out and through the city of Tel Aviv-Yafo (TAY). TAY is home to thesecond largest population in Israel and is host to over a million tourists annually1. Nearly half ofthe city’s residents travel to work via private automobile, while approx. 40% get to work usingpublic transit, walking or bicycling2. The city’s population includes a variety of socio-economicstatus (SES) groups and the city maintains infrastructure that supports transportation modeswhich aim to meet the travel needs of the entire population. While the city may build transportation infrastructure with the intent to equally assistpeople of all socio-economic statuses, much of the city has been developed around theautomobile. Most people of low SES cannot afford a car. When infrastructure is developedbased only on the needs of the automobile, the travel needs of the economically weak getneglected and injustice takes place. Automobile-based infrastructure doesn’t provide the meansnecessary for transportation modes that people of low SES often use such as public buses,bicycling and walking, and it is these modes that have far less negative impact on theenvironment than the automobile. The use of petroleum fuel in automobiles for personal transportation has becomeproblematic the world over. Automobile use has been found to be indirectly polluting much ofthe world’s clean air supply as well as a major anthropogenic contributor to global climatechange (GCC) through the various greenhouse gases emitted from the combustion ofpetroleum. The world’s nations are grappling with how to delay GCC and the decreasing ofautomobile usage has been found to be a key solution. Transportation modes most used bypeople of low SES, produce almost no greenhouse gases and significantly help this effort. Therefore, the city of Tel Aviv-Yafo is not a sustainable city because it is helping furtherglobal climate change and social inequity by insufficiently providing transportationinfrastructure for people of all socio-economic statuses.Sustainable Development ConceptsEquity and the political global agenda of GCC are not the only things that define sustainabledevelopment. According to Y. Jabareen, Sustainable Development (SD) is made up of atheoretical framework with seven concepts: an ethical paradox, natural capital stock, equity,1 Friedman, R. (2010, August 10). Summer Tourism Numbers Heat Up. Retrieved August 26, 2010, from The Jerusalem Post: http://www.jpost.com/ArtsAndCulture/Entertainment/Article.aspx?id=1842472 (Israel), C. B. (2008). 2008 Israel Integrated Census of Population and Housing. Jerusalem, Israel.
3. eco-form, integrative management, utopianism, and a political global agenda3. Because equityand a political global agenda are the most visible concepts of this project, their definitions willbe given further elaboration.Equity means proportional fairness, justness, and impartiality. 4 Within SD, equity serves as amore general concept than its narrow meaning and applies to the distribution of goods andservices in public policy and includes “environmental, social, and economic justice, quality oflife, freedom, democracy, participation and empowerment”. There is a division amongstscholars about the ways in which resources can be distributed evenly. Resources can bedistributed amongst all existing generations of our current society, this is called intra-generational equity, or they can to be managed for even distribution over time amongst thecurrent and future generations, known as inter-generational equity.3 Intra-generational equityamongst all people with different socio-economic statuses is one of the goals in this paper. Aninequitable transportation system has developed in TAY that does not serve all currentpopulation groups in the area. Political Global Agenda (PGA) is the concept that gives scale to SD. It means that theprotection and conservation of the environment does not suffice on a local, regional, or nationallevel, but needs to be on a global level. This concept includes a holistic perspective on globalenvironmental and developmental problems as well as a focus on helping developing countriesconfront these issues in their own territories. GCC is the leading global environmental issue.3While the State of Israel and TAY may not contribute a significant percentage of theanthropogenic impact on GCC, the same story of automobile-based infrastructure andautomobile-dependency exists for many other developed countries that contribute considerablyto GCC and lessons can be learned from proposed solutions for all nations. Achieving a neutraleffect on GCC will not only provide TAY and the entire country with cleaner breathing air but canhelp the city become a global leader and model city as well as help to improve internationalrelations. Now that the claim has been made that TAY’s transportation development policy is atfaulty, a number of questions are unresolved. On a physical level, how is the currentautomobile-based transportation development not adequate for pedestrian and bicycle needs?Where is improvement needed most for equity to be served? Do alternative transportationmodes exist for people of low SES aside from walking and bicycling?Analysis of Transportation Problems in Tel Aviv-Yafo3 Jabareen, Y. (2006, July 9). A New Conceptual Framework for Sustainable Development. Environment, Development and Sustainability, pp. 179-192.4 Difference Between Equity and Equality. (n.d.). Retrieved August 26, 2010, from Difference Between: http://www.differencebetween.net/language/difference-between- equity-and-equality/
4. In order to begin work on making TAY more sustainable, a breakdown of the modes oftransportation available in relation to their impact on GCC is needed. The transportation modescan be broken down in two ways: by service type and in relation to GCC. There are public andprivate modes of transit and modes that encourage and help retard GCC. Eight different modesof transit will be analyzed, four modes of private transit: walking, bicycling, private motorvehicle and taxicab, and four modes of public transit: shared taxi, transit (city) bus, coach(intercity) bus, and train. The following diagram helps to show the available modes of transit inrelation to GCC as well as which modes are private verses public transit.Diagram 1Relative Hierarchy of Transit Modes in relation to Global Climate Change and Service TypeDeter Climate Change----------------------------------|----------------------------Encourage Climate Change Walking, Bicycling, Train, Transit Bus, Coach Bus, Shared Taxi, Taxicab, Private Motor Vehicle Train, Transit Bus, Coach Bus, Shared Taxi, Taxicab, (Private Motor Vehicle, Bicycling, Walking)*Public-------------------------------------------------------|----------------------------------------------------- Private*Note: Private Motor Vehicle, Bicycling and Walking are equally private modes of transportation. The modes oftransportation underlined in green both deter GCC and can be used by all SES populations.In order for TAY and other developed cities to decrease and end their contribution to GCC andtransportation injustice, it is in its best interest to encourage the use of transportation modesthat emit little or no greenhouse gases into the environment and that are affordable for all. Akey to encouraging the use of these transportation modes is to make them easier, moreeconomical, and more efficient for all members of society to use and to discourage modes thatare the big contributors of greenhouse gases. From a brief glance at the above diagram, itappears that the mere encouragement of public transportation and discouragement of privatetransportation isn’t a sound solution since high greenhouse-gas-emitting modes are bothsomewhere between the private-public spectrum and are not all completely private. Thetransportation modes that deter climate change the most: walking, bicycling, train, transit andcoach bus, happen to be divided on the extreme ends of the public-private spectrum.Nonetheless, the use of these modes needs to be encouraged by TAY in order to contribute toan end of the city’s impact on GCC and to improve local and regional air quality. One way to encourage the use of transportation modes that both applies the concept ofequity, by serving the transportation needs of low SES populations, and has a political globalagenda, to help deter GCC, is to improve use of these modes and make the transfers betweenthem more efficient and more easily usable. In order to determine which intermodal transfersare available and need improvement, further analysis of intermodal transportation transfersbetween the preferred transportation modes in TAY is needed. Based on the author’s personal
5. travel experiences visiting TAY and travelling through it, the following chart of intermodaltransportation transfer necessities has developed. The chart covers walking, bicycling, transitbus and coach bus, and train. Walking and bicycling are both modes of private transportationand are thus highlighted in pink while transit bus, coach bus and train are highlighted in blue toshow their status as public transportation. The words in red font show that these necessarytransfer-enabling infrastructures are not sufficient in quantity and distribution throughout thecity.Chart 1Intermodal Integration Analysis of Infrastructure Needed for Transfers in TAY (based on personalexperience) Walk pedestrian friendly Walk streetscapes safe locking & Bicycle storage space for Bicycle bikes safe locking & Transit walkable bus stops, storage space Transit Bus Bus CBS locations adjacent to CBS walkable CBS, bus carriage Coach Bus bus stops, CBS Coach Bus stops location compartment safe locking & bus stops/CBS walkable stations typically mutually Train storage space adjacent to and location exclusive adjacent to station stationFrom the above chart, we can see that much of what is needed to improve intermodal transfersis infrastructure for bicycles and pedestrians as well as improving transfers between train andtransit bus. Where in TAY are bicycle, pedestrian and train-transit bus transfer infrastructuralimprovements most needed? The next step in answering this question is by locating a specificspace in the city that needs the most improvement for these transportation modes.LocationThere are four train stations in Tel Aviv, one central bus station and a number of bus stoplocations where there are many bus lines. Each train station is within a maximum of no more
6. than 420 meters from one of these cluster bus stops that can easily offer transfers for furthertravel in TAY or nearby cities. Noticing the distance on the map in Image 1, between the redrectangles that mark the train stations and the turquoise shapes marking the bus stops, one cansee that the furthest distance between a train station and a bus station is the most southerncouple of shapes, the HaHagana Train Station and the New Central Bus Station (New CBS). The distance between the HaHagana Train Station and the New CBS is 420 meters.Within this distance there are only a few bus stops. Based on this raw measurement, thisdistance may seem easily walkable, however it is not designed to be clear or easy transfer fromone to the other as will be further discussed. Looking more closely at this are, in Images 2 and 3, we begin to develop a visualunderstand of the built development pattern with densely built buildings, the AyalonHighway/Highway 20 to the east, the Derech HaHagana Road covered by Levinski Street and thelargest central bus station in the world at 44 thousand sq. meters5.Image 1All Train Stations (in black) and Nearby Bus Stops or Central Bus Station (in white) in TAY The New CBS and HaHagana Train StationSource:(Maps System of the Municipality of Tel Aviv-Yafo n.d.)Images 2 and 3Aerial and Street Maps of The HaHagana Train Station-New CBS Intermodal Interchange(HaHagana at the right end and New CBS at the left)5 Hananel, A. Welcome to the Hell of Tel Aviv. February 5, 2010. http://news.walla.co.il/?w=/104/1628331(accessed August 28, 2010).
7. NSources:(Maps System of the Municipality of Tel Aviv-Yafo n.d.)The low SES of the neighborhood can be seen by a street person asking for money in Image 4 aswell as from statistical data of the area in Chart 2. The chart shows how the average monthlyhousehold income decile groups for this area prove to have a greater percentage of the poorestgroup and the smallest percentage of the richest group of the population, than the TAY averageand other major Israeli cities.Image 4A Street Person near the HaHagana Train StationSources:
8. All photographs taken by Daniel Lewis Berkowitz on July 5, 2010 with a Nikon Coolpix S4 6MP Digital Camera, NikonCorp. Japan, edited with the assistance of Microsoft PowerPoint 2010 (Beta).Chart 2Decile Groups for Monthly Household Income: Comparing Israel’s Biggest Cities and theHaHagana Train Station-New CBS Neve Sha’anan Area of Tel Aviv-YafoSource: ((Israel) 2008)A walking tour, given through photographs will help give a visually-based understanding of whatit is like to walk fromthe HaHagana Train Station to the New CBS. Starting from the train station, the sidewalk spacestarts off crowded with pedestrians competing with motorcycles, mopeds and bicycles forwalking space (Images 6a and 6b). As one travels away from the train station and towards theNew CBS, these obstacles clear up and a nice pedestrian space remains (Image 6c).While much of the southern sidewalk space between The HaHagana Train Station and the NewCBS appears to have been designed for pedestrians, upon reaching the end of Derech HaHaganaand the start of Levinski Street, signified with the start of the bus overpass overhead, thesidewalk widens greatly but parked motorcycles and mopeds (circled in red) return to take uppedestrian space .Image 7a). This streetscape appears to be less planned for pedestrianstransferring between the train and bus stations than up until now.Images 6a, 6b, 6cWalking Eastward from the HaHagana Train Station
9. Images 7a, 7b, 7cAfter Walking onto Levinski Street and Crossing Intersection with LevandaAfter crossing the intersection with Levanda Street, pedestrians begin to encounter a decreasein sidewalk space with retail offering sidewalk seating, bicyclists locking to trees (Image 7c), andthigh-high poles serving as health risk danger if a pedestrian forgets to look down (Image 8a).Looking ahead, pedestrians begin to brace themselves as they see a gigantic rock mass takingover the sidewalk with a staircase leading to a small built structure above it. This rock mass, atthe address of Levinski 130, is a gigantic rock wall that one might walk into if you weren’tlooking where you were going. It is about 4.5 to 5 meters tall, takes up more than 70% of thebrick pavement, and forces pedestrians to a narrow meter-wide pass next to the street. Thisrock mass poses as the biggest and most dangerous barrier to the interchange as only oneperson can walk alongside it and other pedestrians are forced to walk by it by entering the busyLevinski street (Images 8a-d).
10. Image 8a Images 8b and 8cThe Rock Mass (in white box) on Levinski Staircase Leading to Built StructureWith Built Structure on top (in black box) (highlight by red glowing lines)Image 8dThe Rock Mass (in red glowing box) and the Remaining Passage Space for One PersonLooking at Image 8d, we can see that while sidewalk space is relinquished to this rock mass, theroad space for automobiles (to the right), remains consistent at two lanes, a clear example ofautomobile-centered planning policy.Images 9a, 9b, 9cImmediately After the Rock Mass Pass
11. After this dangerous pass, the sidewalk returns to its previous width but is marked by otherpotential dangers such as tree soil depressions (Image 9a), a bus stop shelter, a parking lotentrance (Image 9c), the previously mentioned thigh-high metal poles and aluminumconstruction walls (Image 10a).Images 10a, 10b, 10cApproaching the New CBSUpon passing the parking lot and the construction walls, the sidewalk space shrinks withintended street-enhancing trees serving as potential ankle-twisting depressions that take up halfof the sidewalk, building walls serving as an unaesthetic wall space on one side and the thigh-high steel poles on the street-side in Images 10a through 10c.Images 11a, 11b, 11cArrival at the New CBS
12. Arriving at the New CBS in Image 11a through 11c, there is no visible safe space for bicyclelocking and bicyclists are left to fend for themselves in a city with a known high bicycle theftrate. In summary, the particular problems that prevent this area from being equitable, anti-GCCand sustainable are: 1.A lack of land use allocation and design for the safe parking and locking of motorcycles, mopeds and bicycles so they don’t take up pedestrian spaces. 2.A lack of prioritization in streetscape design for an intermodal interchange via walking and bicycling, due to a lack of sidewalk quality consistency.Case Studies and Potential SolutionsThere are two main problems involved in improving the sustainability of this interchange. Thefirst problem involves the need for infrastructure for the parking and locking of motorcycles,mopeds and bicycles in or nearby the train and bus stations. The second problem consists of achange in prioritization for land uses along the southern side of Derech HaHagana and Levinskistreets. The first of these problems to be addressed will be clearing pedestrian space of motorcycles,mopeds and bicycles.Solving Problem 1: Freeing Up Pedestrian SpaceIn order to get motorcycles, mopeds and bicycles out of the pedestrian space, safe andconvenient parking facilities are needed. Since there is little space to build a new parking lot oradd on new spaces to an existing lot, built space needs to be created, and the airspace over thehighway and next to the HaHagana Train Station is the best location to do so. Examples ofparking lots built over highways abound throughout the world. One particular example is inArlington, USA where an open air parking lot and basketball courts were built over Interstate 66Highway as seen in Image 12.Image 12Parking Deck over I-66, Arlington, USA
13. Source:(OnPoint Map Viewer n.d.)The two parking lots here have a total of 152 parking spots. Each lot is approx. 2,700 sq. mmaking a total of approx. 5,400 sq. m of parking space and a total of 35.5 sq. m per parking spot.The paved space of the highway is approximately 38 meters wide and the total distanceincluding the greenery on both of its sides brings the distance to approx. 66 m. The total area ofthe entire facility including road ramps, sidewalk ramps and basketball courts is approx. 11,500sq. m.6 The size of the Arlington facility does not match with the HaHagana Train Station sinceHaHagana station is in the middle of Highway 20 and the width of the highway is approx. 130 m,more than 3 times the width that the Arlington facility was built over. But since the parking lotwill not need to have a basketball court or parking for four-wheeled automobiles, there will beno need for it to be the same size as the facility in Arlington. Furthermore, based on theMotorcycleGuidelines.org.uk, motorcycle and moped parking need to be no larger than approx.2.07 sq. m, more than 17 times smaller than the space needed for a car parking spot7.Considering that today there are usually no more than 10 motorcycles/mopeds parked on theDerech HaHagana southern sidewalk at one time and that demand would increase formotorcycle/moped parking once a formal parking lot would be made available, a future lotwould need no more than an estimated maximum of 50 parking spaces. The lot will be 9.2 m by27 m, a total of 248.4 sq. m. Within the 9.2 m space there will be 2.3 m depth per parking spotand two sides for parking, 4.6 m of entrance and exist space and 27 m for the length of lot to fit6 OnPoint Map Viewer. n.d. http://gis.arlingtonva.us/acmap/WebPages/Map/FundyViewer.aspx (accessed August 18, 2010).7 5.7.5 Parking Standards & Dimensions: Motorcycles - indicative dimensions. November 7, 2007. http://www.motorcycleguidelines.org.uk/text_05_1.htm#7 (accessed August 18, 2010).
14. 25 parking spaces per side. The general design is based on a motorcycle lot found in Austria inImage 13.Image 13Outdoor Motorcycle Parking Lot in the Alps Mountain Range, AustriaSource: (Pasterze Glacier Motorcycle Parking Lot 2007)Putting these measurements and design together, while considering an efficient entrance spaceminimizing sidewalk usage, the following parking lot size and location is proposed to be arectangle adjacent to the HaHagana Train Station and standing over the left southbound lane ofHighway 20 in Image 14.Image 14Proposed Motorcycle and Moped Parking Lot Next to the HaHagana Train Station.
15. Source: (Tel Aviv, Israel n.d.)With motor vehicles taken care of, attention is needed in supplying bicyclists a safe and closelocking facility that won’t use pedestrian space. In looking for examples from elsewhere in theworld, we find that there are multiple different types of bicycle storage units that have beenused in many places in Europe, the USA and Japan. Some examples are bike trees, adopted inGeneva, Switzerland (Image 15), cyclepods, used in numerous cities in the UK and Ireland (Image16), Huntco’s bikepods found in Chicago, USA (Image 17), or an underground bicycle parkingfacility such as is available in Tokyo, Japan and in multiple cities in Spain (Images 18 and 19).Image 15 Image 16Bike Tree in Geneva, Switzerland Cyclepod with Solar-Lit Canopy Shelter in Waterford, IrelandSource: Source:(Bike Tree 2004) (Album 7 << Gallery 37 << Town Centres n.d.)Image 17Huntco’s Bike Pods implemented in Chicago, USA
16. Source:(Infinite mpg 2009)Image 18 Image 19Eco Cycle Underground Bicycle Storage Facility Biceberg Underground Bicycle Storage inimplemented in Tokyo, Japan Zaragoza, SpainSource:(Japan Bike Storage 2008) Source:(Re*Move: If Lincoln Cathedral is architecture, what is bicycle shed? 2007)While the Japanese “Eco Cycle” would not be appropriate for the approximate 10 to 20 bicyclesparking near the train station, the Biceberg unit may not be viable due to its manyinfrastructural requirements such as “a watertight underground space, cylindrical in shape withan interior diameter of 7.5 m”. The Huntco’s Bike Pods is individual bike storage units and it isunclear just how many bicyclists park near the train station and where they can be safely placedoff of the sidewalk since they are usually placed on it. The Bike Tree and the Cyclepod, as foundin Images 18 and 19, are quite similar, however, The Bike Tree is only currently available inNorth America. This leaves us with the Cyclepod as the ideal bicycle storage solution. The
17. Cyclepod covers a 2 meter diameter, offers two points to lock a bike at each wheel, can secure 8bikes per unit and can come with solar-powered lighting and an umbrella to protect bicyclesfrom rusting. In order to sufficiently supply storage to all bicyclists wishing to park near theHaHagana Train Station, this report suggests starting off with two Cyclepods and depending onhow consumer demand shows itself, adding more units. There are three options for location placement of these storage units and none of whichtake up a significant amount of space on street level, as seen in Image 20: 1.Directly next to the planned motorcycle/moped parking lot on its own raised platform space above the highway 2.Inside of the planned motorcycle/moped parking lot 3.On the Eastern side of the HaHagana Train Station on its own raised platform space above the highwayImage 20The 3 Potential Bicycle Storage Unit Locations (blue boxes) 1 2 3Source: (Tel Aviv, Israel n.d.)Once all non-pedestrian transit modes are removed from the pedestrian space in the areaaround the HaHagana Train Station, further bicycle parking space needs to be made available atthe New CBS in order for the entire interchange to accommodate for bicyclists. While spacesurrounding the station is hard to find, there are a number of empty store spaces in the lowerlevels of the station that could be purchased by the government and used as public bicyclestorage and rental using Cyclepods’ Spacepod that can store many bicycles in a small space8. Astorage place such as seen in Image 21b would need to be a paid storage for a small fee for8 Hananel, A. Welcome to the Hell of Tel Aviv. February 5, 2010. http://news.walla.co.il/? w=/104/1628331 (accessed August 28, 2010).
18. lighting and maintenance and either manned with someone at a table and a security camera orunmanned with a pay machine, bicycle turnstile and security camera.Image 21a Image 21bEmpty Store Spaces in the New CBS Cyclepods’ Spacepods as seen in Canary WharfPotential Home to Future Bike Storage Shopping Development, London, UKSource: (Hananel 2010) Source: (Spacepods at various locations 2010)Now attention can turn to reprioritization the streetscape to that of a high quality andconsistent design for walking and bicycling between the train and bus stations.Solving Problem 2: Improving WalkabilityAs discussed after Images 9a-c, there are many obstacles that infringe on the walkability of thisintermodal interchange aside from parked motorcycles, mopeds and bicycles such ascommercial outdoor seating, thigh-high street-side metal poles, tree soil depressions, andaluminum construction walls. But no item is a bigger obstacle than the rock mass at Levinski 130in Images 8a-d.Obstacle 1: Rock Mass This begs the question, why hasn’t the municipality of TAY removed this rock mass?Could it be that the government does not know the extent to which this item is an impedimentand safety hazard to pedestrians? Until answers are given from the planning department of TAY,any assumption made is based on conjecture, so let us work based on what is known about thislocation. From a visual analysis, one can see that the rock is sedimentary and that a structure thatis not shown on the municipality’s GIS website has been built above it. Information given via theGIS website of the Municipality of Tel Aviv-Yafo tells us that the mass is in a commercially zoned567 sq. m plot of land with a 136 sq. m 5-vehicle open private parking lot. Considering the areais commercial and has a private parking lot, it seems that unless it is being leased from the IsraelLands Authority, total change cannot be made on this plot. However, eminent domain could beclaimed by the municipality on the specific area of where the rock mass takes over the sidewalkand the mass could be chipped away to allow for a 2.5 m high rock-covered walkway, withsupporting columns if needed. If this is not possible, then additional pedestrian space must
19. come at the expense of the paved street space and the currently 2-lane east-going side ofLevinski St. would need to turn into a 1-lane street, at least in the area adjacent to the rockmass.Obstacles 2 and 3: Commercial Outdoor Seating, Aluminum Construction Walls and UnaestheticWall Space Of the smaller problems listed above, some are solvable and others will have to betolerated. Commercial outdoor seating needs to be tolerated. Although it takes up pedestrianspace, commercial outdoor seating positively adds to the streetscape by giving pedestrians anoption to be served food and beverage outside. In this case, the public benefit outweighs thepublic loss of pedestrian space. Regarding the aluminum construction walls and unaesthetic wallspace, while little can be done to physically remove them, there is no reason why they cannotbecome temporary and permanent exhibits of public art through an effort to invite local artiststo paint murals for public enjoyment such as was done in Los Angeles, USA, as seen in Image 22.Image 22Temporary Construction Site Mural at the Los Angeles Times Building, Los Angeles, USASource: (Construction site mural, Los Angeles Times Building, Los Angeles 1999)Obstacle 4: Thigh-High Metal Poles The thigh-high street-side metal poles are there to replace police enforcement ofparking violations along curbs where parking is illegal as well as serve as physical reminders to
20. pedestrians that they are coming close to the street (although the latter is not an explicitpurpose). The placement of these poles is questionable considering that their distance from thecurb still gives motorists space to partially park on the sidewalk and puts pedestrians at risk ofinjury when walking nearby them. If these poles are to properly protect pedestrian space fromillegal car parking this protection must not come at the risk of pedestrian injury. These polesneed to be moved 43 cm over toward the sidewalk curb. This way, pedestrians would see thatthere is no space to walk between the poles and curb and their chance of injury would lessen, asseen in Image 23.Image 23Metal Pole Locational Adjustment to Limit Risk of Injury to PedestriansObstacle 5: Tree Soil Depressions While sidewalk trees may add greenery to the streetscape, the depressions in thesidewalk caused by below pavement planters and uncovered soil puts pedestrians at risk of
21. injury, as seen in Image 24a. Based on the presentation, “Urban Design to Accommodate Trees:Sidewalk Solutions” by Dr. E. F. Gilman of the University of Florida’s Department ofEnvironmental Horticulture, the placement of a tree grate on top of the soil would not only givepedestrians a level surface to walk on and protect them from injury, but would also help thetrees grow healthily, live longer and save the municipality money. Tree grates not only improvesidewalk aesthetics and safety but also help prevent soil compaction and keep the soil in placeeven though they are meant to be replaced every 15 to 20 years. Images 24a and 24b show howtree grates could improve the walking space if implemented along the interchange sidewalk.Image 24a Image 24bBefore Instillation of Tree Grating After Instillation of Tree Grating (in blue) Source: (Urban Design to Accommodate Trees 2010)Conclusion
22. In order for Tel Aviv-Yafo to become a sustainable city, municipal transportation policy needs toapproach walking and bicycling with the same level of importance as it gives privateautomobiles. Adequate provision of infrastructure, infrastructure care and streetscape designneeds to be given to pedestrian and bicycle transportation just as it is for automobiles.While the city aims to supply sufficient transportation to all members of society, its automobilefocus results in a lack of equity which in-turn, promotes global climate change and harmshealthy urban lifestyles. Even though driving a car can be personally efficient, until electric orsolar powered cars go mainstream, the world has to free itself of its car addiction because of thecar’s negative impact on society.Further ResearchResearch involved in furthering this project includes advanced work on understanding what ison and around the giant rock mass at Levinski 130 and contacting the planning department ofTel Aviv-Yafo to learn why it was not cleared when the city constructed the sidewalk next to it.More work can be done to find out how the pedestrian pass around it could be made moreeasily maneuverable. In order to make the solutions suggested in this report possible, ananalysis of moneys necessary to finance them would be necessary. Additionally, with the cityplanning a bicycle route along Levinski St. and Derech HaHagana, pedestrian, bicycle and motorvehicle traffic patterns will change and analysis of how this will impact the intermodalinterchange will be needed. Finally, so that this project can be implemented, the managementof the New CBS needs to be contacted to learn about the viability of a future bicycle storagefacility in a currently abandoned store space.Bibliography. (n.d.). Retrieved August 26, 2010, from Merriam-Webster Dictionary:Summer Tourism Numbers Heat Up. The Jerusalem Post: http://wwwEnvironment, Development and Sustainability, pp. 179-192.(Israel), Central Bureau of Statistics. "2008 Israel Integrated Census of Population38.889288,-77.109894 Google Maps. n.d. http://maps.google.com/maps? hl=en&ie=UTF8&ll=38.889125,-77.109969&spn=0.002351,0.006866&t=k&z=18 (accessed August 18, 2010).5.7.5 Parking Standards & Dimensions: Motorcycles - indicative dimensions. November 7, 2007. http://www.motorcycleguidelines.org.uk/text_05_1.htm#7 (accessed August 18, 2010).
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