RGU, MCU & Its interpretation in
pathology of Urinary bladder &
Urethra
Presenter :
Dr. Dinanath Chavan
First year PGT
Dep...
EMBRYOLOGY OF BLADDER & URETHRA
•
•

4th – 7th week – cloaca divides into urogenital sinus anteriorly and anal canal
poste...
Urogenital sinus

Anorectal canal

Upper part - bladder

Middle part – prostatic & membranous
urethra
Lower part – bulbar ...
ANATOMY OF URINARY BLADDER
 Hollow, distensible, muscular organ located within the pelvic cavity, posterior to the
symphy...
 Bladder wall consists of mucosa, submucosa,lamina propria and smooth
muscle. The mucosa consists of multilayered transit...
ANATOMY OF URETHRA

In females:
 Length of 3–4 cm.
In males:
 20 cm in length .
 It has four named regions:
 Prostatic...
The interior of the prostatic urethra:
On the posterior wall of the prostatic
urethra there are:
• Urethral crest:
A longi...
Membranous Urethra :• It is the shortest , narrowest and least distensible part of
urehra.

Bulbar Urethra :• Widest
• Ope...
Female urethra :• Widest at bladder neck.
• Narrowest & least
distensible at meatus.
• This forms the
Spinning top
configu...
Imaging modalities for urinary bladder and urethra
 Plain films
 Cystography
 Retrograde urethrography(RGU)
 Voiding c...
Contrast media
•Currently used all CM are based on tri-iodinated benzene ring.
•The iodine provides - radio-opacity
•Other...
Ionic monomer ( HOCM )
•Cation -salts with sodium or meglumine
•Anion- tri-iodinated benzoic acid ring.
•Dissociates in wa...
Ionic dimer ( LOCM )
•Mixture of sodium & meglumine salts.
•Ionizing double benzene ring.
•Each benzene ring having 3 atom...
Adverse Reactions To contrast media
Minor reactions•Flushing, nausea, vomiting, , arm pain and mild urticaria.
•Of short d...
Severe life-threatening reactions ;• Severe manifestations of all symptoms discussed above.
• Convulsions& Unconsciousness...
URETHROGRAPHY
TYPES
 Antegrade -VCUG / MCUBladder is filled with contrast via suprapubic or retrograde catheterization and the
urethra ...
 For both, static images can be obtained, but preferably assessed dynamically under
fluoroscopy.

 The male urethra - be...
RETROGRADE / ASCENDING
URETHROGRAPHY
• INDICATIONS

Urethral stricture.

Urethral tear.

Congenital abnormalities.

Pe...
•

TECHNIQUE

 Preliminary film – coned supine PA view of bladder base and urethra.
 In supine position penile clamp is ...
ANTEROGRADE URETHROGRAPHY/
MICTURATING CYSTOURETHROGRAPHY
•

INDICATIONS



CHILDREN
- UTI
- Voiding difficulties.
- Vesi...
 EQUIPMENT
- Preferably under fluroscopy.
- Foley`s catheter.

- In infants – feeding tube no 5 – 7 F.



CONTRAST MEDIA...
 PROCEDURE
- Patient micturates prior to the procedure.
- Preliminary film – coned view of the bladder using undercouch t...
•

ALTERNATE TECHNIQUES

1) SUPRAPUBIC BLADDER PUNCTURE.
 Sometimes in PUV & pelvic trauma – not possible to catheterize....
•

COMPICATIONS
 Contrast reaction.
 Contrast induced cystitis.
 UTI.
 Catheter trauma.
 Bladder perforation – overfi...
Filming
• Spot films – to demonstrate reflux.
• Males -left anterior oblique position
with right hip and knee flexed –
ent...
SPECIFIC DISEASES OF THE URINARY BLADDER
Congenital






Bladder agenesis
Bladder hypoplasia
Bladder duplication
Con...
Congenital(Hutch) diverticulum
 Sac formed by herniation of bladder mucosa and submucosa through muscular
wall
 Weakness...
Urachal anomalies
 Urachus is a connection between
bladder apex and allantois at level of
umblicus.
 Closes in 2nd trime...
1) Urachal sinus
 Presentation :
 Infection and/or periodic
discharge
 Imaging :
 Sinography shows blind ended
sinus
2...
4) Patent urachus :
 Presents at early age with urine
leakage at the umbilicus.
 Easily demonstrated with sinography
or ...
Bladder exstrophy
 Mmost common congenital bladder
lesion ( 1:50000 )
 M:F=2:1
 Deficiency in the development of the
lo...
Bladder duplication








Complete :
Both bladders lie side by
side, separated by a peritoneal fold.
Each bladder h...
Vesicoureteral reflux(VUR)
 Refers to retrograde passage of urine from the bladder into the ureter and often into
the cal...
Grading of VUR
•
•
•

•

•

Grade 1 : reflux limited to ureter
Grade 2 : reflux into renal pelvis
Grade 3 : mild dilatatio...
Bladder diverticulum (acquired)
 Sac formed by herniation of
bladder mucosa and submucosa
through muscular wall
 Mostly ...
• A wide-necked diverticulum
empties readily when the
bladder empties while A
narrow-necked diverticulum
empties slowly
• ...
Bladder herniation
•

•
•
•

•
•
•

At least 95% of bladder herniation is
into the inguinal or femoral canals,
Inguinal : ...
Bladder stones
 Most are mixture of calcium oxalate
and calcium phosphate
 Primary : forming de novo in bladder
 Second...
Bacterial cystitis
Acute bacterial cystitis :
 Infection of bladder is difficult to
diagnose radiologically alone.
 Requ...
Imaging of bacterial cystitis
 Virtually all acute infections of the
bladder can, if severe, result in diffuse
bullous ed...
Tuberculous cystitis
 An interstitial process
 Tuberculosis can affect the
bladder, but this is extremely rare
without s...
Emphysematous cystitis
 Almost always found in diabetic or
immunocompromised patients
 Mostly E. coli, which ferments
gl...
Haemorrhagic cystitis
 Radiation cystistis :
 Usually seen after external beam
irradiation doses of 3,000 rads or
more, ...
Urinary schistosomiasis
 One of the most common parasitic
infections worldwide
 Only Schistosoma hematobium affects
the ...
Imaging in schistosomisis
•

•

•

•

Urographic findings in patients with
early schistosomiasis may show an
irregular bla...
Bladder fistula











Colovesical > enterovesical
Most frequent- rectosigmoid colon
Diverticulitis MC cause >...
Vesicovaginal fistula
 MC cause in developing countries
=>prolonged obstructed labour
 MC cause in developed countries
=...
Bladder trauma
Causes :
 External penetrating agents (such as
bullets, stab wounds and bone
fragments)
 Internal penetra...
Bladder injury classification











Type 1-Bladder contusion
Type 2-Intraperitoneal rupture
Type 3-Intersti...
Intraperitoneal rupture (type 2)
 Direct blow to lower abdomen with a
distended bladder
 Horizontal tear along bladder w...
Interstitial injury (type 3)
 Very rare type
 Intramural or partial-thickness laceration with intact serosa
 Incomplete...
Extraperitoneal rupture (type 4)
 50 – 85% ( MC ) of major bladder
injuries .
 Classic mechanism: Anterolateral
lacerati...
Combined rupture (type 5)
 Cystography must be performed in all
patients with gross haematuria associated
with pelvic fra...
Specific diseases of the urethra
Posterior urethral valves
 Congenital thick folds of mucous membrane located in the posterior urethra
(prostatic + membra...
Types
Type I:
 Most common.
 Two folds extend anteroinferiorly from caudal aspect of verumontanum often
fusing anteriorl...
Micturiting cystourethrography
 Procedure of choice for defining the valves.
 Indication -Thick walled bladder & dilated...
Fusiform dilatation & elongation of
proximal posterior urethra
persisting throught voiding

Transverse/curvilinear filling...
Posterior urethral valve in newborn and in a 7 yr. Old boy
Anterior urethral valve
 Rare anamoly , but -Commonest cause of congenital anterior urethral obstruction .
 In most case...
Dilated proximal urethra

AUV

Normal distal urethra
Meatal stenosis
 Congenital narrowing of the urethral orifice / may be caused bymeatal webs.

•

Can occur in both male a...
Dilatation of proximal urethra

Stenosis
Urethral Diverticulum
Congenital:
 A rare abnormality of the anterior urethra seen only in males.

 Etiology –
– Seconda...
Acquired:
 Occurs more frequently in females.
 Thought to be the result from inflammation and trauma of periurethral Ske...
Imaging of urethral diverticulum
 MCU - Diverticulum fills with contrast – appears as rounded, oval or tubular
sac, usual...
Gonococcal and Nongonococcal Urethritis
 Gonococcal urethritis is associated with the gram negative diplococcus, Neisseri...
Tuberculous urethritis
 Descending infection and renal tuberculosis is
evident.
 In the acute phase, there is urethral d...
Urethral stricture
• Area of hardened tissue, which narrows the urethra sometimes making it
difficult to urinate.
• Genera...
INFLAMMATORY
•

•
•

Gonococcal urethriti -once the most common cause, antibiotic therapy
has reduced the incidence and le...
TRAUMATIC
1. IATROGENIC
• Catheterisation

Most common.

Affects fixed narrow areas (Fulcrum sites) – membranous urethra...
Role of urethrography
• Accurately delineates the anatomy of urethra.
• Location, number and extent of the strictures are
...
Urethral calculi
 Mostly expelled from bladder into the urethra during voiding- migrant calculi.
 Primary calculi may be...
Blunt Urethral Trauma
Classified Anatomically as - Anterior
- Posterior
Anterior urethral injury
MC iatrogenic (due to ins...
Goldman & Sander classification (Based on findings at retrograde urethrography)
• Type I injury
 Rupture of the puboprost...


Type II injury (15%)

The membranous urethra is torn above an intact urogenital diaphragm, which
prevents contrast mate...
 Type III injury (MC)
The membranous urethra is ruptured but the injury extends into the proximal
bulbous urethra because...
• Type IV
Bladder neck injury with extension to the urethra.
Type V injury
Injury to the Anterior urethra - partial or complete.
Extravasation seen to penile soft tissue.
Malignant tumors of male urethra
 Primary urethral cancer is an extremely rare lesion, comprising less than 1% of the
tot...
Staging of male urethral carcinoma:
•

Stage I : Tumor is confined to the subepithelial connective tissue.

•

Stage II : ...
Imaging in male urethral
carcinoma
 Urethrography usually showing focal
irregular narrowing of the urethra.
 Margin of s...
Malignant tumors of female urethra
 More common than that of the male urethra, with a female-to-male ratio of 4:1.
 Caus...
Imaging in female
urethral carcinoma
 Urethrography demonstrates irregular
narrowing of the urethra.
 MR imaging has bee...
References
1) Textbook of Radiology and Imaging By David
Sutton.
2) Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology.
3) Genitour...
THANK YOU

94
RGU MCU and its interpretation in pathology of Urinary Bladder & Urethra
RGU MCU and its interpretation in pathology of Urinary Bladder & Urethra
RGU MCU and its interpretation in pathology of Urinary Bladder & Urethra
RGU MCU and its interpretation in pathology of Urinary Bladder & Urethra
RGU MCU and its interpretation in pathology of Urinary Bladder & Urethra
RGU MCU and its interpretation in pathology of Urinary Bladder & Urethra
RGU MCU and its interpretation in pathology of Urinary Bladder & Urethra
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RGU MCU and its interpretation in pathology of Urinary Bladder & Urethra

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  • Transitional zone of prostate gland.
  • Utricle – remnanat ofmullerian duct.
  • Osmolality – no of particles of solute in solutionRadiopacity - no of iodine atoms in each molecule of CM.
  • 1 – normal , 2- bulbar sticture.
  • Normal, urethral diverticulum
  • Hutch type bladder diverticulum. Note the small diverticulum adjacent to the right ureterovesical junction in the 18-year-old man. A tiny diverticulum is also seen on the left.
  • Up] urachal diverticulum cystogram.
  • Cystography showing patent urachus with contrast within cranially uptoumblical level.Mcu shows urachaldiverticula with small bladder and associated post urethral valve (arrow)
  • A)Separation of pubic symphysisB)Excretory urogram with hurley stick deformity of distal ureters-dilatation of distal ureters, normal proximal ureters
  • Grade 5 vur
  • a) Grades b) grade 5
  • Posterolateraldiverticulum - oblique voiding cystourethrography
  • Ivp image of bladder stage: a) shows Large diverticulum on right laterall wall. B) shows post void film. Bladder has emptied but narrow necked diverticulum has failed to do so
  • Cystogram shows part of bladder herniated into scrotum.
  • Oval filling defect (arrowheads) in the right side of the bladder
  • IVP shows "cobblestone" appearance of bladder mucosa in patient with cystitis ]..secondary to perforated sigmoid diverticulitis (
  • (A) The bladder is contracted and irregular and allows significant reflux into the right kidney B) thimble bladder with mildly dilated ureters.
  • Above) DM patient with linear air streaks within bladder wall. …
  • Above]cystogram with marked bladder wall thickening & edema, contracted bladder below) large filling defect consistent with blood clot
  • Calcification in bladder wall ( open arrow ) in ureter ( solid arrow )
  • Above] sheet like / eggshell calcification & dilated ureter …..below] Plain-film radiograph of the pelvis reveals afaintly calcified wallossof calcification in a previously calcified bladder is indicative of the development of a tumor in this region.
  • Gas within the bladder outline (arrows) resulting from colovesical fistula
  • Lateral view from a cystogram performed via suprapubic catheter shows filling of vagina posteriorly (arrow) in patient with vesicovaginal fistula following hysterectomy.Ureteric reflux and vvf after pelvic radiotherapy and surgery for pelvic malignancyVesicouterine fistula
  • A: Filled film from a cystogram demonstrates extrinsic compression of the right side of the bladder, but no evidence of extravasation. Catheter in right femoral artery is from an arteriogram performed immediately before the cystogram. B: Postdrainage film shows simple extraperitoneal rupture (type 4a).
  • . This cystogram demonstrates multiple pelvic fractures (arrows). The associated bilateral hematomas (H) have elevated and compressed the bladder.
  • lntraperitoneal bladder rupture. Contrast media is seen outlining the peritoneum and loops of boweB) cystogram study shows the contrast medium extravasating and outlining bowel loops (arrows). Bilateral perivesical haematomas are present (H). There are bilateral compound fractures of the superior and inferior pubic rami (open arrows).
  • A cystogram done in a patient after a motor vehicle accident shows extravasation of contrast (arrows) into the tissues surrounding the bladder, a simple extraperitoneal bladder ruptureRetrograde urethrogram shows extravasation into scrotum and pelvis from tear of base of bladder; pelvic fractures.
  • Combined intraperitoneal and extraperitoneal rupture in a 23-year-old man who was involved in amotor vehicle accident. (a) CT cystogram demonstrates free contrast material delineating loops of small bowel, afinding that is characteristic of an intraperitoneal rupture. (b) CT cystogram shows contrast material insinuating itselfinto the perivesical and perirectal spaces of the extraperitoneal pelvis (straight arrows). Pubic rami fractures arealso noted (curved arrow
  • Obliquevcug 1) newborn- dilated posterior urethra (arrow) and a trabeculated urinary bladder2) 7 yr. -  dilated posterior urethra (arrow) with an abrupt transition to a normal-calibre anterior urethra. Note the bladder neck hypertrophy, the irregular trabeculated bladder wall, and the left-sided grade III vesicoureteric reflux (curved arrow)
  • Urethral stricture, periurethral abscess
  • Post inflammatory stricture at the junction of the bulbar and penile urethra.
  • Retrograde urethrogram reveals a segment of irregular stricture of the bulbous urethra.
  • Voiding cystourethrogram reveals irregular narrowing in the urethra with irregular sinus tracts.
  • RGU MCU and its interpretation in pathology of Urinary Bladder & Urethra

    1. 1. RGU, MCU & Its interpretation in pathology of Urinary bladder & Urethra Presenter : Dr. Dinanath Chavan First year PGT Department of Radiology, SMCH Moderator : Dr. K. Hazarika Professor Department of Radiology, SMCH
    2. 2. EMBRYOLOGY OF BLADDER & URETHRA • • 4th – 7th week – cloaca divides into urogenital sinus anteriorly and anal canal posteriorly. Urogenital sinus – can be divided into 3 portions. • Upper and largest part – forms urinary bladder. • Pelvic part – in the male – forms prostatic and membranous urethra. • Phallic part- Bulbar and penile urethra , differs greatly between the two sexes. • During differentiation of the cloaca, the caudal portions of the mesonephric ducts are absorbed into the wall of the urinary bladder - TRIGONE • Since both the mesonephric ducts are mesodermal in origin, the mucosa of the bladder formed by incorporation of the ducts ( trigone ) is also mesodermal.
    3. 3. Urogenital sinus Anorectal canal Upper part - bladder Middle part – prostatic & membranous urethra Lower part – bulbar & penile urethra
    4. 4. ANATOMY OF URINARY BLADDER  Hollow, distensible, muscular organ located within the pelvic cavity, posterior to the symphysis pubis and inferior to the parietal peritoneum.  Shape is that of a flattened tetrahedron when empty and round/oval when distended with fluid.  The size of the bladder varies: when filled, the upper border of the bladder, should not rise above the level of the lumbosacral junction in the child and the second or third sacral segment in the adult.  Normal bladder wall is thickness is 2-3mm in fully distended bladder.  Apex(superoanterior portion) of the bladder attached to anterior abdominal wall by median umbilical ligament(remnant of urachus).  Base(posterioinferior portion) is continuous with the bladder neck.
    5. 5.  Bladder wall consists of mucosa, submucosa,lamina propria and smooth muscle. The mucosa consists of multilayered transitional epithelium and the muscle layer consists of longitudinal and circular muscle bundles.  Transitional epithelium stretch greatly without loosing its integrity.  Cells become flattened without changing their relationship with each other , as they are firmly connected by numerous Desmosomes.  Normally epithelium is 7to 8 cell layer but in full bladder it appears to become 2 to 3 cell layer.  Epithelium shows transition between stratified cuboidal and stratified squamous epithelium.  Bladder capacity is between 500-600 ml.  First urge to void is felt at a bladder volume of 150ml .  The max capacity of bladder is up to 1200 ml. ( F > M ).
    6. 6. ANATOMY OF URETHRA In females:  Length of 3–4 cm. In males:  20 cm in length .  It has four named regions:  Prostatic urethra: Is approximately 3 cm in length. Passes through the prostate gland.  Membranous urethra: Is approximately 1 cm in length. Passes through the urogenital diaphragm.  Bulbar urethra From inferior aspect of urogenital diaphragm to penoscrotal junction.  Spongy (penile) urethra: Passes through the length of the penis.
    7. 7. The interior of the prostatic urethra: On the posterior wall of the prostatic urethra there are: • Urethral crest: A longitudinal ridge. • Seminal colliculus / Verumontanum: An enlargement of the urethral crest. ( act as a normal filling defect on RGU ) • Prostatic sinus: The groove on either side of the seminal colliculus. • Prostatic utricle: A small opening on the midline of the seminal colliculus. • Opening of the ejaculatory duct: One on either side of the prostatic utricle.
    8. 8. Membranous Urethra :• It is the shortest , narrowest and least distensible part of urehra. Bulbar Urethra :• Widest • Opening of Cowper’s gland Penile Urethra :• Fossa navicularis – last part of the urethra shows squamous epithelium.
    9. 9. Female urethra :• Widest at bladder neck. • Narrowest & least distensible at meatus. • This forms the Spinning top configuration of urethra on normal MCU.
    10. 10. Imaging modalities for urinary bladder and urethra  Plain films  Cystography  Retrograde urethrography(RGU)  Voiding cystourethrography(VCUG)  Ultrasonography  Computed Tomography(CT)  Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI)  Urodynamic studies  Radionuclide imaging
    11. 11. Contrast media •Currently used all CM are based on tri-iodinated benzene ring. •The iodine provides - radio-opacity •Other molecule - no radio-opacity but act as carriers of the iodine. •Commonly used carriers- Sodium or Meglumin. •Classification ;- Nonionic or Ionic Monomer or Dimer HOCM or LOCM
    12. 12. Ionic monomer ( HOCM ) •Cation -salts with sodium or meglumine •Anion- tri-iodinated benzoic acid ring. •Dissociates in water solution into 1 anion & 1 cation. •Each anion contains 3 atoms of iodine. • Iodine: particle ratio = 3:2 /(1.5) . • Ex: Urograffin Nonionic monomer ( LOCM ) •Tri-iodinated nonionizing com-pounds . •Provides 3 atoms of iodine to 1 osmotically active particle . • Iodine:particle ratio = 3:1 . •Not dissociated in water solution. • Ex: iohexol
    13. 13. Ionic dimer ( LOCM ) •Mixture of sodium & meglumine salts. •Ionizing double benzene ring. •Each benzene ring having 3 atoms of iodine. • So total molecule contains 6 atoms of iodine. • In solution dissociates into 1 hexa-iodinated anion and 1 cation. •Iodine: particle ratio = 6:2 or 3:1. •Ex: Ioxaglic acid ( Hexabrix ) Nonionic dimer ( LOCM ) •Each molecule containing 2 nonionizing tri-iodinated benzene rings. •Provides 6 atoms of iodine per one particle. • Iodine:particle ratio = 6:1. •Ex : Iotrol
    14. 14. Adverse Reactions To contrast media Minor reactions•Flushing, nausea, vomiting, , arm pain and mild urticaria. •Of short duration & self-limiting. •No specific treatment other than reassurance. • Rx- oral antihistaminic. Intermediate reactions – •More serious degrees of the above symptoms. •Hypotension. •Bronchospasm. •Rx- Chlorpheniramine for urticaria. Diazepam for anxiety. Salbutamol inhalation for bronchospasm. Hydrocortisone&Adrenaline for anaphylasis.
    15. 15. Severe life-threatening reactions ;• Severe manifestations of all symptoms discussed above. • Convulsions& Unconsciousness. • Laryngeal oedema & pulmonary oedema. • Bronchospasm. • Pulmonary &cardiac arrest. Rx;- Must be urgently & follow the ABC of resucitation.  The airway must be secured.  if require-oxygen, artificial respiration , defibrillation.  Atropine& Adrenaline - cardiac failure.  Hydrocortisone Adrenaline for anaphylasis . Choice of contrast media •Always prefer nonionic LOCM over HOCM. • The only factor inhibiting replacement of HOCM by LOCM is financial.
    16. 16. URETHROGRAPHY
    17. 17. TYPES  Antegrade -VCUG / MCUBladder is filled with contrast via suprapubic or retrograde catheterization and the urethra is assessed during voiding.  Retrograde urethrography (RGU) – Contrast is retrogradely injected with the urethral orifice occluded to prevent reflux of contrast.  Following IVU
    18. 18.  For both, static images can be obtained, but preferably assessed dynamically under fluoroscopy.  The male urethra - best seen in the oblique position.  Female urethra - lateral or anteroposterior position.  VCUGs - prostatic urethra , changes in the bladder neck.  RGU - membranous and anterior urethra , inflammatory lesions and diverticula.  Some patients are assessed with both techniques, usually the RGU is performed first, followed by the VCUG.
    19. 19. RETROGRADE / ASCENDING URETHROGRAPHY • INDICATIONS  Urethral stricture.  Urethral tear.  Congenital abnormalities.  Periurethral / prostatic abscess.  Fistula / false passages. • CONTRAST MEDIUM  Urograffin 60%.  Pre warming the contrast helps to prevent external urethral sphincter spasms • EQUIPMENT  Tilting radiography table.  Fluroscopy / spot film device.  Foley catheter no 8 / knutsson`s clamp. • PREPARATION  Patient micturates prior to the procedure
    20. 20. • TECHNIQUE  Preliminary film – coned supine PA view of bladder base and urethra.  In supine position penile clamp is applied or tip of the catheter is inserted so that the balloon lies on the fossa navicularis  Balloon is inflated with 1 – 2 ml of water.  Contrast medium is injected under fluoroscopic control. • FILMING  30* left anterior oblique.  Supine PA.  30* right anterior oblique. • COMPLICATIONS  Contrast reaction ( due to absorption through bladder mucosa )  UTI  Urethral trauma.  Intravasation of contrast – due to use of excessive pressure in stricture.
    21. 21. ANTEROGRADE URETHROGRAPHY/ MICTURATING CYSTOURETHROGRAPHY • INDICATIONS  CHILDREN - UTI - Voiding difficulties. - Vesico ureteric reflux. - Baseline study prior to urinary tract surgery. - Post operative evaluation of ureteric abnormalities. - Trauma. - Suspected anatomic abnormalities of bladder neck & urethra. ( posterior urethral valve ) ADULTS - Functional disorders of bladder & urethra. - Suspected vesicovaginal / vesicocolic fistula. - Suspected bladder / urethral trauma. - Urethral diverticula
    22. 22.  EQUIPMENT - Preferably under fluroscopy. - Foley`s catheter. - In infants – feeding tube no 5 – 7 F.  CONTRAST MEDIA -Water soluble media -Urograffin 76% , conray 420 , Trivedeo 400 with dilution of 1:3 in normal saline.  PREPARATION Not required.
    23. 23.  PROCEDURE - Patient micturates prior to the procedure. - Preliminary film – coned view of the bladder using undercouch table - Catheterisation. - Residual urine is drained. - Contrast is slowly instilled & bladder filling moniterd by intermittent fluroscopy and any reflux recorded on spot films.. - Infants < 2 months – hand injection until micturition starts – sedation may be used.. - Older children / adults – Instilled from a bottle elevated 1 meter above the level of table. -Catheter should not be removed until the radiologist is convinced that patient will micturate or until no more contrast medium drips into the bladder. - Catheter withdrawm immediately after the micturition commences. Feeding tube does not obstruct voiding. - When possible male patient can void in standing and female patient in sitting position.
    24. 24. • ALTERNATE TECHNIQUES 1) SUPRAPUBIC BLADDER PUNCTURE.  Sometimes in PUV & pelvic trauma – not possible to catheterize. 2) URETHROCYSTOGRAPHY  Contrast medium introduced into the bladder during RGU. 3) EXCRETION MCU ( MCU followed by IVU ) Advantage – avoid catheterization and related risk of infection. Disadvantage - VUR can not be visualized properly . takes longer time.
    25. 25. • COMPICATIONS  Contrast reaction.  Contrast induced cystitis.  UTI.  Catheter trauma.  Bladder perforation – overfilling.  Retention of a foley catheter.  Catheterisation of vagina / ectopic ureter. • CONTRAINDICATIONS  Acute UTI. • AFTERCARE  Warned – of rare dysuria , retention.  Reflux - Antibiotcs.
    26. 26. Filming • Spot films – to demonstrate reflux. • Males -left anterior oblique position with right hip and knee flexed – entire urethra , lower ureter. • Finally – a full length film – to show reflux and post void residual volume. • Vesico vaginal / vesico rectal fistula – lateral , oblique view
    27. 27. SPECIFIC DISEASES OF THE URINARY BLADDER Congenital      Bladder agenesis Bladder hypoplasia Bladder duplication Congenital diverticulum of bladder Urachal anomalies • Urachal sinus • Urachal cyst • Urachal diverticulum • Patent urachus  Bladder exstrophy etc. Acquired        Acquired bladder diverticulum Bladder calculi Cystitis Bladder fistula Bladder injury Detrusor hyperreflexia Detrusor areflexia etc.
    28. 28. Congenital(Hutch) diverticulum  Sac formed by herniation of bladder mucosa and submucosa through muscular wall  Weakness in detrusor muscle posterolateral to ureteral orifice  Congenital diverticula usually are narrow necked.
    29. 29. Urachal anomalies  Urachus is a connection between bladder apex and allantois at level of umblicus.  Closes in 2nd trimester.  Extends anterosuperiorly between peritoneum & transversalis fascia.  Urachal remnants usually lined by transitional epithelium.  But 1/3 rd may show coloumnar type.  Patent urachus – 50%  Urachal cyst – 30%  Urachal sinus – 15%  Urachocele – 5%
    30. 30. 1) Urachal sinus  Presentation :  Infection and/or periodic discharge  Imaging :  Sinography shows blind ended sinus 2) Urachocele [urachal divericulum]  Usually incidental finding 3) Urachal cyst  Presents with infection  Rarely as abdominal mass  Midline cyst above bladder dome  May show rim calcification on CT
    31. 31. 4) Patent urachus :  Presents at early age with urine leakage at the umbilicus.  Easily demonstrated with sinography or cystography.  A fluid-filled tubular structure on ultrasound , CT or MRI
    32. 32. Bladder exstrophy  Mmost common congenital bladder lesion ( 1:50000 )  M:F=2:1  Deficiency in the development of the lower abdominal wall musculature, so that the bladder is open and the mucosa of the bladder is continuous with the skin.  Classically associated with epispadias.  Skeletal and gastrointestinal anomalies are commonly associated.  In full-blown exstrophy, the pubic bones are widely separated.  The distance between pubic bones should be no more than 10 mm at any age.
    33. 33. Bladder duplication      Complete : Both bladders lie side by side, separated by a peritoneal fold. Each bladder has normal musculature and mucosa, Ipsilateral ureter drains into each bladder. Each bladder has a separate urethral orifice that may drain into a common urethra with a single penis, or there may be complete duplication of the urethra and penis Partial duplication : Coronal or sagittal septum completely or incompletely divides the bladder A single urethra for drainage
    34. 34. Vesicoureteral reflux(VUR)  Refers to retrograde passage of urine from the bladder into the ureter and often into the calyces.  Most significant risk factor for childhood renal scarring and its sequelae.  VUR in most cases is the result of a primary maturation abnormality of the vesicoureteral junction resulting in a short distal ureteric submucosal tunnel.  Imaging of VUR: • VCUG • Radionuclide cystography • MR voiding cystography  Primary diagnostic procedure for evaluation of VUR is VCUG.  However radionuclide cystography is better as a screening tool as the radiation dose is lower.
    35. 35. Grading of VUR • • • • • Grade 1 : reflux limited to ureter Grade 2 : reflux into renal pelvis Grade 3 : mild dilatation of ureter and pelvicalyceal system. Grade 4 : tortuous ureter with moderate dilatation, blunting of fornicies but preserved papillary impressions. Grade 5 : tortuous ureter with severe dilatation of ureter and pelvicalyceal system, loss of fornicies and papillary impressions
    36. 36. Bladder diverticulum (acquired)  Sac formed by herniation of bladder mucosa and submucosa through muscular wall  Mostly acquired : males : bladder outlet obstruction.  In the early stages, multiple small protrusions of the bladder lumen appear between the trabeculae (sacculations).  As they enlarge above 2 cm they become defined as diverticula  Most found close to the ureteric orifices  Stasis in diverticula may lead to stone formation.  2% cases leads to carcinoma • MC tumour is Squamous cell carcinoma • Tumors in diverticula have worse prognosis; poorly formed wall leads to more rapid local spread
    37. 37. • A wide-necked diverticulum empties readily when the bladder empties while A narrow-necked diverticulum empties slowly • Classical symptom of double micturition; when the patient empties the bladder a significant amount of urine is stored in the diverticulum, which then empties back into the bladder, causing a desire to micturate almost immediately after the first micturition.
    38. 38. Bladder herniation • • • • • • • At least 95% of bladder herniation is into the inguinal or femoral canals, Inguinal : femoral = 2:1 usually small(2-3 cm)& asymptomatic Painful, partly obstructed micturition because the trigone tends to remain in normal position, Usually narrow neck and fill poorly on routine contrast images So best seen on prone or erect films Most commonly is paraperitoneal in location, bladder remaining extraperitoneal and medial to a true inguinal hernia sac
    39. 39. Bladder stones  Most are mixture of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate  Primary : forming de novo in bladder  Secondary : drop from kidneys  Primary by stasis by far MC cause  Stasis: Bladder outlet obstruction, neurogenic bladder, bladder diverticula  Infection, especially Proteus mirabilis  Foreign bodies: Nidus for stone • Suture material, migrated IUDs • Pubic hairs introduced by catheterization  Usually midline with patient supine
    40. 40. Bacterial cystitis Acute bacterial cystitis :  Infection of bladder is difficult to diagnose radiologically alone.  Requires history, culture, cystoscopic examination and sometimes even biopsy.  Most frequently seen in young & middle aged females  Associated with sexual activity  In males usually associated with Bladder outlet obstruction and urinary stasis.  There is little reason to do imaging studies in female patients with uncomplicated cystitis.  If repeated bouts of infection have occurred, an IVP may be indicated to exclude anatomic abnormalities.  Because cystitis is rare in male patients, an IVP may be indicated after an initial infection.
    41. 41. Imaging of bacterial cystitis  Virtually all acute infections of the bladder can, if severe, result in diffuse bullous edema of the urothelium, leading to a nodular irregular contour of the bladder on imaging studies.  USG :  Hypoechoic thickened bladder wall with echogenic debris within bladder  IVP :  Usually normal. May show cobblestone pattern especially in partly filled or post void films
    42. 42. Tuberculous cystitis  An interstitial process  Tuberculosis can affect the bladder, but this is extremely rare without strictures and stenosis of the ureters and stenosis of the calyces of the renal collecting system.  By descending infection from kidneys  10-20% of genitourinary tuberculosis  Produces irregular mural thickening with subsequent fibrosis  Thus bladder capacity decreases and ureters may get obstructed  Alternatively, traction on the ureteric orifices may lead to VUR  10% cases show wall calcification.
    43. 43. Emphysematous cystitis  Almost always found in diabetic or immunocompromised patients  Mostly E. coli, which ferments glucose to produce carbon dioxide and hydrogen.  Gas is initially formed in the bladder wall and subsequently transgresses the mucosa into the lumen of the bladder.  Cystoscopic examination reveals a red and edematous mucosa with multiple blebs that rupture easily, releasing gas.  Plain film typically shows gas within the bladder and irregular streaky radiolucencies within the bladder wall
    44. 44. Haemorrhagic cystitis  Radiation cystistis :  Usually seen after external beam irradiation doses of 3,000 rads or more, this acute form of radiation cystitis is usually self limiting  Imaging reveals edema that is indistinguishable from other causes of bladder mucosal edema  Cyclophosphamide cystitis :  40% treated patients may develop an acute hemorrhagic cystitis.  Acute form- by i.v use  Chronic form – by oral use  Rarely bladder wall calcification & transitional cell carcinoma of bladder
    45. 45. Urinary schistosomiasis  One of the most common parasitic infections worldwide  Only Schistosoma hematobium affects the urinary tract.  Flukes reach the smallest venules in the wall of the bladder probably through the hemorrhoidal plexus.  Eggs are trapped in the bladder walls where they die, producing a severe granulomatous reaction. The granulomas calcify, causing linear streaks of calcium in the bladder wall.  In initial stages, the bladder mucosa is edematous and hemorrhagic  50% cases show calcification on plain x-ray
    46. 46. Imaging in schistosomisis • • • • Urographic findings in patients with early schistosomiasis may show an irregular bladder outline caused by edema and granulomatous reaction. Characteristic manifestation is sheet like / eggshell calcification in submucosa of the bladder Cystoscopic examination is mandatory to exclude squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder A bladder tumor should be suspected when follow-up studies show absence of wall calcification in areas that were previously calcified. ( focal disruption of mural linear calcification )
    47. 47. Bladder fistula         Colovesical > enterovesical Most frequent- rectosigmoid colon Diverticulitis MC cause >>colon CA Crohn’s MC cause of enterovesical fistula. Hence common on right side. Penetrating trauma, surgical misadventures, other inflammatory processes such as appendiceal abscess or PID Leads to faecaluria, pneumaturia, persistent UTI Only grossly wide Fistulous track may be shown on contrast studies All these modalities, will miss at least 40% of fistulas. Plain x-ray : Gas within bladder lumen Cystography  Fistula tract outlined by contrast material in < 50% of cases  May find only bladder wall irregularity .
    48. 48. Vesicovaginal fistula  MC cause in developing countries =>prolonged obstructed labour  MC cause in developed countries =>abdominal hysterectomy  Rarely due to pelvic malignancy, radiation ,  Painless constant dribbling of urine from the vagina.  Relatively easy to demonstrate during urography or cystography  Lateral and oblique films best  Vesicouterine fistulae are a rare result of cesarean delivery  May present with cyclic hematuria pattern (Youseff s syndrome)
    49. 49. Bladder trauma Causes :  External penetrating agents (such as bullets, stab wounds and bone fragments)  Internal penetrating agents (such as cystoscopes or resectoscopes), lower abdominal surgery or blunt trauma: Blows to the lower abdomen, steering wheel/seat belt  More the bladder distension => more severe the injury  Clinically : Suprapubic pain, Hematuria, Urge to void may be present or absent  Traditionally retrograde cystography  Minimum 300 ml dilute(30%) contrast  Post drainage film important
    50. 50. Bladder injury classification           Type 1-Bladder contusion Type 2-Intraperitoneal rupture Type 3-Interstitial bladder injury Type 4-Extraperitoneal rupture a. Simple b. Complex Type 5-Combined bladder injury Bladder contusion : ( Type 1 ) MC bladder injury – but minor Incomplete or partial tear of bladder mucosa; Ecchymosis of a localized segment of bladder wall Cystography normal. So diagnosis of exclusion  Only finding may be pelvic hematomas  If unilateral , may displace bladder to one side  But mostly bilateral they will compress and elevate the inferior portion of the bladder so that it looks like an upside-down teardrop (tear drop bladder)
    51. 51. Intraperitoneal rupture (type 2)  Direct blow to lower abdomen with a distended bladder  Horizontal tear along bladder wall; at dome of bladder covered by peritoneum  15-45% of major bladder injuries A. No bowel sounds, acute abdomen B. +/_ pelvic fractures C. Contrast in paracolic gutters, around bowel loops, pouch of Douglas and intraperitoneal viscera
    52. 52. Interstitial injury (type 3)  Very rare type  Intramural or partial-thickness laceration with intact serosa  Incomplete perforation; seen on either intra- or extraperitoneal portion of bladder  Intramural and submucosal extravasation of contrast without transmural extension  Subserosal rupture causes elliptical extravasation adjacent to the bladder
    53. 53. Extraperitoneal rupture (type 4)  50 – 85% ( MC ) of major bladder injuries .  Classic mechanism: Anterolateral laceration at base of bladder by bony spicules (anterior pelvic arch fractures)  Simple (type 4A): Flame-shaped extravasation around bladder  Complex (type 4B): Extravasation extends beyond the pelvis  Extravasation best seen on postdrainage films  Frequently (89–100%) associated with pelvic fractures
    54. 54. Combined rupture (type 5)  Cystography must be performed in all patients with gross haematuria associated with pelvic fractures  Cystography is performed after urethral injury has been excluded and when retrograde bladder catheterization is safe.  Cystography CT still the procedure of choice  The accuracy of cystography for the diagnosis of bladder injury varies from 85% to 100%
    55. 55. Specific diseases of the urethra
    56. 56. Posterior urethral valves  Congenital thick folds of mucous membrane located in the posterior urethra (prostatic + membranous) distal to the verumontanum.  Most common cause of severe obstructive uropathy in children.  Almost exclusively in males.  Leading cause of end stage renal disease in boys.  Now rare for them to present with severe UTI and septicaemia -diagnosis is generally made in early infancy and antenatal period.
    57. 57. Types Type I:  Most common.  Two folds extend anteroinferiorly from caudal aspect of verumontanum often fusing anteriorly at a lower level. Type II:  No longer considered a valve.  Hypertrophic band of muscle running from ureteric orifice to verumontanum along postero lateral urethral wall. Type III:  Circular diaphragm with a central or eccentric narrow aperture in membranous urethra.
    58. 58. Micturiting cystourethrography  Procedure of choice for defining the valves.  Indication -Thick walled bladder & dilated ureters on USG.  Combination of ultrasound and MCU allows both urologist and nephrologist to plan immediate management.  Repeated 3 months after ablation.
    59. 59. Fusiform dilatation & elongation of proximal posterior urethra persisting throught voiding Transverse/curvilinear filling defect in posterior urethra MCU – Lateral view.
    60. 60. Posterior urethral valve in newborn and in a 7 yr. Old boy
    61. 61. Anterior urethral valve  Rare anamoly , but -Commonest cause of congenital anterior urethral obstruction .  In most cases, the valve is in fact the dorsal wall of a congenital urethral diverticulum.  Occasionally, a membranous valve is present without an associated diverticulum.  Etiology - Anomalous developmental membranes / congenital cystic dilation of normal or accessory urethral glands  Cusp / Iris / Semilunar shaped.  The degree of obstruction is variable - may be subclinical or rarely may result in severe obstruction. PRESENTATION  Infants / young children – obstruction.  Older children – Diurnal enuresis , UTI.
    62. 62. Dilated proximal urethra AUV Normal distal urethra
    63. 63. Meatal stenosis  Congenital narrowing of the urethral orifice / may be caused bymeatal webs. • Can occur in both male and females. • Associated with hypospadias. • Acquired more common • Presentation - Weakness of the urinary stream, and straining during micturition. • Some consider it a type of anterior urethral valve. • Rarely can cause severe outlet obstruction similar to urethral valves • Diagnosis – clinical , imaging if obstructive features are present.
    64. 64. Dilatation of proximal urethra Stenosis
    65. 65. Urethral Diverticulum Congenital:  A rare abnormality of the anterior urethra seen only in males.  Etiology – – Secondary to an obstructing valve. – Lack of supporting corpus spongiosum. – Defective closure of urethral folds. – Rudimentary urethral duplication. – Ectopic cloacal epithelium.  Typically ventral to the anterior urethra commonly near penoscrotal junction.  Symptoms – penile swelling only during voiding , terminal dribbling , UTI , with or without dilation of upper urinary tract.
    66. 66. Acquired:  Occurs more frequently in females.  Thought to be the result from inflammation and trauma of periurethral Skene glands and ducts – leading to local glandular dilatation and subsequent rupture into the urethra.  Most commonly occurs in the mid urethra on the posterolateral wall.  May arise in association with a congenital anomaly such as cloacal epithelium or wolffian/mullerian duct remnant.  Reported in 1.4% women with stress incontinence.  D/D• Vaginal cyst(Gartner duct cyst, Mullerian duct cyst) • Ectopic ureterocele • Endometrioma • Urethral tumors  May be complicated by infection, stone formation or malignancy.
    67. 67. Imaging of urethral diverticulum  MCU - Diverticulum fills with contrast – appears as rounded, oval or tubular sac, usually with a short neck.  RGU may be required to demonstrate the neck.  Proximal of the diverticulum may show as an arcuate filling defect.  Double balloon retrograde urethrogram or MRI should be performed,if there remains clinical concern of one.  CT - fluid density-filled structure arising from the urethra
    68. 68. Gonococcal and Nongonococcal Urethritis  Gonococcal urethritis is associated with the gram negative diplococcus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae.  Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common pathogen of nongonococcal urethritis.  Patients usually present with urethral discharge.  Complications associated with gonococcal urethritis are more common and more serious than those associated with nongonococcal urethritis and include urethral stricture, periurethral abscess, and periurethral fistula.  Pseudodiverticulum formation results from urethral communication with a periurethral abscess.  Gonococcal urethral stricture usually leads to irregular urethral narrowing several centimeters long.  Periurethral abscess arises initially when a Littre gland becomes obstructed by inspissated pus or fibrosis.  Urethroperineal fistulas are most often the consequence of a periurethral abscess.
    69. 69. Tuberculous urethritis  Descending infection and renal tuberculosis is evident.  In the acute phase, there is urethral discharge with associated involvement of the epididymis, prostate, and other parts of the urinary system.  In chronic phase patients present with obstructive symptoms secondary to urethral strictures.  May lead to periurethral abscesses, which, unless treated, produce numerous perineal and scrotal fistulasWatering can perineum.  Retrograde urethrography typically demonstrates an anterior urethral stricture associated with multiple prostatocutaneous and urethrocutaneous fistulas.
    70. 70. Urethral stricture • Area of hardened tissue, which narrows the urethra sometimes making it difficult to urinate. • Generally refers to the anterior urethra ( sphincter to tip of penis ) • Rare in women , more common in men. • If returns after two or more treatments- recurrent stricture. • Two main categories: o Anterior urethral ( sphincter to the tip of penis) o Posterior urethra (bladder to the urethral sphincter) • Anterior urethral -usually a result of an injury to the urethra.  May not become evident for many months to years.  Most common location -bulbar urethra - part that sits just  Below the pubic bone.
    71. 71. INFLAMMATORY • • • Gonococcal urethriti -once the most common cause, antibiotic therapy has reduced the incidence and less than half are now attributable. Nonspecific urethritis – Chlamydia trachomatis. Tuberculosis - Rare.  Almost always from a focus elsewhere.  If severe – multiple urethroperineal fistulas. Reiter`s syndrome. Chemical urethritis – podophyllin , 5-flurouracil. • Always preceded by urethritis • • • Majority - Catheterisation induced urethritis and periurethritis. • Most often involves bulb of the urethra - most dependent part and contains the greatest number of paraurethral glands.
    72. 72. TRAUMATIC 1. IATROGENIC • Catheterisation  Most common.  Affects fixed narrow areas (Fulcrum sites) – membranous urethra  penoscrotal junction. • Instruementation /Urethral surgery.  single/multiple  variable length – usually short (< 2 cm ) 2. ACCIDENTAL  Usually associated with complete transection of urethra following pelvic  fracture.  Most frequently affects - membranous urethra, although the proximal  bulbar urethra is often also involved  . usually develop more quickly and are usually solitary  Straddle injuries - bulbar urethra.  Direct blows penile urethra.
    73. 73. Role of urethrography • Accurately delineates the anatomy of urethra. • Location, number and extent of the strictures are very well displayed • Delineation of the bladder neck and urethra is best achieved on the MCU in the oblique projection. • Secondary changes in the bladder. • To demonstrate the VUR • Visualisation of any associated fistulas.
    74. 74. Urethral calculi  Mostly expelled from bladder into the urethra during voiding- migrant calculi.  Primary calculi may be seen in association with urethral stricture or urethral diverticulum.  Symptoms include weak stream, dysuria, and hematuria.  RGU usually depicts a rounded filling defect in the urethra.
    75. 75. Blunt Urethral Trauma Classified Anatomically as - Anterior - Posterior Anterior urethral injury MC iatrogenic (due to instrumentation) May occur if pt falls on a blunt object or direct injury to perineum Straddle Injury - compression of urethra against anterior pelvic ring Posterior urethral injury results from A crushing force to the pelvis Is associated with pelvic fractures.
    76. 76. Goldman & Sander classification (Based on findings at retrograde urethrography) • Type I injury  Rupture of the puboprostatic ligaments which stretches the prostatic urethra  Continuity of the urethra is maintained
    77. 77.  Type II injury (15%) The membranous urethra is torn above an intact urogenital diaphragm, which prevents contrast material extravasation from extending into the perineum
    78. 78.  Type III injury (MC) The membranous urethra is ruptured but the injury extends into the proximal bulbous urethra because of laceration of the urogenital diaphragm Extravasation not only into the pelvic extraperitoneal space but also into the perineum.
    79. 79. • Type IV Bladder neck injury with extension to the urethra.
    80. 80. Type V injury Injury to the Anterior urethra - partial or complete. Extravasation seen to penile soft tissue.
    81. 81. Malignant tumors of male urethra  Primary urethral cancer is an extremely rare lesion, comprising less than 1% of the total incidence of malignancies.  Tumors of the male urethra are rare.  The most common symptom at presentation is a palpable mass in the perineum or along the shaft of the urethra with or without obstructive voiding symptoms.  The bulbomembranous urethra is involved most frequently (60% of cases), followed by the penile urethra (30%) and the prostatic urethra (10%).  80% of male urethral carcinomas are squamous cell carcinoma, 15% are transitional cell carcinoma, and 5% are adenocarcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma.  Chronic inflammation secondary to sexually transmitted infectious urethritis and urethral stricture is the main predisposing factor.
    82. 82. Staging of male urethral carcinoma: • Stage I : Tumor is confined to the subepithelial connective tissue. • Stage II : Tumor invades the corpus spongiosum, prostate, or periurethral muscle. • Stage III : Tumor invades the corpus cavernosum and bladder neck or beyond the prostatic capsule. • Stage IV : Tumor invades other adjacent organs.  Tumors of penile urethra drain into the deep inguinal lymph nodes and the external iliac lymph nodes.  Tumors of the bulbar urehra and posterior urethra most commonly spread to the internal iliac and obturator lymph nodes.
    83. 83. Imaging in male urethral carcinoma  Urethrography usually showing focal irregular narrowing of the urethra.  Margin of sticture is irregular and poorly defined.  MR imaging can depict invasion of the corpora cavernosa and is useful for demonstrating tumor location and size and local staging.
    84. 84. Malignant tumors of female urethra  More common than that of the male urethra, with a female-to-male ratio of 4:1.  Causes include chronic irritation, urinary tract infection, and proliferative lesions such as caruncles, papillomas, adenomas, polyps, and leukoplakia of the urethra.  Present with urethral bleeding, urinary frequency, obstructive symptoms, and a palpable urethral mass or induration.  Classified as either “anterior” urethral cancer or “entire” urethral cancer.  Anterior tumors(46%) located exclusively in the distal third of the urethra.  Entire urethral carcinomas tend to be high grade and locally advanced, most frequently with squamous cell carcinoma (60%), followed by transitional cell carcinoma (20%), adenocarcinoma (10%), undifferentiated tumor and sarcoma (8%), and melanoma (2%).  Distal third spread to superficial and deep inguinal And proximal two third to the internal and external iliac lymph nodes.
    85. 85. Imaging in female urethral carcinoma  Urethrography demonstrates irregular narrowing of the urethra.  MR imaging has been reported to be accurate for evaluating local urethral tumors in 90% of patient.  CT can demonstrate a urethral mass with soft-tissue attenuation.
    86. 86. References 1) Textbook of Radiology and Imaging By David Sutton. 2) Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology. 3) Genitourinary Radiology- The Requisites 4) Jaypee’s Diagnostic Radiology – Berry series 5) Various online journals
    87. 87. THANK YOU 94
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