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How To Grade For Learning
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How To Grade For Learning

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  • 1. How To Grade for Learning by Ken O’Connor Introduction “ Learning is not linear… Instead learning occurs at a very uneven pace and proceeds in may different directions.” (Burke 1993) pg 4
  • 2. Grades are not inherently bad. It is their misuse and misinterpretation that is bad.- Guskey (1993, 7)
  • 3. Many common grading practices...... Make it difficult for many youngsters to feel successful in school. –Canady and Hotchkiss (1989, 68)
  • 4. Standards Based Assessments What students will know and do Focus on Outputs
  • 5. Standards Based Assessments Focus on Outputs What students will know and do Rather than Inputs Opportunities provided to students or what teachers are expected to do.
  • 6. Standards Based Assessments Focus on Outputs What students will know and do Rather than Inputs Opportunities provided to students or what teachers are expected to do. Standards determine what, teachers determine how.
  • 7. Teachers need to learn more about motivation so……… Motivation
  • 8. … . they can use knowledge rather than perception to guide their practices. Motivation
  • 9. Motivation Good grades may motivate, but poor grades have no motivational value.
  • 10. Motivation In fact, the only grades that do motivate are those that are higher than a student usually receives or As.
  • 11. Motivation Educators must emphasize that learners are responsible for learning.
  • 12. Students succeed academically only if they want to succeed and feel capable of doing so.
  • 13. Students succeed academically only if they want to succeed and feel capable of doing so. If they lack desire or confidence, they will not be successful.
  • 14. The essential question is: How do we help our students want to learn and feel capable of learning?
  • 15. The essential question is: How do we help our students want to learn and feel capable of learning? Student responsibility for their own learning can be achieved most effectively by consciously involving students in the assessment process.
  • 16. Relevant to students and the real world Authentic Learning/ Authentic Assessment
  • 17. Relevant to students and the real world Authentic Learning/ Authentic Assessment The students are provided with opportunity to demonstrate what they know and can do.
  • 18. Why Grade? Communciate achievement Provide Information Select, identify, or group students
  • 19. Why Grade? Provide Incentives to learn Evaluate instructional program
  • 20. Seven Perspectives on Grading
  • 21. 1. Grading is not essential for learning. “ teachers do not need grades or reporting forms to teach well, and students can and do learn well without them: (Guskey 1996)
  • 22. Three C’s of Motivation Content (things worth knowing) Choice (autonomy in the classroom) Collaboration (learning together) 1. Grading is not essential for learning. “ teachers do not need grades or reporting forms to teach well, and students can and do learn well without them: (Guskey 1996)
  • 23.
    • 2. Grading is Complicated
  • 24.
    • 3. Grading is subjective and emotional.
  • 25.
    • 3. Grading is subjective and emotional.
    • “ Consistency in education is providing the professional specialization and skills needed to help each student believe success is possible”
  • 26.
    • 4. Grading is inescapable
  • 27.
    • 4. Grading is inescapable
    It is important to make grades meaningful and supportive of learning.
  • 28.
    • 5. Grading has a limited research base.
    This probably stems from the fact that there is little pure research on grading practices.
    • There has been no real change over a period of almost one hundred years.
  • 29.
    • 6. Grading has no single best practice.
    When grades are the prime or major component of the decision- making process,
  • 30.
    • 6. Grading has no single best practice.
    When grades are the prime or major component of the decision- making process, there needs to be greater consistency, at least within a school and, one hopes, across a school district.
  • 31.
    • 7. Grading that is faulty damages students and teachers.
  • 32. Grading Practices that Inhibit Learning Inconsistent grading scale Failing to match testing to teaching Practicing "Gotcha" teaching Grading first efforts Penalizing students for taking risks
  • 33. Grading Practices that Inhibit Learning Inconsistent grading scale Failing to match testing to teaching Practicing "Gotcha" teaching Grading first efforts Penalizing students for taking risks Establishing inconsistent grading criteria Worshiping averages Using zero's indiscriminately Following the patterns of assign, test, grade, and teach.
  • 34. Grading Practices that Inhibit Learning Inconsistent grading scale Failing to match testing to teaching Practicing "Gotcha" teaching Grading first efforts Penalizing students for taking risks Establishing inconsistent grading criteria Worshiping averages Using zero's indiscriminately Following the patterns of assign, test, grade, and teach. Failing to recognize measurement error Suggesting that success is unlikely
  • 35. Grading Practices that Inhibit Learning Inconsistent grading scale Failing to match testing to teaching Practicing "Gotcha" teaching Grading first efforts Penalizing students for taking risks Establishing inconsistent grading criteria Worshiping averages Using zero's indiscriminately Following the patterns of assign, test, grade, and teach. Failing to recognize measurement error Suggesting that success is unlikely
  • 36. Grading Practices that Inhibit Learning Inconsistent grading scale Failing to match testing to teaching Practicing "Gotcha" teaching Grading first efforts Penalizing students for taking risks Establishing inconsistent grading criteria Worshiping averages Using zero's indiscriminately Following the patterns of assign, test, grade, and teach. Failing to recognize measurement error Suggesting that success is unlikely