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    URBANISATION URBANISATION Presentation Transcript

    • Rural/Urban
    • Terms
      • Filtering – leaving poorer quality housing (in city centre), to move towards better quality housing in sub-urbs.
      • Gentrification – improvement and upgrading of older properties in inner city areas. Poor move out, rich move in.
      • Studentification – concentration of students in an area, usually close to a university.
    • Studentification
      • Positives:
      • Regenerates poorer areas
      • Housing stock improved
      • Students spending improves local economy
      • Negatives
      • Property values increase
      • Students seem to care less about environment
      • Young may clash with older residents
    • Changes brought by studentification
      • Retail – pubs concerted into theme bars
      • - increase in fast food restaurants
      • - diversification and upgrade of retail services
      • Housing – prices increase – demand greater than supply
      • - multi-occupancy
      • - unkempt gardens
      • -
    • Ghettos
      • A portion of a city were members of a minority group live because of social, legal or economic pressures
      • Reasons why they are formed – when the majority uses force (violence, hostility) to force minorities into particular areas. When economic conditions make it difficult for minorities to live in non-minorities areas
    • Gated communities
      • An area of wealthy private housing, these can have high walls and fences and may have controlled entrances for residents, visitors and their cars
      • Long history – royal palaces, monasteries
    • Case Study Cardiff CBD Characteristics
      • Tall buildings,
      • Public buildings e.g. Cardiff town hall,
      • markets,
      • busy – many pedestrians, also nightlife,
      • Shopping centres,
      • very old buildings, historic/old street patterns,
      • very accessible – public transport and traffic management,
      • Entertainment - pubs. Restaurants, cinema
    • Causes of traffic problems in Cardiff
      • CBD = Oldest part of the city, not able to cope with high traffic flows
      • Increased car ownership
      • Decline in rail service, more people on the road
      • More people travelling in for entertainment and work
    • Problems of Traffic
      • Heavy traffic congestion makes people late
      • Slow moving traffic
      • High pollution levels
      • Lost working hours costs employers
      • Shortage of parking
      • Problems for emergency services
    • Solutions of Traffic problems
      • Multi-story car parks
      • Cycle lanes and bus lanes
      • One way streets
      • Rising bollards
      • Public transport
      • Pedestrianised areas
    • Issues facing the CBD
      • Land more expensive, build up or down, higher buildings
      • Movement of shops out of city
      • CBD oldest buildings
      • Decline in CBD – hole in doughnut
      • Online shopping
    • Rural-Urban fringe
    • Identify
      • Large open spaces
      • Density of population is considerably lower
      • Distance between towns is greater
      • Agriculture more dominant
      • Less major roads
      • Levels of commuting decreases
      • Environmental quality higher
    • Recent changes in the rural-urban fringe
      • Environmental: the built environment – often pay no attention to the existing rural environment
      • Communication: motorway junctions = more vehicles creating gas and noise pollution
      • Economic: smaller shops and services in small towns have to shut as they cant compete with bigger out of town shopping centres
      • Socio-political: urbanites now form the majority – may bring anti-social habits – graffiti ect.
    • Notes on rural-urban fringe
      • Greenbelt prevents cities from growing
      • Pressure to greenbelt - shopping
      • - roads
      • - industrial estates
      • - housing
      • - stadium
      • Reasons for building – cheap
      • - easy to build on
      • - close to motorway
    • Counterurbanisation
      • Urban-rural migration. Many retain their urban jobs by commuting
    • Urban population movement
      • Phase 1 Urbanisation – core is dominant, providing jobs
      • Phase 2 – sub-urbanisation: increased affluence and better transport allowing people to move to the suburbs
      • Phase 3 – suburbanisation and counter-urbanisation are the dominant trends – UK and USA
    • Who's moving + Why
      • The most affluent and mobile people
      • Families with children
      • Pull – rural dream, pleasant surroundings, quiet, estate agents and housing developers all encourage outward movement
      • Push of Urban – traffic congestion, pollution, fear of crime
      • Technological change – upgrades in technology lead to people working at home. TV, telephone, allows people to live rural but not in isolation
      • Improvements in road – make commuting easier
    • Consequences
      • Negatives
      • House prices go up – local young people cannot afford property
      • Local resentment
      • Lack of appreciation of traditions by newcomers
      • Increase in population
      • Increased cars cause pollution and accidents
      • Positives
      • Improvements in service
      • support for some local facilities - pubs
    • Case Study: Llanwit Major
      • Accessibility to Cardiff due to A48 + M4
      • Services and facilities – a leisure centre, 2 supermarkets, several primary and comprehensive schools, a doctors surgery, library
      • Available Housing – many former barns have been converted, expensive, modern
      • Attractive local environment
      • Industrial estate close by provides many jobs, built on a Brownfield site – so cheap, trading, business + retail. Access is good. More pleasant working environment.