URBANISATION

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GEOGRAPHY YEAR 12

GEOGRAPHY YEAR 12

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  • 1. Rural/Urban
  • 2. Terms
    • Filtering – leaving poorer quality housing (in city centre), to move towards better quality housing in sub-urbs.
    • Gentrification – improvement and upgrading of older properties in inner city areas. Poor move out, rich move in.
    • Studentification – concentration of students in an area, usually close to a university.
  • 3. Studentification
    • Positives:
    • Regenerates poorer areas
    • Housing stock improved
    • Students spending improves local economy
    • Negatives
    • Property values increase
    • Students seem to care less about environment
    • Young may clash with older residents
  • 4. Changes brought by studentification
    • Retail – pubs concerted into theme bars
    • - increase in fast food restaurants
    • - diversification and upgrade of retail services
    • Housing – prices increase – demand greater than supply
    • - multi-occupancy
    • - unkempt gardens
    • -
  • 5. Ghettos
    • A portion of a city were members of a minority group live because of social, legal or economic pressures
    • Reasons why they are formed – when the majority uses force (violence, hostility) to force minorities into particular areas. When economic conditions make it difficult for minorities to live in non-minorities areas
  • 6. Gated communities
    • An area of wealthy private housing, these can have high walls and fences and may have controlled entrances for residents, visitors and their cars
    • Long history – royal palaces, monasteries
  • 7. Case Study Cardiff CBD Characteristics
    • Tall buildings,
    • Public buildings e.g. Cardiff town hall,
    • markets,
    • busy – many pedestrians, also nightlife,
    • Shopping centres,
    • very old buildings, historic/old street patterns,
    • very accessible – public transport and traffic management,
    • Entertainment - pubs. Restaurants, cinema
  • 8. Causes of traffic problems in Cardiff
    • CBD = Oldest part of the city, not able to cope with high traffic flows
    • Increased car ownership
    • Decline in rail service, more people on the road
    • More people travelling in for entertainment and work
  • 9. Problems of Traffic
    • Heavy traffic congestion makes people late
    • Slow moving traffic
    • High pollution levels
    • Lost working hours costs employers
    • Shortage of parking
    • Problems for emergency services
  • 10. Solutions of Traffic problems
    • Multi-story car parks
    • Cycle lanes and bus lanes
    • One way streets
    • Rising bollards
    • Public transport
    • Pedestrianised areas
  • 11. Issues facing the CBD
    • Land more expensive, build up or down, higher buildings
    • Movement of shops out of city
    • CBD oldest buildings
    • Decline in CBD – hole in doughnut
    • Online shopping
  • 12. Rural-Urban fringe
  • 13. Identify
    • Large open spaces
    • Density of population is considerably lower
    • Distance between towns is greater
    • Agriculture more dominant
    • Less major roads
    • Levels of commuting decreases
    • Environmental quality higher
  • 14. Recent changes in the rural-urban fringe
    • Environmental: the built environment – often pay no attention to the existing rural environment
    • Communication: motorway junctions = more vehicles creating gas and noise pollution
    • Economic: smaller shops and services in small towns have to shut as they cant compete with bigger out of town shopping centres
    • Socio-political: urbanites now form the majority – may bring anti-social habits – graffiti ect.
  • 15. Notes on rural-urban fringe
    • Greenbelt prevents cities from growing
    • Pressure to greenbelt - shopping
    • - roads
    • - industrial estates
    • - housing
    • - stadium
    • Reasons for building – cheap
    • - easy to build on
    • - close to motorway
  • 16. Counterurbanisation
    • Urban-rural migration. Many retain their urban jobs by commuting
  • 17. Urban population movement
    • Phase 1 Urbanisation – core is dominant, providing jobs
    • Phase 2 – sub-urbanisation: increased affluence and better transport allowing people to move to the suburbs
    • Phase 3 – suburbanisation and counter-urbanisation are the dominant trends – UK and USA
  • 18. Who's moving + Why
    • The most affluent and mobile people
    • Families with children
    • Pull – rural dream, pleasant surroundings, quiet, estate agents and housing developers all encourage outward movement
    • Push of Urban – traffic congestion, pollution, fear of crime
    • Technological change – upgrades in technology lead to people working at home. TV, telephone, allows people to live rural but not in isolation
    • Improvements in road – make commuting easier
  • 19. Consequences
    • Negatives
    • House prices go up – local young people cannot afford property
    • Local resentment
    • Lack of appreciation of traditions by newcomers
    • Increase in population
    • Increased cars cause pollution and accidents
    • Positives
    • Improvements in service
    • support for some local facilities - pubs
  • 20. Case Study: Llanwit Major
    • Accessibility to Cardiff due to A48 + M4
    • Services and facilities – a leisure centre, 2 supermarkets, several primary and comprehensive schools, a doctors surgery, library
    • Available Housing – many former barns have been converted, expensive, modern
    • Attractive local environment
    • Industrial estate close by provides many jobs, built on a Brownfield site – so cheap, trading, business + retail. Access is good. More pleasant working environment.