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El Niño reduces the up welling of cold, nutrient-rich water that sustains large fish populations, which in turn sustain abundant sea birds, whose droppings support the fertilizer industry.
The local fishing industry along the affected coastline can suffer during long-lasting El Niño events - the world's largest fishery collapsed due to over fishing during the 1972 El Niño Peruvian anchoveta reduction
The ENSO variability may contribute to the great success of small fast-growing species along the Peruvian coast
It has been postulated that a strong El Niño led to the demise of the Moche and other pre-Columbian Peruvian cultures
A recent study of El Niño patterns suggests that the French Revolution was caused in part by the poor crop yields of 1788-89 in Europe, resulting from an unusually strong El-Niño effect between 1789-93