Climate change

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A LONG POWERPOINT, USED FOR MY YEAR 12 REVISION, MAIN TOPICS INCLUDE GLOBAL WARMING, ELNINO ECT

A LONG POWERPOINT, USED FOR MY YEAR 12 REVISION, MAIN TOPICS INCLUDE GLOBAL WARMING, ELNINO ECT

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  • 1. Climate change
  • 2. Biomes
    • Tundra - -0 degree C, very little vegetation, land covered in sheets of ice
    • Taiga – Cold winters, snows a lot,, Very humid conditions, plant growth is limited
    • Temperate Grassland – can often suffer from drought, only specific plants can grow
    • -Deciduous Forest – 4 seasons, Annual temp of 50f, Britain
    • Desert – little vegetation, hot, dry
    • Tropical rainforest – little vegetation below canopy, temp high= 93f, temp low= 68f
    • Savannah – soil not rich, hot summers, wet season is hot and humid
    • Mediterranean – precipitation limited to a few months, very hot climate
  • 3. Causes of climate change
    • Greenhouse effect
    • Natural
    • El Niño
  • 4. Greenhouse gasses
    • carbon dioxide- given off when fossil fuels are burnt, major cause
    • CFCs- caused thinning of ozone layer
    • nitrous oxide- agricultural fertilizers, destroys ozone
    • Ozone
    • Methane- emissions increased 4Xs of CO2, causes are burning vegetation, coal mining
  • 5. Long-term cause
    • Some argue that climate change is natural
    • Earths global temperature has always varied over time
    • Variations in Earths orbit – may cause changes in temperature due to the position of the planet
    • Cosmic collision + volcanic emissions – Mt St Helens eruption caused increase cloud cover and rainfall for the next 1-2 years
  • 6. Impacts of Climate change
  • 7. Changing Salinity
    • The salinity cycle in now being changed
    • More freshwater is entering the Artic ocean, which melts ice
    • Melt water lowers the Salinity which decreases the density of the ocean, and slows down the rate at which the ocean sinks
    • This affects the global conveyor belt
    • Could turn of north Atlantic drift, resulting in Britain getting colder
  • 8. Increasing river flow
    • Caused by warmer surface air temperature, especially between Nov and April
    • Rivers would normally be frozen at this time – this creates significant increase in freshwater flowing into the Artic
    • Could slow down , or shut down the north Atlantic Drift
  • 9. Carbon Sinks
    • Cold dense sea water absorbs CO2, making it an affective way of removing CO2
    • Carbon sinks have stayed the same since 1981 even though CO2 emissions have risen by 40%, this could lead to rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere
    • Cause for this, is thought to be increased windiness
  • 10. Impacts on the environment
    • The tree line moving north, and also to higher altitudes
    • Tundra eco-systems in Artic areas being lost as climate warms and other plants take over
    • Permanently frozen ground thawing out
    • Spread of species such as the spruce bark beetle in Alaska – changing the food chain
    • Forrest fire increase
    • Polar bears going extinct – less time to hunt, losing weight making them more susceptible to diseases, reducing their ability to reproduce and feed their cubs
    • Inuit people suffering, harder to fish due to thin ice, villages being lost
  • 11. Rising sea level
    • Large-scale coral bleaching
    • Flooding
    • Rise by 6 meters
  • 12. Falling agricultural yields + water shortages
    • Are putting 200 million people of the poorest area’s of Africa, Europe, USA and Russia at risk from starvation
  • 13. Case Study: The big Dry
  • 14. Impacts on agriculture
    • Water irrigation to some farms was cut
    • Production of irrigated crops – cotton lint, wine grapes and rice was reduced
    • Harvests were decimated
    • Not enough water to support annual crops
    • Farm incomes shrank
    • Farmers were forced to abandon their land
  • 15. Social impacts
    • Rural communities were suffering, people leaving area’s because of drought,
    • Services such as schools and shops closed because there were no longer enough people to support them
    • Suicide rates went up
    • Prices rose, due to more imported goods
    • Prices of energy and water went up
  • 16. Saltwater
    • Australia’s biggest permanent saltwater lake, Lake Corangamite, hit its lowest level for more than 60 years
  • 17. Case Study 2: Hurricane Katrina
    • The main threats from hurricanes are rain, wind, storm surges
    • The main impact in Florida was rain, some places had 380mm, which lead to flooding
    • Winds gusted over 160km/h, in New Orleans
    • An 8.5 meter storm surge hit New Orleans
  • 18. Location
    • New Orleans has always been a city at risk
    • It sits below sea level
    • Has the Mississippi river running through it
    • A system of levees and floodwalls around the city give some protection against flooding, these were however poorly designed
  • 19. Dealing with climate change
    • Mitigation – reduce or prevent further global warming
    • Adaptation – deal with current situation
  • 20. Evidence of Global warming
    • To prove the effects of global warming
    • Data was collected about the atmosphere
    • Measurements of greenhouse gas concentration
    • Super-computers to predict possible effects of global warming
  • 21. ETS
    • Aims: cut emissions, polluters to pay for the damage they cause by introducing credits for the greenhouse gases they emit, create incentives for companies to invest in cleaner technology
  • 22. Carbon offsetting
    • Allows companies to pollute but at a cost
    • Polluters have to pay in proportion to the amount they pollute
    • The cost encourages companies to find other ways of producing by polluting less or not at all
    • Shell – an example of success of carbon offsetting
  • 23. Kyoto Protocol
    • An agreement setting targets for reducing carbon emissions, 175 countries have signed up
    • Some countries delayed signing up, some never signed up, USA withdrew in 2001,
    • Many scientists believe that its targets are set to low
    • Change from coal to cleaner gas fired power stations, government taxed petrol higher
  • 24. UK wasting
    • 65% of heat lost through chimneys.
    • Heat is also lost when hot water is released into rivers, energy is also lost when hot water is released into rivers
    • Energy is lost in electricity transmission over distance
    • Huge quantities of heat are lost through roofs
  • 25. Nuclear
    • Most controversial – how to deal with waste, accidents
    • Expensive to dismantle old stations
    • Will need more in future when fossil fuels run out
  • 26. El Nino
  • 27. Notes
    • ENSO: El Niño-Southern Oscillation
    • The Pacific ocean signatures, El Niño and La Niña are important temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean
    • name El Niño, from the Spanish for "the little boy", refers to the Christ child, because the phenomenon is usually noticed around Christmas
    • El Niño is associated with warm and very wet summers
  • 28. Effects of El Nino
    • Because El Niño's warm pool feeds thunderstorms above, it creates increased rainfall across the east-central and eastern Pacific Ocean
    • along the coasts of northern Peru and Ecuador, causing major flooding whenever the event is strong or extreme.
    • Peruvian-Bolivian Altiplano is sometimes exposed to unusual winter snowfall events.
    • Drier and hotter weather occurs in parts of the Amazon River Basin, Colombia and Central America.
    • Direct effects of El Niño resulting in drier conditions occur in parts of Southeast Asia and Northern Australia, increasing bush fires and worsening haze and decreasing air quality dramatically.
    • West of the Antarctic Peninsula, the Ross, Bellingshausen, and Amundsen Sea sectors have more sea ice during El Niño.
    • East Africa, including Kenya, Tanzania and the White Nile basin experiences, in the long rains from March to May, wetter than normal conditions.
    • U.S. southwest are wetter and cooler than usual. Northwest tend to experience dry and foggy conditions.
    • Cases of double El Niño events have been linked to severe famines related to the extended failure of monsoon rains..
  • 29. Non-climate effects
    • El Niño reduces the up welling of cold, nutrient-rich water that sustains large fish populations, which in turn sustain abundant sea birds, whose droppings support the fertilizer industry.
    • The local fishing industry along the affected coastline can suffer during long-lasting El Niño events - the world's largest fishery collapsed due to over fishing during the 1972 El Niño Peruvian anchoveta reduction
    • The ENSO variability may contribute to the great success of small fast-growing species along the Peruvian coast
    • It has been postulated that a strong El Niño led to the demise of the Moche and other pre-Columbian Peruvian cultures
    • A recent study of El Niño patterns suggests that the French Revolution was caused in part by the poor crop yields of 1788-89 in Europe, resulting from an unusually strong El-Niño effect between 1789-93